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From the picture by F. Wintorhaltor at Windsor Castlo 

Frontispiece^ Vol. JI, 




1837 AND 1861 



VOL. II.— 1844-1853 







Copyright in Great Britain and Dependencies, 1907, by 
H.M. The King. 

In the United States by Messrs Longmans, Gbeen & Co. 
All rights reserved. 




Due de Bordeaux — ^Hanoverian Orders — Domestic happi> 
ness — Death of the Duke of Coburg — Lord Melbourne 
on old age— Recall of Lord Ellenborough — ^Uncle and 
niece — Lord EUenborough's honours — Prince de Join- 
ville's brochure — The Emperor Nicholas — ^A great re- 
view — ^At the Opera — The Emperor's character — The 
Emperor and Belgium — Crisis in Parliament — The 
Eling of Saxony — Lord Ellenborough and Lidia — 
England, France, and Russia — France and Tahiti — 
King Louis Philippe expected — Arrangements for the 
visit — Queen Louise's solicitude^Amval of King 
Louis PhiUppe — A successful visit — The King's de- 
parture — Opening of the Royal Exchange — Gift to the 
Prince of Wales — ^Education in India .... 1-29 



The Spanish marriages — Position of the Prince — Title of 
King Consort — Pvirchase of Osborne— Maynooth 
grant — Religious bigotry — Public executions — Birth- 
day letter — Princess Charlotte — Vactmt Deanery — 
Wine from AustraUci — King of Holland — Projected 
visit to Germany — Question of Lords Justices — Visit 
to the Chdteau d'Eu — Spanish marriages — The Prince 
criticised — Governor-Generalship of Canada — Corn 
Laws — Cabinet dissensions — Interview with Sir 
Robert Peel — Lord John Russell suggested — Attitude 
of Lord Melbourne — The Queen's embarrassment — 
Attitude of Sir Robert Peel — Lord Stanley resigns — 
The Commandership-in-Chief — Duke of Wellington — 



King Louis Philippe — Anxiety for the future — In- 
superable difficulties — Lord Grey and Lord Palmerston 
— Lord John Russell fails — Chivalry of Sir Robert Peel 
— He resumes office — Cordial support — The Queen's 
estimate of Sir Robert Peel — Lord Stanley — The 
Prince's Memorandum — Comprehensive scheme — The 
unemployed — ^Lord Palmerston's justification — ^France 
and the S3rrian War — Letter to King Louis Philippe — 
Ministry reinstated 30-70 



Sir Robert Peel's speech — Extension of Indian Empire — 
Bravery of English troops — Death of Sir Robert Sale 
— ^Memorandum by the Prince — Celebration of victory 
— Letter from Eling Louis Philippe — Irish Crimes Bill 
— ^Attack on Sir Robert Peel — ^His resignation — In- 
trigues — ^End of Oregon dispute — Sir Robert Peel's 
tribute to Cobden — ^New Government — Cobden and the 
Whigs — Peurting with the Minist^s — ^Whig jealousies 
— A weak Ministry — Anxieties — French Royal Family 
— Spanish marriages — ^Portugal — ^Prerogative of dis- 
solution — ^Views of Lord Melbourne — lUke Prince and 
Sir Robert Peel — Proposed visit to Ireland — Govern- 
ment of Canada — Wellington statue — Lord Palmerston 
and Spain — Instructions to Mr Bulwer — ^Don Enrique — 
Sudden decision — Double engagement — The Queen's 
indignation — Letter to the Queen of the French — 
View of English Government — Letter to King Leopold 
— Baron Stockmar's opinion — Letter to Queen Louise 
— Lord Palmerston and the French — Princess of 
Prussia — ^England and the Three Powers — Interruption 
of entente cordiale — Spanish marriages — Peninsular 
medal — Duke of Wellington's view — ^England and 
Portugal — The Queen's decision on Peninsular medal 
— Cracow . 71-114 



Engl£md and Portugal — ^Peaceable policy advised — Spain 
€uid Portugal — Sir Hamilton Seymour — Septennial Act 



— Church preferments — Jenny Lind — Wellington 
statue— Prosperity in India — General election — Earl- 
dom of Strafford — ^Mission to the Vatican — Portugal — 
Crisis in the City — Lord-Lieutenancy of Ireland — ^Mr 
Cobden — Foreign policy — Queen of Spcun — Queen of 
Portugal — ^Hampden controversy — ^Lord Pcdmerston's 
despatches — Ci'^ol war in Switzerland — ^Letter from 
King of Prussia — ^The Queen's reply — The Bishops and 
Dr Hampden . 116-140 



Death of Mckdame Adelaide — Grief of Queen Louise^The 
Queen's sjnnpathy — England and the Porte — Im- 
provements at Claremont — ^Revolution in Fr£mce — 
Flight of the Royal Feanily — Letter from King of 
Pn^ia — Anarchy in Paris — Queen Louise's anxiety 
— ^Revolution foreseen — England's hospitality — ^New 
French Government — British Consul's plan — Escape 
of the King and Queen — Graphic narrative — Plan suc- 
cessful — ^Arrival in England — Reception at Claremont 
— Letter of gratitude — FUght of Guizot — ^Royal 
fugitives — Orleanist blunders — Letter to Lord Mel- 
bourne — ^The Czar on the situation — State of Germany 
— Chartist demonstration — Prince Albert and the un- 
employed — Chartist fiasco — Alarming state of Irel£md 
— Conduct of the Belgicms — ^Events in Frcmce — 
Anxiety in Germany — Italy — Speun — ^The French 
Royal Family — ^Affairs in Lombardy — Sir Henry 
Bulwer — Lord Pcdmerston's justification — Instruc- 
tions to Sir H. Seymour — Lord Palmerston's drafts — 
England and Italy — ^Lord Minto's mission — Duchesse 
de Nemours — Commissions in the Army — ^Northern 
Italy — Irish rebellion — ^Minor Germcm states — ^An 
ambassador to France — The Queen's displeasure — 
Opening the Queen's letters — Lord Palmerston and 
Italy — Austria declines mediation — Austria and Italy 
— In the Highlands — ^The Queen and Lord Palmerston 
— Affairs in the Punjab — Hostility of the Sikhs — 
Greece — State of Germany — Letter of the Prince of 
Leiningen — Sir Harry Smith at the Cape — Governor- 
ship of Gibraltar — ^Mediation in Italy — Death of Lord 
Melbourne — The Orleans family — Letter from the 
Pope— The French President — ^Relations with France 
— England slighted 141-207 

VOL. n '"• 




Letter to the Pope — ^Lelter from IVesident of French Re- 
public — Lord Paimerston and Naj^es — ^The army in 
India — Stat« of the Continent — France and the Pre- 
sident — Gaelic and Welsh — Lord Gough sttperseded — 
End of the Sikh War — Courage of Mrs G. Lawrence — 
Letter from King of Sardinia — Novara — The Queen 
fired at by Hamilton — Annexation of the Punjab — 
Drafts and despatches — Schleswig-Holstein Question 
— Proposed visit to Ireland — Irish title for the young 
Prince — Cork and Waterford — The Irish visit — En- 
thusiasm in Ireland — ^^evet promotions — New Coal 
Exchange — Critical position of Germany — Death of 
Queen Adelaide 208-230 



Grand Duchess Stephanie — ^The Draft to Greece — Lord 
Palmerston's explanation — Lord John Russell's plan — 
Suggested rearrangement — Staius quo maintained — 
Baron Stockmar's MenKMrandum— -State of France 
— The Prince's speech — Lord Palmerston and Spain 
— Lord Howden — The Koh-i-noor diamond — A change 
imminent — Lord John Russeirs report — Sunday 
delivery of letters — Prince George of Cambridge — The 
Earldom of Tipperary — ^Mr Roebuck's motion — Lord 
Stanley's motion — Holstein and Germany — Lord 
Palmerston's explanation — The Protocol — Christening 
of Prince Arthur — Don Pacifico Debate — Sir Robert 
Peel's accident — Letter from King of Denmark — 
Death of Sir Robert Pe^ — The Qi^en assaulted by 
Pate — Death of Duke of Cambridge — Prince of Prussia 
— The Foreign Office — Denmark and Schleswig — Sir 
Charles Napier's resignation — Lord Palmerston — 
Lord Clarendon's opinion — Duke of Bedford's opinion 
— Lord John Russell's report — Press attacks on Lord 
Palmerston — Duties of Foreign Secretary — ^Death of 
King Louis Philippe — Visit to Scotland — Illness of 
Queen Louise — Attack on General Haynau — Note to 
Baron KoUer — The Draft gone — Lord Palmerston 
rebuked — Holstein — A great grief — Mr Tennyson 
made Poet Laureate — Ritualists and Roman Catholics 
— Unrest in Europe — England and Germany — ^Con 
stitutionalism in Germany — Austria and Prussia — 
Religious strife — England and Rome — Lady Peel — 
The Papal aggression — Ecclesiastical Titles Bill . . 231-282 




Life Peerages — ^Diplomatic arrangements — ^Peril of the 
Ministry — ^Negotiations with Sir J. Graham — Defeat 
of the Government — Ministerial crisis — The Premier's 
statement — ^Lord Lansdowne consulted — Lord Stanley 
sent for — CompUcations — Fiscal policy — Sir James 
Graham — Duke of Wellington — Difficulties — Lord 
Aberdeen ccmsulted — Lord Stanley to be sent for — TTia 
letter — Lord Stanley's difficulties — ^Mr Disraeli — 
Question of dissoluticni — Explanations — Lord Stanley 
resigns — ^His reasons — ^The Papal Bill — ^Duke of 
Wellington — ^Appeal to Lord Lansdowne — Still with- 
out a Government — Lord Lcmsdowne's views — ^Further 
difficulties — Coalition impossible — Inccmie Tax — 
Free Trade^Ecclesiastical Titles Bill — ^Confusion of 
Parties — ^New National Gallery — The great Exhibition 
— Lnposing ceremony — The Prince's triumph — En- 
thusiasm in the City — Danish succession — The Orlecms 
Princes — ^Regret at leaving Scotland — ^Extension of the 
Franchise — ^Louis Kosfeuth — Lord Palmerston's in- 
tentions — ^A dispute — Lord Palmerston defiant — He 
gives way — The Queen's anxiety — Lord Palmerston's 
conduct — The Queen's comment — Death of King of 
Hanover — The Suffrage — The Coup d'j6tat — Louis 
Bonaparte — ^Excitement in France — Lord Palmerston 
and Lord Normanby — State of Paris — Lord Palmer- 
ston's approval — Birthday wishes — The crisis — Dis- 
missal of Lord Palmerston — Inconsistency of Lord 
Palmerston — The Prince's Memorandum — Lord Clar- 
endon — Discussion on new arrangements — Count 
Walewski informed-^Lord Granville's appointment — 
The Queen's view of foreign affairs — Our policy re- 
\dewed — Difficulty of fixed principles — Prince Nicholas 
of Nassau— Te 2>6Mm at Paris 283-355 



Denmark — ^Possible fusion of parties — Orleans family — 
Draft of the Speech — Women and politics — New 
Houses of Parliament — Lord Palmerston's discomfiture 
— M. Thiers — The Prince and the Army — ^Pressure of 
business — Defeat on MiUtia Bill — ^Interview with Lord 
John Russell — ^Resignation of the Ministry — The 
Queen sends for Lord Derbj' — Lord Derby and Lord 



FfiJmerston — New appointments — New Foreign Secre- 
tary — Interview with Lord Derby — ^Louis Napoleon — • 
Audiences — Ladies of the Household — Lord Derby 
€uid the Church — ^Adherence to treaties — The Sovereign 
" People " — New Militia Bill — Englcuid and Austria 
— Letter from Mr Disraeli — " Necessary " measures — 
Question of dissolution — Lord Derby hopeful — ^Pro- 
gress of democracy — England and Italy — ^Militia Bill 
carried — ^Frcuice and the Bourbons — Louis Napoleon's 
position — ^Excitement at Stockport — The Queen in- 
herits a fortune — Death of Duke of Wellington — 
Military appointments — Nation in mourning — Funeral 
arrangements — ^Anecdote of Napoleon III. — England 
and the Emperor — National defences — Financial 
arr£Uigements — ^Lord Dalhousie's tribute — Funeral 
ceremony — Confusion of parties — Lord Palmerston's 
position — ^Mr Disraeli and Mr Gladstone — ^Recognition 
of the Empire — Budget speech — Letter to the French 
Emperor — Secret protocol — Difficult situation — The 
Queen's unwillingness to decide — Injunctions to Lord 
Derby — Defeat of the Government — Lord Derby's 
resignation — Lord Aberdeen sent for — ^His interview 
with the Queen — Lord Aberdeen in office — Lord John 
Russell's hesitation — Letter from Mr. Disraeli — The 
Queen's anxiety — Christmas presents — ^Lord Derby's 
intentions — ^New Government — ^Mr Gladstone at the 
Exchequer — The Emperor's annoyance — Appoint- 
ments — Protracted crisis — The Cabinet — Lord Derby 
takes leave^Letter from Lady Derby — Change of 
seeds — Peace restored — ^A strong Cabinet • . . 356-430 


The Emperor's annoyance — Headmastership of Eton — ^Mar- 
riage of Emperor of the French — Mctdemoiselle Eugenie 
de Montijo — Baron Beyens on the situation — Emperor 
of Russia and the Turkish Empire — Lord John Russell 
and leadership of House of Commons — Count Buol arid 
refugees — Kossuth and Mazzini proclamations — Want 
of arms for the Militiei — Russian fleet at Constantinople 
— French irritation — Russia's demands — Russia and 
England — Liberation of the Madiai — Letter from 
Emperor of Russia — Birth of Prince Leopold — Mr 
Gladstone's budget speech — Congratulations from the 
Prince — India Bill — Emperor of Austria — Church of 
England in the Colonies — Oriental Question — Death of 
Lady Dalhousie — Lord Pethnerston and Lord Aberdeen 



— ^Russia, Austria, and Turkey — ^England's policy — 
The Queen's views on the Eastern despatches — ^Pro- 
posed terms of settlement — Lord John Russell's retire- 
ment — Letter from the Emperor of Russia — Lord 
Stratford's desire for war — Letter to the Emperor of 
Russia — ^France and the Eastern Question — Letter 
from the Emperor of Russia — Reform Bill — Lord 
PcJmerston's position — Lord Lansdowne's influence — 
Resignation of Lord Palmerston — Lord Stratford's 
despatch — ^Draft to Vienna — ^Return of Lord Palmer- 
ston to office 431-472 


H.M. Queen Victoria, 1843. From tJie picture by 

F, WinterhaUer at Windsor Castle . . . Frontispiece 

H.M. Masie Am^ue, Queek of the French, 1828. 

From the miniature by Millet at Windsor Castle Facing p. 104 

"The Cousins." H.M. Queen Victoria and the 
Duchess of Nemours, who was a Princess of 
Saxe-Coburg and first cousin to the Queen and 
the Prince Consort. From the picture hy F. 
WinterhaUer at Buchingha/m Palace • . „ 168 

Babon STOCEafAR. From the portrait hy John Part- 
ridge at Buckingham Palace . . . . „ 240 

Field-Marshal The Duee of Wellington, K.G. 
Believed to be by Count d'Orsay. From a 
miniature at Apsley House • . . . „ 392 



a The new year (1844) opened with signs of improved trade, and a 
feeling of confidence, pcurtly due to the friendly entente with France. 
In Ireland, soon after the collapse of the Clont€urf meeting, 0*Connell 
and some of his associates were indicted for seditious conspiracy, and 
convicted. The conviction W8is subsequently quashed on technical 
grounds, but O'Connell's political influence W8« at an end. In 
Parliament, owing chiefly to the exertions of Lord Ashley (after- 
wards Earl of Shaftesbury), an important Bill was passed restricting 
factory labour, and limitihg its hours. The Bank Charter Act, 
separating the issue and banking departments, as well as regulating 
the note issue of the Bank of England in proportion to its stock of 
gold, also became law. Meanwhile the dissensions in the Conserva- 
tive party were increasing, and the Ministry were defeated on a 
motion mcule by their own supporters to extend the preferentistl 
treatment of colonial produce. With great difficulty the vote waa 
rescinded and a crisis averted ; but the Young England section of 
the Tory party were becoming more and more an embarrassment to 
the Premier. Towards the end of the year the new Royal Exchange 
was opened amid much ceremony by the Queen. 

The services rendered by Sir Charles Napier in India were the sub- 
ject of votes of thanks in both Houses, but shortly afterwards Lord 
EUenborough, the Governor-General, was recalled by the Directors 
of the East India Compajiy : their action was no doubt due to his 
overbearing methods and love of display, but it was disapproved by 
the Ministry, ajid Lord EUenborough was accorded an Earldom. 

During the year there was a recrudescence of the friction between 
this country and France, due partly to questions as to the right of 
search of foreign ships, partly to a brochure issued by the Prince de 
JoinviUe, a son of Louis Philippe, partly to the assumption of French 
sovereignty over Tahiti and the seizure of the English consul there 
by the French authorities. Reparation however was mcule, and the 
ill-feeling subsided sufficiently to enable the King of the French to 
visit Queen Victoria, — the first friendly visit ever paid by a French 
king to the Sovereign of England. Louis Philippe was cordially 
received in this country. 

Another historic roystl visit also took place in 1844, that of the 
Emperor Nicholas, who no doubt was so much impressed with his 
friendly reception, both by the Court and by Aberdeen, the Foreign 

VOL. n * 1 


Secretary, that nine years later he thought he could calculate on the 
support of England under Aberdeen (then Premier) in a scheme for 
the partition of Turkey. Lord Mstlmesbury, who a few yecurs later 
became Foreign Secretary, states in his memoirs that during this 
visit, the Czar, Sir Robert Peel, the Duke of Wellington, and Lord 
Aberdeen *' drew up and signed a Memorandum, the spirit and scope 
of which was to support Russia in her legitimate protectorship of the 
Greek religion and the Holy Shrines, and to do so without consulting 
France," but the Memorandum was in reality only one made by 
Nicholas of his recollection of the interview, and communicated 
subsequently to Lord Aberdeen. 

No events of special interest took place in other parts of Europe ; 
the condition of affairs in the Peninsula improved, though the 
announcement of the unfortunate marriage of the Queen Mother 
with the Duke of Rianzares w€w not of hopeful augury for the young 
Queen Isabella's future ; as a matter of fact, the marriage IukI taken 
place some time previously. 



Qiieen Victoria to the King of the Belgians* 

WINDSOR Oastle, 9th Jmuory 1844. 

My deabest Uncle, — ^I had the pleetsnre of receiving your 
kind letter of the 4th, which is written from Ardenne, where 
I grieve to see you are again gone without my beloved Louise. 

Charlotte is the admiration of every one, and I wish much 
I could have seen the three dear children en r&prisentation. 

Our fat Vic or Pussette learns a verse of Lamartine by heart, 
which ends with " le tableau se d^roule k mes pieds " ; to 
show how well she had understood this difficult line which 
Mdlle. Charier had explained to her, I must tell you the follow- 
ing bon mot. When she was riding on her pony, and looking 
at the cows and sheep, she turned to Mdlle. Charier and said : 
" Voild le tableau qui se d^roule k mes pieds." Is not this 
extraordinary for a little child of three years old ? It is more 
like what a person of twenty would say. You have no notion 
what a knowing, and I am sorry to say sly, httle rogue she is, 
and so obstinate. She and le petit Frdre accompany us to dear 
old Claremont to-day ; Alice remains here under Lady Lyttel- 
ton's care. How sorry I am that you should have hurt your 
leg, and in such a provoking way ; Albert says he remembers 
well your playing often with a pen-knife when you talked, 
and I remember it also, but it is really dangerous. 

I am happy that the news from Paris are good ; the really 
good understanding between our two Governments provokes 
the Carlists and Anarchists. Bordeaux ^ is not yet gone ; 
I saw in a letter that it was debated in his presence whether he 
was on any favourable occasion de se prSsenter en France / 

1 The Dae de Bordeaux, only son of the Due de Berri, had by the death of Oharles X. 
and the renunciation of all claims to the French Throne on the part of the Due d'An- 
gouleme, become the representative of the elder branch of the Boorfoons. He had 
intended his visit to England to have a private character only. 


Do you think that possible 7 Then again the papers say that 
there are fortifications being made on the coast of Normandy 
for fear of ah invasion ; is this so 7 These are many ques- 
tions, but I hope you will kindly answer them, as they interest 
me. With Albert's love. Believe me, ever, your devoted 
Niece» Vicjtobia R. 

Queen Victoria to the Earl of Aberdeen, 

OLiBEMONT, 10th January 18^. 

The Queen understands that there is a negotiation with 
Sweden and Denmark pending about the cessation of their 
tribute to Morocco, likewise that Prince Mettemich has sent 
a despatch condemning as unfair the understanding come to 
between us and France about the Spanish meurriage ; ^ that 
there is a notion of exchanging Hong Kong for a more healthy 

The Queen, taking a deep interest in all these matters, and 
feeling it her duty to do so, begs Lord Aberdeen to keep her 
always well informed of what is on the tapis in his Dep€u:tment. 

Queen Victoria to the Earl of Aberdeen. 

Olabemont, l^th January 1844. 

The Queen has received Lord Aberdeen's letter of the 
10th, and returns him the papers which he sent her, with 
her best thanks. She does not remember to have seen them 

The Queen takes this opportunity to beg Lord Aberdeen 
to cause the despatches to be sent a little sooner from the 
Foreign Office, as drafts in particular have often come to the 
Queen a week or a fortnight after they had actually been sent 
across the sea. 

With respect to the Hanoverian Orders, Lord Aberdeen has 
not quite understood what the Queen meant. It was Sir C. 
Thornton and others to whom the Queen had refused permission 
to accept the favour, on a former occasion, by which the King 
of Hanover was much affronted. The Queen would not like 
to have herself additionally fettered by any new regulation, 
but Lord Aberdeen will certainly concur with the Queen that 

1 See ante, toL L p. 487. 


it would not be expedient to give to the King of Hanover a 
power which the Queen herself does not possess, viz. that of 
granting orders as favours, or for personal services ; as the 
number of the different classes of the Guelphic Order be- 
stowed on Englishmen is innumerable, it would actually 
invest the King with such a power, which, considering how 
much such things are sought after, might be extremely 

The Queen T«rill not give a final decision upon this case until 
she returns to Windsor, where she has papers explanatory of 
the reasons which caused her to decline the King of Hfiuiover's 
application in 1838. 

Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians. 

OLABBMONT, IWt January 1844. 

My deabest Uncle, — ^Many thanks for your kind letter of 
the 11th. Louise can give you the details of the little upset 
Iiand Lady Douro had, and which I did not think worth whilo 
to mention.^ It was the strangest thing possible to happen, 
and the most unMkely, for we were going quite quietly, not at 
all in a narrow lane, with very quiet ponies and my usual 
postillion ; the faot was that the boy looked the wrong way, 
€uid therefore did not perceive the ditch which he so cleverly 
got us into. 

We leave dear Claremont, as usual, with the greatest regret ; 
we €u:e so pea<;eable here ; Windsor is beautiful and comfort- 
able, but it is a palace, and God knows how willingly I would 
alwaya live with my beloved Albert and our children in the 
quiet and retirement of private life, and not be the constant 
object of observation, and of newspaper €u:ticles. The children 
(Pussette and Bertie) have been most remarkably well, and so 
have we, in spite of the very bad weather we had most days. 
I am truly and really grieved that good excellent Nemours is 
again not to get his dotation,^ Really we constitutional 
countries are too shabby. 

Now, dearest Uncle, I must bid you adieu, begging you to 
believe me, ever your devoted Niece, Vicjtobia R. 

1 On the 5th of January the Qaeen's phaeton was overtomed at Horton, near DacheC^ 
while dziying to the meet of Prince Albert's Harriers. 

s On the oocasion of the marriage of the Dno and Dnchesse de Nemoois (1840), the 
proposal made by the Soolt Oorermnent for a Parliamentary grant of 600,000 francs had 
been r^ected. 


Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians. 

Windsor Casiu:, 30th January 1844. 

My deabest Uncle, — I must begin by thanking you for 
your kind letter of the 26th, and by wishing you joy that the 
fete went off so well. I am glad Leo will appear at the next 
ball ; he is nearly nine years old, and it is good to accustom 
children of his rank early to these things. 

Guizot's speech is exceedingly admired, with the exception 
of his having said more than he was justified to do about the 
right of search.^ Our speech has been very difficult to frame ; 
we should like to have mentioned our visits to France and 
Belgium, but it has been found impossible to do so ; France ia 
mentioned, and it is the first time since 1834 ! 

To-morrow we go up to Town " pour ce bore," as the good 
King always said to me ; whenever there were tiresome people 
to present he always said : ** Je vous demande pardon de ce 

I have had a tiresome though not at all violent cold which 
I was alarmed might spoil the sonorouanesa of my voice for the 
speech on Thursday, but it promises well now. 

I own I always look with horror to the beginning of a 
Parliamentajy campaign. 

With Albert's love. Ever your devoted Niece, 


Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians, 

Windsor Castle, 6<A FSbrruxry 1844. 

My DEABiiY BELOVED Unole, — You must now be the father 
to us poor bereaved, heart-broken children.^ To describe to 
you aW that we have suffered, all that we do suffer, would be 
difficult ; God has heavily affiicted us ; we feel crushed, over- 
whelmed, bowed down by the loss of one who was so deservedly 
loved, I may say adored, by his children and family ; I loved 
him and looked on him as my own father ; his like we shall not 
aee again ; that youth, that amiability, and kindness in his own 
house which was the centre and rendezvous for the whole 
family, will never be seen again, and my poor Angel's fondest 
thought of beholding that dearly beloved VaterJiaua — where his 

1 He insisted that French trade mast be kept tinder the exclusiye sorreUlance ol the 
French flag, 
a The Duke of Saze-Coborg Gh)tha died on 29th January. 


thoughts continually were — again is for ever gone and his poor 
heart bleeds to feel this is for ever gone. Our promised visit, 
our dearest Papa's, and our fondest wish, all is put an end to. 
The violence of our grief may be over, but the desolate feeling 
which succeeds it is worse, and tears are a relief. I have never 
known real grief till now, and it has made a lasting impression 
on me. A father is such a near relation, you are a piece of him 
in fact, — and all (as my poor deeply afflicted Angel says) the 
earliest pleasures of your life were given you by a dear father ; 
that can never he replaced though time may soften the pang. 
And indeed one loves to ding to one's grief ; I can understand 
Louise's feeling in her overwhelming sorrows. 

Let me now join my humble entreaties to Albert's, relative 
to the request about dearest Louise, which he has made. It 
is a sacrifice I ask, but if you knew the sacrifice I make in letting 
and urging Albert to go, I am sure, if you can you tuiU grant it. 
I have never been separated from him even for one night, and 
the thought of such a separation is quite drea<iful ; still, I feel 
I could bear it, — I have made up my mind to it, as the very 
thought of going has been a comfort to my poor Angel, and will 
be of such use at Coburg. Still, if I were to remain quite alone 
I do not think I could bear it quietly. Therefore pray do send 
me my dearly beloved Louise ; she would be suAih a comfort 
to me ; if you could come too — or afterwards (as you promised 
us a longer visit), that would be still more delightful. I may 
be indiscreet, but you must think of what the separation from 
my all and all, even only for a fortnight, will be to me ! 

We feel some years older since these days of mourning. 
Mamma is calm, but poor Aunt Julia ^ is indeed much to be 
pitied. Ever, dearest Uncle, your devoted and unhappy 
Niece and Child, Victoeia R. 

Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians. 

Windsor Castle, IZth February 1844. 

My deabest Uncle, — I received your dear, kind but sad 
letter of the 8th on Sunday, and thank you much for it. God 
knows, poor dear Uncle, you have suffered enough in your life, 
but you should think, dearest Uncle, of that blessed assurance 
of eternity where we shall all meet again never to part ; you 
should think (as we constantly do now) that those whom we 

1 The Grand Duchess Constantine of Bussia, sister of the Dachess of Kent and of the 
deceased Dnke of Saxe-Coborg. 

8 BEREAVEMENT [cjhap. xm 

have lost are far happier than we are, and love ua still, and in 
a far more perfect way than we can do in this world ! When 
the first moments and days of overwhelming grief €u:e over 
these reflections are the greatest balm, the greatest consola- 
tion to the bleeding heart. 

I hope you will kindly let me have a few lines of hope by the 
Tuesday's messenger. Ever your truly devoted Niece and 
Child, ViCTOBiA R. 

P.S, — O'Connell's being pronounced guilty is a great 

Viscount Melbourne to Queen Victoria, 

SOUTH Street, 3rd AprU 1844. 

Lord Melbourne presents his himable duty to your Majesty, 
with many thanks for your Majesty's note of the 28th ult. 
Lord Melbourne believes that your Majesty is quite right in 
saying that Lord Melbourne has still some health left, if he will 
but take care of it. Lord Melbourne told Dr Holland, with- 
out mentioning your Majesty's name, that this had been said 
to him by a friend, and Dr Holland immediately said that it 
was very just and true, and very well expressed, and quite what 
he should have said himself. At the same time, the chcmge 
from strength to weakness and the evident progress of de- 
cadence is a very hard and disagreeable trial. Lord Melbourne 
has been reading Cicero on old age, a very pretty treatise, but 
he does not find much consolation after it ; the principal 
practical resources and alleviations which he recommends are 
agriculture and gardening, to both of which, but more par- 
ticularly to the latter, LordMelboume has already had recourse. 
It is certainly, as your Majesty says, wrong to be impatient 
and to repine at everything, but still it is difficult not to be so. 
Lady Uxbridge's death ^ is a shocking event, a dreadful loss to 
him and to all. Lord Melbourne always liked her. Lord 
Melbourne is going down to Brocket Hall to-morrow, and will 
try to get Uxbridge and the girls to come over and dine. 

Lord Melbourne has felt very much for the grief which your 
Majesty must feel at a separation, even short and temporary, 
from the Prince, and it is extremely amiable to feel comforted 
by the recollection of the extreme pleasure which his visit will 
give to his and your Majesty's relations. It is, of course, 

1 He had been indicted with Oharles Gkivan Doily and others for seditioos conspiracy. 
a Henrietta Maria, daoghter of Sir Gharles Bagot, G.G.B. 


impossible that your Majesty should in travelling divest your- 
self of your character and dignity. 

Lord Melbourne has just driven round the Regent's Park, 
where there are many almond trees in bloom, and looking 

Sir Robert Peel to Queen Victoria. 

Whitehall, 23r<2 Apra 1844. 

Sir Robert Peel, with his humble duty to your Majesty, begs 
leave to acquaint your Majesty that he has every reason to 
believe that the Court of Directors will to-morrow, by an 
unanimous vote, resolve on the actual recall of Lord Ellen- 

Qtieen Victoria to Sir Robert Peel. 


The Queen has heard with the greatest regret from Sir R. 
Peel that the Court of Directors, after all, mean to recall Lord 
EUenborough. She. cannot but consider this very unwise at 
this critical moment, and a very ungrateful return for the 
eminent services Lord EUenborough has rendered to the Com- 
pany in Lidia. They ought not to forget so soon in what state 
Lord EUenborough found affairs in 1842. The Queen would 
not be sorry if these gentlemen knew that this is her opinion. 

The King of the Belgians to Qtieen Victoria. 

LAEEEN, Zrd May 1844. 

My deabest Victobia, — ^Whenever you wish to make me 
truly happy, you wiU have the power of doing so by repeating 
expressions as kind and affectionate as those contained in 
your dear little letter of the 30th. I have ever had the care 
and affection of a real father for you, and it has perhaps even 
been freer from many drawbacks which occasionaUy wiU exist 
betwixt parents and children, be they ever so weU and affec- 
tionately together. With me, even from the moment in 

1 This anomalous privilege was exerdsed by ihe Directors in oonseqnsQce chiefly of 
what they considered Lord EUenborongh's overbearing demeanoor in commonication 
with them, his too aggressiTe policy, and his theatrical lore of display. 

VOL. n 1* 


January 1820, when I was called by a messenger to Sidmouth, 
my care for you has been unremitting, and never has there 
been a cloud between us. ... A thing which often strikes me, 
in a very satisfactory manner, is that we never had any bitter 
words, a thing which happens even with people who are very 
lovingly together ; and the little row which we had in 1838 
you remember well, and do not now think that / was wrong.^ 
De pareiUes relations aont rares ; may they ever continite / 

I cannot leave this more serious topic without adding that 
though you were always warm-hearted and right-minded, it 
must strike yourself how matured every kind and good feeling 
is in your generous heart. The heart, and not the head, is the 
safest guide in positions like yours, and this not only for this 
earthly and very short life, but for that which we must hope 
for hereafter. When a life draws nearer its close, how many 
earthly concerns are there that appear stUl in the same light ? 
and how cleanly the mind is struck that nothing has been and is 
still of real value, than the nobler and better feelings of the 
heart ; the only good we can hope to keep as a precious store 
for the future. What do we keep of youth, beauty, richness, 
power, and even the greatest extent of earthly possessions ? 
Nothing ! . . . Your truly devoted Uncle, Leopold R. 

Sir Robert Peel to Queen Victoria. 

Whitehall, Uh May 1844. 

Sir Robert Peel, with his humble duty to your Majesty, and 
believing that he is a-cting in accordance with your Majesty's 
own opinion, begs leave to submit to your Majesty that it may 
be advisable that he should by the present mail inform Lord 
EUenborough that it is your Majesty's intention to confer on 
him, at a very early period, as a mark of your Majesty's 
approval of Lord Ellenborough's conduct and services 
in India, the rank of an Earl and the Grand Cross of the 

Lord EUenborough may be at liberty (should your Majesty 
approve) to notify this publicly in Indisi — and thus make it 
Imown that the general Ime of policy recently pursued has had 
the full sanction of your Majesty, and will not be departed 

These were the honours conferred upon Lord Auckland. 

If they were conferred on the instant, it might rather seem a 

1 See Letters of Queen Victoria and the King of the Belgians, ante, vol. L pp. 116-120. 


rebuke to the East India Company than a deliberate approval 
of the conduct of Lord Ellenborough, but these honours might 
shortly follow the conclusion of the affair respecting the 
selection of Lord Ellenborough's successor, and any discussion 
that may arise in Parliament. 

Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians, 

Olaremont, 24/A May 1844. 

Dearest Uncle, — ^Though not my day I must write you a 
line to say how vexed we are at this most unfortunate and most 
imprudent brochure of Joinville's ; ^ it has made a very had 
effect here, and will rouse all the envy and hatred between the 
two Navies again, which it was our great effort to subdue — 
and this aU for nothing / I can't tell you how angry people are, 
and how poor Hadjy will get abused. And this all after our 
having been on such intimate terms with him and having 
sailed with him ! If he comes here, what shall we do ? Re- 
ceive with open arms one who has talked of ravaging our coasts 
and burning our towns ? Indeed it is most lamentable ; you 
know how we like him, and that therefore it must be very 
annoying to us to see him get himself into such a scrape. We 
shall overlook it, but the people here won't ! It will blow over, 
but it will do immense harm. We who wish to become more 
€ttid more closely united with the French family are, of course, 
much put out by this return. We shall forgive and forget, and 
feel it was not intended to be published — ^but the public here 
will not so easily, and will put the worst construction on 
it all. 

Pray, dearest Uncle, tell me what could possess Joinville to 
write it, and still more to have it printed ? Won't it annoy 
the King and Nemours very much ? Enfln &est malheureux, 
c'est indiscret au plu>s haul degre — and it provokes and vexes 
us sadly. Tell me all you know and think about it ; for you 
can do so with perfect safety by our courier. 

I have written dearest Louise an account of my old birthday, 
which will please you, I think. The weather is very fine. 
Ever your ^mZi/ devoted Niece and Child, Victoria R. 

1 The brochure was entitled, Notes 9ut les forces navcUes de la France. The Prince de 
Joinville wrote as follows to the Queen : " Le malheurenz telat de ma brochure, le tracas 
qne cela donne an P6re et k la Reine, me font r^jetter vivement de I'avoir f aite. Oomme 
je Tferis k ton Roi, je ne renvote que m^pris k toutes les interpr6tations qu'on y donne ; 
ce que peuvent dire ministre et jonmaux ne me touche en rien, mais il n'y a pas de sacrifices 
q;ae je ne sois dispose k faire pour I'intMeur de la FamlUe." 

12 THE CZAR NICHOLAS [chap, xm 

Queen Victoria to the Earl of Aberdeen. 

29th May 1844. 

If Lord Aberdeen should not have read the Prince do 
Joinville's pamphlet, the Queen recommends him to do so, as 
one cannot judge fairly by the extracts in the newspapers. 
Though it does not lessen the extreme imprudence of the 
Prince's publishing what must do harm to the various French 
Governments, it certainly is not intentionally written to offend 
England, and on the contrauy frankly proves ics to be im- 
mensely superior to the French Navy in every way. 

Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians. 

Windsor Oastle, 4th June 1844. 

My beloved Uncle, — ^I gave Louise a long and detailed 
description of the Emperor,^ etc. The papers are full of the 
details. A great event and a great compliment his visit cer- 
tainly is, and the people here are extremely flattered at it. 
He is certainly a very striking man ; still very handsome ; his 
profile is beautiftd, and his manners most dignified and grace- 
ful ; extremely civil — quite alarmingly so, as he is so full of 
attentions and politesses. But the expression of the eyes is 
formidable, and unlike anything I ever saw before. He gives 
me and Albert the impression of a man who is not happy, €«id 
on whom the weight of his immense power and position weighs 
heavily and painfully ; he seldom smiles, and when he does the 
expression is not a happy one. He is very easy to get on with. 
Keally, it seems like a dream when I thuik that we breakfast 
and walk out with this greatest of all earthly Potentates as 
quietly as if we walked, etc., with Charles or any one. We 
took him, with the dear good King of Saxony ,2 who is a great 
contrast to the Czar (and with whom I am quite at my ease), 
to Adelaide Cottage after breakfast. The grass here is just as 
if it had been burned with fire. How many different Princes 
have we not gone the same round with ! ! The children are 
much admired by the Sovereigns — (how grand this sounds !) 
— and Alice allowed the Emperor to take her in his arms, and 
kissed him de son propre accord. We are always so thankful 
that they are not shy. Both the Emperor and the King are 
quite enchanted with Windsor. The Emperor said very 

1 The Emperor mcholas of Boasia had just aniyed on a visit to England, 
s Frederick Aognstas IL 

1844] THE REVIEW 13 

"pcliment : " C'est digne de vous, Madame." I must say the 
Waterloo Room lit up with that entire service of gold looks 
splendid ; and the Reception Room, beautiful to sit in after- 
wcu*ds. The Emperor praised my Angel very much, saying : 
** C'est impossible de voir un plus joli gar9on ; il a Fair si noble 
et si bon " ; which I must say ia very true. The Emperor 
amused the King and me by saying he was so embarrassi when 
people were presented to him, and that he felt so " gaucJie " 
en frac, which certainly he is quite unaccustomed to wear. If 
we can do anything to get him to do what is right by you, we 
shall be most happy, and Peel and Aberdeen are very anxious 
for it. I believe he leaves on Sunday again. To-morrow 
there is to be a great review, and on Thursday I shall probably 
go with them to the races ; they are gone there with Albert 
to-day, but I have remained at home. 

I thhik it is time to conclude my long letter. 

If the French exe angry at this visit, let their dear King 
and their Princes come ; ^y will be sure of a truly affec- 
tionate reception on our part. The one which Emperor 
Nicholas has received is cordial and civil, mais ne vient paa 
du c(Bur, 

I humbly beg that any remarks which may not be favourable 
to our great visitor may not go beyond you and Louise, and not 
to Paris. Ever your devoted Niece, Victobia R. 

Qtieen Victoria to the King of the Belgians, 

BnCElNGHAM PAIACB, llth June 1844. 

My beabest XJncjle, — ^I received your very kind and long 
letter of the 7th on Sunday, and thank you very much for it. 
I am delighted that my accounts interested you, and I shall try 
and give you some more to-day, which you will see come from 
an unbiassed and impartial mind, and which I trust therefore 
will be relied upon. The excitement has ceased as suddenly 
as it had begun, and I am still confused about it. I will go 
back to where I last left you. The Revue ^ on the 6th was 
really very interesting, and our reception as well as that of the 
Emperor mx>st enthusiastic. Louise tells me you had a review 
the sfune day, and that it also was so hot. Our children were 
there, and charmed. On the 6th we went with the Emperor 
and King to the races,' and I never saw such a crowd ; again 

1 la honoar of the Emperor a Beview was held in Windsor Great Park. 

2 At Aacot. 


here the reception was moat brilliant. Every evening a large 
dinner in the Waterloo Room, and the two last evenings in 
uniforms, as the Emperor disliked so being en frac, and was 
quite embarrassed in it. On the 7th we took him and the 
King back here, and in the evening had a party of 260 about. 
On Saturday (8th) my Angel took the Emperor and King to 
a very elegant breakfast ^ at Chiswick, which I for prudence' 
sake did not go to, but was very sorry for it. In the evening 
we went to the Opera {not in State), but they recognised us, 
and we were most brilliantly received. I had to force the 
Emperor forward, as he never would come forward when I was 
there, and I was obliged to take him by the hand and make 
him appear ; it was impossible to be better bred or more 
respectful than he was towards me. Well, on Sunday after- 
noon at five, he left us (my Angel accompanied him to Wool- 
wich), and he was much affected at going, and really un- 
affectedly touched at his reception and stay, the simplicity and 
quietness of which told upon his love of domestic life, which is 
very great. I will now (having told aU that has passed) give 
you my opinion and feelings on the subject, which I may say 
are Albert's also. I was extremely a.gainst the visit, fearing 
the gine and bustle, and even at first, I did not feel a,t all to 
like it, but by living in the same house together quietly and 
unrestrainedly (and this Albert, and with great truth, says is 
the great advantage of these visits, that I not only see these 
great people but know them), I got to know the Emperor and 
he to know me. There is much about him which I cannot help 
liking, and I think his character is one which should be under- 
stood, and looked upon for once as it is. He is stern and severe 
— with fixed principles of diUy which nothing on earth will 
make him change ; very clever 1 do not think him, and his 
mind is an uncivilised one ; his education has been neglected ; 
politics and military concerns are the only things he takes 
great interest in ; the arts and all softer occupations he is in- 
sensible to, but he is sincere, I am certain, sincere even in his 
most despotic acts, from a sense that that is the only way to 
govern ; he is not, I am sure, aware of the dreadful cases of 
individual misery which he so often causes, for I can see by 
various instances that he is kept in utter ignorance of many 
things, which His people carry out in most corrupt ways, while 
he thinks that he is extremely just. He thinks of general 
measures, but does not look into detail. And I am sure mtich 
never reaches his ears, and (as you observed), how can it ? 
He asked for nothing whatever, has merely expressed his great 

1 Giyen by the Doke of Deyonshire. 


anxiety to be upon the best terms with us, but not to the 
exdtisian of others, only let things remain sis they are. . . . He 
is, I should say, too frank, for he talks so openly before people, 
which he should not do, and with difficulty restrains himself. 
His anxiety to be believed is very great, and I must say his per- 
sonal promises I am inclined to believe ; then his feelings are 
very strong ; he feels kindness deeply — and his love for his 
wife and children, and for all children, is very great. He has 
a strong feeling for domestic life, saying to me, when our 
children were in the room : " Voilii les doux moments de notre 
vie." He was not only civil, but extremely kind to us both, 
amd spoke in the highest praise of dearest Albert to Sir Robert 
Peel, saying he wished any Prince in Germany had that ability 
and sense ; he showed Albert great confidence, and I think it 
will do great good, as if ^ praises him abroad it will have great 
weight. He is not happy, and that melancholy which is visible 
in the countenance made me sad at times ; the sternness of the 
eyes goes very much off when you know him, and changes 
according to his being put out (and he can be much embar- 
rassed) or not, and also from his being heated, as he suffers 
with congestions to the head. My Angel thinks that he is a 
man inclined too much to give way to impulse and feeling, 
which makes him act wrongly often. His admiration for 
beauty is very great, and put me much in mind of you, when he 
drove out with us, looking out for pretty people. But he re- 
mains very faithful to those he admired twenty-eight years ago ; 
for instance. Lady Peel, who has hardly any remains left. 
Respecting Belgium he did not speak to me, but to Albert and 
the Ministers. As for unkindly feeling towards you, he dis- 
claims positively any, saying he knew you well, and that you 
had served in the Russian Army, etc., but he says those un- 
fortunate Poles are the only obstacle, and that he positively 
cannot enter into direct communication tvith Belgium as long 
as they are employed. If you could only somehow or other get 
rid of them, I am sure the thing would ba done at once. We 
all think he need not mind this, but I fear he has pledged him- 
self. He admired Charlotte's picture. Pour finir, I must say 
one more word or two about his personal appearance. He 
puts us much in mind of his and our cousins the Wiirtembergs, 
and has altogether much of the Wiirtemberg family about 
him. He is bald now, but in his Chevalier Garde Unifonn he 
is magnificent still, and very striking. 1 cannot deny that we 
were in great anxiety when we took him out lest some Pole 
might make an attempt, and I always felt thankful when we 
got him safe home again. His poor daughter is very ill, I 


The good King of Saxony ^ remains another week with us» 
and we like him much. He is so unassuming. He is out 
sight-seeing aU day, and enchanted with everything. I hope 
that you will persuade the King to come all the scune in 
September. Our motives and politics cure not to be exclusive, 
but to be on good terms with all, and why should we not ? 
We make no secret of it. 

Now I must end this very long letter. Ever your devoted 
Niece, Victobia R. 

You will kindly not speak of these details, but only in 
aUgemein say the visit went off very satisfactorily on both sides, 
and that it was highly pacific. 

Queen Victoria to the King of ihe Belgians. 


My deabest Uncle, — ^I had the happiness of receiving your 
dear and kind letter of the 13th on Sunday ; your parties at 
Ardenne must have been truly delightful ; perhaps some day 
we may enjoy them too : that would be delightful ! I can 
write to you with a light heart, thank goodness, to-day, for the 
Government obtained a majority, which wp to the last moment 
last night we feared they would not have, and we have been in 
sad trouble for the last four or five days about it.> It is the 
more marvellous, as, if the Gk>vemment asked for a Vote of 
Confidence, they would have a Majority of 100 ; but this very 
strength makes the supporters of the Government act in a 
most im justifiable maimer by continually acting and voting 
against them, ru>t listening to the debates, but coming down 
and voting against the Government. So that we were really 
in the greatest possible danger of having a resignation of the 
Government without knowing to whom to turn, and this from 
the recklessness of a handful of foolish half " Puseyite " half 
" Young England " ^ people ! I am sure you will agree with 
me that PeeTs resignation would not only be for us (for we 
cannot have a better and a safer Minister), but for the whole 
country, and for the peace of Europe — a great calamity. Our 
present people are all safe, and not led away by impulses and 

1 See ante^ p. 12. 

2 The Minfetary had been defeated on Mr P. Miles'a motion In favoor o£ giving an increased 
preference to colonial sogar, but on the 17th this vote was rescinded by a majcnity of 
twenty-two, Mr Disraeli taunting the Premier with expecting that " upon every division 
and at every crisis, his gang should appear, and the whip should sound." 

3 The name given to the group comprising Disraeli, Oewge Smythe, Lord John Manners, 
etc. See Ccmingsbif, which was published about this time. 


reckless passions. We must, however, take care and not get 
into another crisis ; for I assure you we have been quite 
miserable and quite alarmed ever since Saturday. 

Since I last wrote to you, I spoke to Aberdeen (whom I 
should be equally sorry to lose, as he is so very fair, and has 
served us personally, so kindly and truly), and he told me that 
the Emperor ha.s positively pledged himself to send a Minister 
to Brussels the moment those Poles are no longer employed ; ^ 
that he is quite aware of the importance of the measure, and 
would be disposed to make the arrangement easy, and that he 
spoke very kindly of you personally. Aberdeen says it is not 
necessary to disgrace them in any way, but only for the present 
de les eloigner. The Emperor has evidently some time ago 
made some strong declaration on the subject which he feels 
he cannot get over, and, as I said before, he will not give up 
what he has once pledged his word to. Then, no one on earth 
can move him. Au fond, it is a fine trait, but he carries it too 
iax. He wrote me a very kind and affectionate letter from the 
Ha^e. The Emperor has given Bertie the Grand Cross of 
St Andrew, which the boy was quite proud of. 

Our kind and good ^ng of Saxony leaves us to-morrow, 
after having seen more than anybody has done almost, and 
having enjoyed it of all things. He is quite at home with us 
and the children, whom he plays with much. Alice walks 
quite alone, and looks too funny, as she is so very fat. Now, 
ever your devoted Niece, Victoria R. 

Viscotmt Melbou/me to Queen Victoria. 

South Street, 19th June 1844. 

Lord Melbourne presents his humble duty to your Majesty, 
and thanks your Majesty much for the letter of the 14th inst. 
Lord Melbourne was very glad to have the opportunity of 
seeing the Emperor of Russia at Chiswick. Lord Melbourne 
hmnbly believes that the opinion, which your Majesty has 
formed and expresses of the Emperor's character is just, and 
he considers it extremely fortunate that a sovereign of such 
weight and influence in Europe, and with whom it is probable 
that Great Britain will have such near and intimate relations, 
should also be a man upon whose honour and veracity strong 
relicuQce may be safely and securely placed. 

Lord Melbourne is very glad to believe that the late political 

1 See ante, p. 15. 


movements, with which the public mind has been agitated, 
have subsided, and are entirely terminated by the last vote of 
the House of Commons, and by the determination evinced to 
support the Administration.^ 

This finishes for the present a business which at one moment 
seemed likely to be troublesome, and out of which there did 
not appear to present itself any hope or practicable escape. 

Lord Melbourne will not make any observation upon what is 
known and understood to have passed, further than to say 
that, as far as he is acquainted with the history of pubHc affairs 
in this country, it is an entire novelty, quite new and un- 
precedented.2 Many a Minister has said to the Crown, " My 
advice must be taken, and my measures must be adopted," 
but no Minister has ever yet held this language or advanced 
this pretension to either House of Parliament. However, it 
seems to be successful at present, and success will justify much. 
Whether it will tend to permajient strength or a steaiiy con- 
duct of public affairs, remains to be seen. 

Lord Melbourne begs to be respectfully remembered to His 
Royal Highness. 

The Earl of EUenborough to Queen Victoria. 

22nd June 1844. 

Lord EUenborough, with his most himaible duty to your 
Majesty, hmnbly acquaints your Majesty that on the 15th of 
June he received the announcement of his having been re- 
moved from the office of Governor-General of India by the 
Court of Directors. By Lord Ellenborough's advice, letters 
were immediately despatched by express to every important 
native Court to assure the native Pnnces that this chajige in 
the person at the head of the Government would effect no 
change in its policy, and Lord EUenborough himself wrote in 
similar terms to the British Representatives at the several 
Courts. . . . Lord EUenborough has written a letter to the 
Earl of Ripon with reference to the reasons aUeged by the 
Court of Directors for his removal from office, to which letter 
he most humbly soUcits your Majesty's favourable and atten- 
tive consideration. It treats of matters deeply affecting the 
good government of India. 

Amidst all the difficulties with which he has had to contend 
in India, aggravated as they have been by the constant 

1 See ante, p. 16. 

2 Lord Melbourne refers to the House resdndiog itB own vote. 


hostility of the Court of Directors, Lord Ellenborough has ever 
been sustained by the knowledge that he was serving a most 
gra^sions Mistress, who would place the most favourable con- 
struction upon his conduct, and he now humbly tenders to 
your Majesty the expression o/his gratitude, not only for those 
marks of Royal favour with which it has been intimated to 
him that it is your Majesty's intention to reward his services^ 
but yet more for that constant support which has animated 
all his exertions, and has mainly enabled him to place Lidia 
in the hands of his successor in a state of universal peace, the 
result of two years of victories, and in a condition of prosperity 
heretofore unknown. 

The King of the Belgians to Queen Victoria. 

Laeeen, 28<A June 1844. 

My beloved Victoria, — ^I have again to offer my warmest 
and best thanks for a very long and kind letter. I am truly 
and sincerely happy that a Ministerial crisis has been spared 
you ; it is in all constitutional concerns an awfvl business ; 
but in such a colossal machinery as the British Empire, it 
shakes the whole globe. For your sake, for the good of Eng- 
land, and for the quiet of the whole earth, we must most de- 
voutly pray that Sir Revert may remain for many, many years 
you/r trusty and faithful Minister. Parliaments and Chambers 
are extremely fond of governing, particularly as long as it does 
not bore themselves. We have had an instance of it recently. 
I was anxious to keep the Chamber longer, as there are still 
many important things which it ought to have finished ; but 
they were hot, they got tired, voted twelve projets de loi in one 
day, and disappeared afterwards, leaving one the trouble of 
managing the affairs of the State as best one may. . . . 

As a general political event, the Emperor's visit in England 
can only be useful ; it is probable that he would not have made 
the visit if another had not been talked of. His policy is natur- 
ally to separate as much as possible the two great Western 
Powers ; he is too weak to resist single-handed their dictates 
in the Oriental question ; 6t^ if they act not in concert, it is 
evident that he is the master ; in all this he acts wisely and in 
conformity with the great interests of his Empire. England 
has greater interests at stake at the mercy of Russia than at 
that of France. With France the questions are sometimes 
questions of jealousy, but, on the other hand, a tolerable under- 
stemding keeps France quiet and secures the peace of Europe, 

20 TAHITI [CHAP, xm 

much more in the sense of the European policy of England 
than of that of France. The only consolation the French can 
find in it is that they are aware that together with England they 
have a great position, but thev always lament that they can 
get nothing by it, A bad unc&rstanding with France opens 
not only the door to a European war, but also to revolution ; 
and that is perhaps the most serious and most awfully danger- 
ous part of the business. England wants nothing from the 
Emperor than that he shoiild leave the status quo of Europe 
and great part of Asia alone. At Paris they are not so much 
mov^ at the Emperor's visit as perhaps they ought to be, but 
they have put the flattering notion into their heads that he had 
made fiasco, which is not true ; as, in fact, he has so far been 
rather successful, and has convinced people in England that he 
is a mild] and good-natured man, himself and his Empire, 
without any ambition. Now it is high time I should &iish 
my immense scrawl, for which I claim your forgiveness, re- 
maining ever your devoted Uncle, Leopold R. 

Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians, 

WINDSOR CASTLE, 27th August 1844. 

My deabest Uncle, — ^Many thanks for your kind long 
letter, which I received yesterday, dated 23rd. I can report 
very well of ourselves. We are all well. The dear day of 
yesterday^ we spent very quietly and happily and full of 
gratitude to Providence for so many blessings. I can only 
pray for the continuance of our present happiness. 

The impending political cloud, I hope and trust, looks less 
black and lowering. But I think it very unwise in Guizot not 
to have at once disavowed D'Aubigny for what you yourself 
call an " outrage," ^ instead of letting it drag on for four weeks 
and letting our people get excited. The Tangiers Affair ^ is 
unfortunate, and I hope that in future poor Joinville will not 
be exposed to such disagreeable affairs. What can be done 
will be, to get him justified in the eyes of the public here, but 
I fear that at first they will not be very charitable. Those 
letters in the Times are outrageous, and all that abuse very 
bad taste. ^ There is to be an investigation about the three 

1 The Prince Albert's birthday. Prince Alfred was bom on 6tii August of this year. 
9 The assumption of French sovereignty over Tahiti 

3 Hostilities had commenced between France and Morocco, and Tangiers was bam« 

4 A series of letters had appeared in the TimeSy written by British naval officers who 
had witnessed the bombardznnit of Tangiers, and accused the Frooch Admiral and Navy 
of being deficient in courage. The Timei was much criticised for itB publication of these 


officers, whose conduct is unworthy of Englishmen. Now, 
dearest Uncle, believe me always, your most affectionate 
Niece, Victobia R. 

Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians. 

BLAm Athol, 16th September 1844. 

My deabest Uncle, — ^I received your kind letter of the 6th 
the day we arrived here, and thank you very much for it. As 
I have written an account of our journey to Louise, I will not 
repeat it here. 

The good ending of our difficulties with France is an im- 
mense blessing, but it is really and truly necessary that you 
and those at Paris should know that the danger was imminent, 
and that poor Aberdeen stood almost alone in trying to keep 
matters peaceable. We must try and prevent these difficulties 
for the future. I must, however, clear Jamac ^ of all blame, 
for Aberdeen does nothing but prcuse him. . . . 

Li Greece affeurs look very black, and God knows how it 
all will end. 

The Queen of the Belgians to Queen Victoria. 

Laeken, 6th October 1844. 

My DEABiiY BELOVED ViCTOBiA, — . . . I have not much to 
say about my father's lodging habits and likings.^ My father 
is one of the beings most easy to please, satisfy, and to a^ccom- 
modate. His eventful life has used him to everything, and 
makes any kind of arreuogements acceptable to him ; there is 
only one thing which he cannot easily do, it is to be ready very 
early. He means notwithstanding to try to come to your 
breakfast, but you must insist upon his not doing it. It would 
disturb him in all his habits, and be bad for him, as he would 
certcdnly eat, a thing he is not used to do in the morning. He 
generally takes hardly what may be called a breakfast, and eats 
only twice in the day. It would be also mu/ih better for him if 
he only appeared to luncheon and dinner, and if you kindly 

1 Charge d^ Affaires in the absence of the French Ambassador. 

2 The dilBcalty with France as to Tahiti haying been satisfactorilj disposed of. King 
Locds Philippe was enabled to visit England, the first French King to come on a visit to 
the Soverdgn of England. The King was enthosiasticallj received in England, visited 
OlaremoQt fii^iidi he was destined to occupy in exile), was installed as a Knight of the 
Garter at Windsor with great magnificence, and visited Eton College and Woolwich 


dispensed him altogether of the breakfast. You must not tell 
him that I wrote you this, but you must manage it with Mont- 
pensier, and kindly order for him a bowl of chicken broth. It 
is the only thing he takes generally in the morning, and between 
his meals. I have also no observation to make, but I have 
told Montpensier to speak openly to Albert whenever he 
thought something ought to be done for my father, or might 
hurt and inconvenience him, and you may consult him when 
you are in doubt. He is entrusted with all the recommenda- 
tions of my mother, for my father is naturally so imprudent and 
so little accustomed to catUion and care, that he must in some 
measure be watched to prevent his catching cold or doing what 
may be injurious to him. About his rooms, a hard bed and a 
large table for his papers are the only things he requires. He 
generally sleeps on a horse-hair mattress with a plank of wood 
under it : but any kind of bed will do, if it is not too soft. His 
liking will be to be entirely at your commands and to do all you 
like. You know he can take a great deal of exercise, and 
everything will interest and delight him, to see, as to do : this 
is not a compliment, but a mere fact. His only wish is, that you 
should not go out of your way for him, and change your habits 
on his account. Lord Aberdeen will be, of course, at Windsor, 
and I suppose you will ask, as you told me, the Royal Family. 
My father hopes to see also Sir Robert Peel, Lord Stanley, and 
your other Ministers. You will probably ask most of them 
during his stay. He wishes very much to see again those he 
already knows, and to make the acquaintance of those he does 
not know yet. In writing all this I think I dream, I cannot 
believe yet that in a few days my dear father will have, God 
willing, the unspeakable happiness to see you again and at 
Windsor, a thing he had so much unshed for and which for a 
long time seemed so improbable. You have no notion of the 
satisfaction it gives him, and how delighted he wiU be to see you 
again, and to be once more in England. God grant he may 
have a good passage, and arrive to you safely and well. Un- 
berufen, as you will soon, I trust, be able to see, he is, not- 
withstanding the usual talk of the papers, perfectly well. . . . 
Yours most devotedly, LomsE. 

The Queen of the Belgians to Queen Victoria. 

LAEKBN, 1th October 1844. 

My dearly beloved Victoria, — . . . I wrote to my 
mother, to quiet her, all you kindly tell me about my dear 


father. We are quite sure, 1 assure you, that you and Albert 
will take care of him, and that he is with you in safe hand. And 
what makes my mother uneasy is the fear that, being at liberty 
and without control, he will make too w/uch, qa she says, le 
jeune homme, ride, go about, and do everything as if he was 
still twenty years old. If I must tell you aU the truth, she is 
afraid also he will eat too much. I am sure he will tell it to you 
himself, as he was so much amused with this fear ; but to do 
her pleasure, being well assured by me that you would allow it, 
and that it was even customary, he has given up, of himself, 
all thought of attending your eajrly breakfast : but I perceive 
I write as if Ae was not already under your roof. I will also only 
say, that though he has sent over his horses in case they should 
be wfuited, my mother begs you to prevent, if possible, his 
riding at aU. I wrote to her already that I supposed there 
would be no occasion for riding, and that your promenades 
would be either on foot or in carriage. I entrusted Mont- 
pensier with all my messages for you, my beloved Victoria and 
your dear children. He hopes you will permit him, during his 
stay at Windsor, to make two excursions — one to London, and 
one to Woolwich — he is very curious to see, as an artillery 
officer. I mention it as he would bo, perhaps, too shy or too 
discreet to mention it himself. He might very well do those 
two trips by the railroad and be back for dinner-time, and I 
am sure you will have no objection to them. . . . Yours most 
devotedly, Louise. 

I am very glad that Lord Charles Wellesley is one of those 
who will attend my father. Montpensier and him will have 
surely capital fun together, and he was, you know, a great 
favourite with every one at Eu. If by chance Lord Hard- 
wicke was in waiting during my father's stay, you must kindly 
put my father in mind to thank him for the famous cheese, 
which arrived safely, and was found very good. . . . 

Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians, 

Windsor Castle, %th October 1844. 

Deabest UNCiiE, — ^You will, I am sure, forgive my writing 
but a few lines as I am all alone in the agitation of the dear 
King's arrival, and I will leave my letter open to announce it 
to you. My dearest master is gone to Portsmouth to receive 
him. The excitement and curiosity to see the dear King, and 
the desire to give him a most hearty reception, is very great 

24 THE IQNG'S ARRIVAL [chap, xm 

Many thanks for your kind letters of the 28th and 4th. I 
can't think who could have said that Peel, etc., would not have 
been here ; for he, Aberdeen, and the old Duke are to be here 
the whole time, and all the other Ministers will come during 
his stay. 

I am very glad Joinville is arrived, and avoided his entries 
triomphales. I hope he will take great care of himself. 

You will have heard from dear Louise of our voyage, etc. 
I caimot reconcile myself to be fiere again, and pine for my dear 
Highlands, the hills, the pure air, the quiet, the retirement, 
the liberty — all — ^more than is right. The children are well. 
I am sorry to hear that you are not quite so yet. 

3.30. — ^The King and Montpensier arrived quite safely at 
two, and are both looking extremely well. We have just 
lunched with them. It seems like a dream to me, and a very 
pleasant one. 

Albert sends his affectionate love. Ever your devoted 
Niece, Victoria R. 

Bertie has immediately taken a passion for Montpensier. 

Viscount Melbourne to Queen Victoria, 

BBOOKEi Hall, 9th October 1844. 

Lord Melbourne presents his humble duty to your Majesty, 
and thanks your Majesty much for the letter of the 7th inst., 
which he has just received, and with very great satisfaction, 
as he had begun to think your Majesty's silence rather long. 
But he perfectly understands the reasons which prevented 
your Majesty from writing during your stay in the Highlands. 
Lord Melbourne is very glad to find that your Majesty enjoyed 
that country so much, and is so enthusiastically fond of it. 
Lord Melbourne believes that he was at the places which your 
Majesty mentions. In the year 1802 he stayed some months 
in Perthshire with the late Lord Kinnaird, and enjoyed it 
much. It annoys him sometimes to think how altered he is 
in strength since that time. Lord Melbourne has never yet 
thanked your Majesty for the pretty etchings of poor Islay 
and Eos, which your Majesty sent to Lord Melbourne when 
he was last at Windsor. Lord Melbourne has ordered them 
both to be framed, and will hang them up in his room here. 
They will afford Lord Melbourne most agreeable and pleasing 
souvenirs of the happiest period of his life, for he cannot say 
otherwise than that he continually misses and regrets the 
time when he had daily confidential communication with your 


Majesty. Lord Glenlyon ^ has one merit in Lord Melbourne's 
eyes, which is that he was a steady and firm supporter to 
the last of Lord Melbourne's Government. Lord Melbourne 
hopes and trusts that he feels no animosity against those 
who opposed him. But he does and always shall entertain a 
kindly and grateful recollection of those who supported him. 
Lord Melbourne begs to be remembered to His Royal 

The Queen of the Belgians to Queen Victoria. 

Laeeen, 12th October 1844. 

My deably beloved Victoria, — . . . I thank you very 
much for attending to all my recommendations about my 
father : I only fear that they will lead you to believe that we 
consider him as a great child and treat him like one : but he 
is so precious and dear to us aU that I am sure you will under- 
stand and excuse our being over anxious . . . Yours most 
devotedly, Louise. 

Qtieen Victoria to the King of the Belgians. 

OSBOBNE HOXTSE, VJth October 1844. 

My deabest Uncle, — ^I hiid intended to have written to you 
on Monday, but you will since have heard of the great con- 
fusion of that day which prevented me from doing so. The 
dear Kling's visit went off to perfection, and I much and deeply 
regret its being passed. He was delighted, and was most 
enthusifikstically and affectionately received wherever he 
showed himself. Our proceedings I wrote to good, dear Louise 
(whom you should not leave so long alone), who will no doubt 
have given you the details. What an extraordinary man the 
King is ! What a wonderful memory, and how lively, how 
sagacious / He spoke very openly to us all, and is determined 
that our affairs should go on well. He wishes Tahiti au fond 
de la mer. He spoke also very openly about poor Hadjy's 
brochurCf which seems to have distressed him more than any- 
thing. The King praised my dearest Albert most highly, and 
fully appreciates his great qualities and talents — and what 
gratifies me so much, treats him completely as his equal, calling 
him ** Mon Frdre," and saying to me that my husband w€w the 

1 See ToL i. p. 429. 


same as me, which it is — and " Le Prince Albert, c'est pour 
moi le Roi." The King is very sad to go, but he is determined, 
he says, to see me every year. Another very great thing is, that 
the officers of the two Navies staying at Portsmouth were on 
the best terms together and paying one another every sort of 
compliment. As Admiral La Susse (a very gentlemanlike 
man) and his squadron were sadly disappointed on Monday,^ 
we thought it would please them if we went on board the 
Gomery which we did, on Tuesday morning, and breakfasted 
there, and I drank the King's health. I am certain that the 
visit and everything connected with it can but do the greatest 

We stay here till Monday. It is a very comfortable little 
house, and the grounds and place are delightful, so private— 
and the view so fine. 

I must now conclude, begging you to believe me, ever your 
devoted Niece, Victobia R. 

I forgot to say how much we liked good Montpensier, who 
got on extremely well. 

Queen Victoria to the King of the French, 

OSBORNE HOUSB, le 17 Octobre 1844. 

Sire, et mon tbes oheb Frbre, — ^Votre Majesty m'a 6crit 
deux bien bonnes lettres de Douvres pour lesquelles je vous 
remercie de tout mon coeur. Les expressions de bont^ et 
d'amiti^ que vous me vouez ainsi qu'4 mon cher Albert nous 
touchent sensiblement ; je n'ai pas besoin de vous dire encore, 
combien nous vous sommes attaches et combien nous d^irons 
voir se raffermir de plus en plus cette entente cordiale entre 
nos deux pays qui existe si heureusement entre nous person- 
nellement. C'^tait avec un vif regret que nous nous sonmaes 
s6pares de votre Majesty, et de Montpensier, et ce sera une 
grande fete que de voir renouveler une visite dont le souvenir 
nous est si cher. 

Albert se met k vos pieds. Sire, bien sensible ainsi que moi- 
meme de Tamiti^ et la confiance que vous lui avez t^moign^es. 

J'ose prier votre Majesty d'offrir mes plus tendres hommages 
k la Reine et k Madame votre Sceur et de me rappeler au 
souvenir de Montpensier. Je suis pour la vie. Sire et mon 
cher Fr^re, de votre Majesty la bien affectionn^e Sceur et 
fiddle Amie, Vicjtoria R. 

i It had been intended that the King should retom to Frsmce, as he had come, by way 
of Portsmoath, croeeing in the frigate Oomer, but, in coosequenoe of the wet and Btormy 
weather, he returned by Dover and Galais. 


Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians, 

WINDSOR CASTLE, 29th October 1844. 

My deabest Uncle, — ^I had the happiness of receiving your 
kind letter of the 26th while I was dressing to go to the City 
for the opening of the Royal Exchange.^ Nothing ever went 
off better, and the procession there, as well as all the pro- 
ceedings at the Royal Exchange, were splendid and royal in 
the extreme. It was a fine and gratifying sight to see the 
myriskds of people a.ssenibled — ^more than at the Coronation 
even, and all in such good humour, and so loyal ; the articles 
in the papers, too, are most kind and gratifying ; they say no 
Sovereign vxis more loved than I am (I am bold enough to say), 
and that, from our happy domestic home — which gives such a 
good example. The Times you have, and I venture to add a 
Chronicle, as I think it very pretty ; you should read the 
accounts. I seldom remember being so gratified and pleased 
with any public show, and my beloved Albert was so enthusi- 
astically received by the people. He is so beloved by all the 
really influential people, and by aU right-thinking ones. We 
came ba^ck here yesterday evening. The accounts from Paris 
are excellent too. How long are the good Joinvilles to remain 
in the south, and where ? By-the-by, dearest Uncle, have you 
read the continuation of Consuelo,* called the " Comtesse de 
Rudolstadt " ? It is dread fuUy interesting. 

The Knights of the Garter did not wear the whole costume, 
but only the mantle. Being on this topic, shall tell you that 
I intend giving the Garter to Ernest, but pray do not mention 
it to E. or any one. 

With Albert's affectionate love. Ever your devoted Niece 
and Child, Victoria R. 

The King of the French to Queen Victoria. 

Saint Cloud, le 15 Novembre 1844. 

Madame ma bien chere Soeub, — ^Mes souvenirs de Windsor 
sont de ceux dont aucun ne s' efface. Je n'oublie done pas 
une petite question qui m'a 6t6 si joliment adress^e, Where 
is my gun ? et k present j*en ai trouv^ un qui serait indigne de 
la destin^e que je prie votre Majesty de me permettre de lui 
donner, si le regret que la disparition du premier fusil avait 

X On the preceding day. 

a The novel by George Sand (1804.1876), pabMied in 1843. 

28 EDUCATION IN INDIA [chap, xm 

caus6, ne m'avait pas appris que le second devait etre d'un 
genre k supporter tous les eu^cidents que Fenfance aime k infliger 
k ses joujoux. C'est done tout simplement un tr^ modeste 
fusil de munition adapts k sa taille que j'adresse k votre 
Majesty pour son auguste et charmant enfant le Prince de 
Galles, comme ma r^ponse k sa question. 

J'ai encore une autre dette dont je vous prie de me per- 
mettre de m'acquitter. Quelque vif que soit mon d6sir de 
revoir Windsor, ce serait un trop long retard que d*attendre 
cet heureux moment, pour offrir k la Princesse Royale cette 
petite boite k ouvrage, de Paris, qu'elle m'a fait esp^rer lui 
serait agr^ble, et tout ce que je d^ire c'est que vos enfants se 
ressouviennent un jour d'avoir vu celui qui a 6t6 le fidele ami 
de leur grand-pdre, comme il Test et le sera toujours de leurs 
bien aim6s parents. 

Que votre Majesty me permette encore d' offrir ici au Prince 
Albert Texpression de la vive et sincere amiti6 que je lui porte 
et que je lui garderai toujours, et d'eu^cepter celle de Tinalt^able 
attachement avec lequel je suis pour la vie, Madame ma bien 
chdre Soeur, de votre Majesty, le bon Frdre bien affectionn^ et 
fiddle Ami, Louis PhtTjTppe R. 

Sir Henry Hardinge to Queen Victoria, 

2Zrd November ISid. 

Sir Henry Hardinge^ with his most humble duty to your 
Majesty, humbly submits for your Majesty's consideration 
the following observations on the state of affairs in this large 
portion of your Majesty's dominions. 

The return of peace has also increased the desire of the 
native population to receive the advantages of English edu- 
cation. The literature of the West is the most favourite 
study amongst the Hindoos in their schools and colleges. 
They will dScuss with cwjcuracy the most important events 
in British History. Boys of fifteen years of age, black in 
colour, will recite the most favourite passages from Shake- 
speare, ably quoting the notes of the English and German com- 
mentators. They excel in mathematics, and in legal subtleties 
their Srcuteness is most extraordinary. 

In order to reward native talent and render it practically 
useful to the State, Sir Henry Hardinge, after due deliberation, 
has issued a resolution, by which the most meritorious students 

1 Ooremor-Gkneral of India, in soooeeeion to Lord Ellenboroogh. 


will be appointed to fill the public offices which fall vacant 
throughout Bengal. 

This encouragement has been received by the Hindoo popu- 
lation with the greatest gratitude. The studies in the Moham- 
medaji schools and colleges have hitherto been confined to 
Arabic, the Koran, and abstruse studies relating to their 
religion, having always shown a marked aversion to English 
literature. Since the publication of the Resolution they have 
at once determined to change their system in order to partici- 
pate in the benefits held out to native merit of every sect. 

It is impossible throughout your Majesty's immense Empire 
to employ the number of highly paid European civil servants 
which the public service requires. This deficiency is the great 
evil of British Administration. By dispersing annually a pro- 
portion of well-educated natives throughout the provinces, 
under British superintendence, well-founded hopes are enter- 
tained that prejudices may gradually disappear, the public 
service be improved, and attachment to British institutions 
increased. . . . 

Sir Henry Hardinge, in closing these observations, most 
humbly ventures to arssure your Majesty that he anticipates 
no occurrence €is probable, by which the tranquillity of this 
portion of your Majesty's dominions is likely to be disturbed. 

H. Habdinge. 


The new year (1845) opened auspiciously, trade improving owing 
to the great impetus given to it by the many lines of railway then in 
course of promotion. Over two hundred schemes were prepared at 
the conmiencement of the session to seek legislative sanction, and 
speculation outran £tll reasonable limits. The Income Tax (which in 
the ordinary course would have expired) was renewed, and the Anti'- 
Com Law Leaguers were more persistent than ever in their assaults 
on Protection, while the attacks on the Ministry from a section of 
their own party were redoubled. The most remarkable measure of the 
year was the Government Bill for increasing the grant to the Roman 
Catholic College, of Maynooth, which was strongly opposed from 
the Conservative and the Protestant points of view ; IVfo Gladstone, 
though he approved of the measure, retired from the Ministry, as he 
had a few years before written in the opposite sense. Towards the 
close of the year the condition of Ireland, owing to the failure of the 
potato crop, became very alarming, and the Ministry greatly em- 
barrassed. Lord John Russell wrote from Edinburgh to the electors 
of the City of London, announcing his conversion to the Repeal of 
the Com Laws, and the Times announced that such a Bill would be 
brought in by the Ministry. Peel, reluctant to accept the task, 
resigned office in December, and a Whig Ministry was attempted. 
Owing to dissensions, the attempt had to be abandoned, and Peel 
returned to office, without Lord Stanley, but with Mr Gladstone, 
who however did not seek re-election for the seat vacated by his 
acceptance of office. 

A dispute of great importance arose during the year with the United 
States, relating to the boundary line between English and American 
territory west of the Rocky Mountains. Twenty-five yeajs earlier 
the same question had arisen, and had been settled on the footing of 
joint occupancy. The increased importance of the Pacific slope 
made the matter more vital, involving as it did the ownership of 
Vancouver Island €uid the mouth of the Columbia River ; President 
Polk unequivoccdly claimed the whole, and said he would not shrink 
from upholding America's interests ; the British Government was 
equally firm, and the matter was not adjusted till 1846. 

In India, which during nearly the whole year enjoyed peace, the 
Sikhs in December assumed the aggressive, and crossed the Sutlej, 
invading British India. They were signally defeated by Sir Hugh 



Gough at Moodkee and Ferozeshah. In Scinde Sir Charles Napier 
prosecuted operations against the mountain desert tribes. 

In New Zealand some disastrous collisions took place between the 
natives and the settlers ; the former on two occ£isions either de- 
feating or repulsing the British arms. 

In France the most important events were the Bill for fortifjdng 
Paris, the campaign waged against Abd-el-Kader in Algeria, and a 
horrible act of cruelty perpetrated there. In Spain Don Carlos 
abdicated his claims to the throne in favour of his son ; the 
Queen's engagement to Count Trapeuii was rumoured. In other parts 
of Europe little that was eventful occurred. 



Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians, 

WINDSOR OASTLB, lith Janvary 1846. 

My deabest Uncle, — ^What you say about Aquila^ and 
Montpensier interests me. What madness is it then to force 
Trapani on Spain ! Pray explain to me the cause of the 
King's obstinacy about that Spanish marriage, for no country 
has a right to dictate in that way to another. If Tatane ^ was 
to think of the Infanta, England would be extremely indignant, 
and would (and with right) consider it tantamount to a mar- 
riage with the Queen herself. Ever your devoted Niece, 

Victoria R. 

The King of the Belgians to Qu^en Victoria, 

Laeeen, 18<A January 1845. 

My deabest Victoria, — . . . The Spanish marriage 
question is really very curious ; in fa<5t, all the other Bourbon 
branches are hostile to the Orleans family, but the idea that 
makes the King so constant in his views about it, is that he 
imagines it woiUd create in France a bad impression if now any 
other than a Bourbon was to marry the Queen of Spain. That 
feeling they have themselves created^ as in France they did not 
at all care about it ; having, however, declared quasi officially 
in the French Chambers that they wiU not have any hut a 
Bourbon, if circumstances should after all decide it otherwise 
it would now be a defeat, but certainly one of their own making. 
. . . Your devoted Uncle, Leopold R. 

1 Louis Charles, Comte d'Aqnila, a son of Francis L, Eling of the Two Sicilies, and brother 
of the Comte de Trapani and of Queen Christina ; he and his brother were therefore 
uncles of Queen Isabella. 

a The Due de Montpensier. 


Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians, 

WINDSOR 0A8ILB, 2Sth January 1845. 

. . . The feeling of loyalty in this country is happily very 
strong, and wherever we show ourselves we are most heartily 
and waxmly received, and the civilities and respect shown to 
us by those we visit is most satisfarctory. I mention merely a 
trifling instance to show how respectful they are — the Duke of 
Buckingham, who is immensely proud, bringing the cup of 
coffee after dinner on a waiter to Albert himself. And every- 
where my dearest Angel receives the respect and honours I 

Many thanks for returning the list ; ^ it was not Albert but 
Tatane who made the blarck crosses. Are not " Les 3 Mousque- 
taires," by Dumas, and " Arthur," by Eugene Sue, readable 
for me ? 

Now adieu, dearest, best Uncle. Ever your truly devoted 
Niece, Victoria. R 

Queen Victoria to Sir Robert Peel, 

PAvnJON, lOth February 1846. 

Though the Queen knows that Sir Robert Peel has already 
turned his attention to the urgent necessity of doing something 
to Buckingham Palace, the Queen thinks it right to recommend 
this subject herself to his serious consideration. Sir Robert is 
acquainted with the state of the Palace and the total want of 
acconmiodation for our little family, which is fast growing up. 
Any building must necessarily take some years before it can 
be safely inhabited. If it were to be begun this autumn, it 
could hfiuxily be occupied before the spring of 1848, when the 
Prince of Wales would be nearly seven, and the Princess Royal 
nearly eight years old, and they ccmnot possibly be kept in 
the nursery any longer. A provision for this purpose ought, 
therefore, to be made this year. Independent of this, most 
parts of the Palace are in a sad state, and will ere long require 
a ftirther outlay to render them decent for the occupation of 
the Royal Family or any visitors the Queen may have to 
receive. A room, capable of containing a larger number of 
those persons whom the Queen has to invite in the course of 
the season to balls, concerts, etc., than any of the present 

1 A list of Frendi books which the Qaeen was proposiiig to read. 

VOL. n 2 

34 TITLE OF KING CONSORT [chap, xiv 

apartments can at once hold, is much wanted. Equally so, 
improved ofi&ces and servants' rooms, the want of which puts 
the departments of the household to great expense yearly. 
It will be for Sir Robert to consider whether it would not be 
best to remedy all these deficiencies at once, and to make use 
of this opportunity to render the exterior of the Palace such 
as no longer to be a disgrace to the country, which it certainly 
now is. The Queen thinks the country would be better pleased 
to have the question of the Sovereign's residence in London so 
finally disposed of, than to have it so repeatedly brought 
before it.* 

Queen Victoria to Sir Robert Fed, 

PAVILION, \%th February 1846. 

The Queen has received Sir Robert Peel's letter, and is glad 
that the progress in the House of Commons was so satisfactory. 

The Queen was much hurt at Mr Borthwick's most im- 
pertinent manner of putting the question with respect to the 
title of King Consort, and much satisfied with Sir Robert's 
answer.^ The title of King is open assuredly to many diffi- 
culties, and would perhaps be no real advantage to the Prince, 
but the Queen is positive that something must at once be 
done to pltice the Prince's position on a constitutionally 
recognised footing, and to give him a title adequate to that 
position.3 How and when, are difficult questions. . . . 

1 Feel replied that, as a renewal of the Income Tax was about to be proposed, it would 
be better to postpone the application to Parliament till the public feeling as to the tax 
had been ascertained. 

2 A paragraph had appeared in the Morning Chronide^ giving credence to a rumour that 
this title was about to be conferred on the Prince, but, in answer to Mr Peter Borthwick, 
Sir Eobert Peel positiyely contradicted it. 

3 Sir Robert Fed to the Frince Albert, 

WmTEHAliL, 18^ February 1845. 

Sm, — I received yesterday the accompanying note from Mr Borthwick, and in con- 
formity with the notice therein given, he put the question to me in the House of Oommons 
last evening respecting the paragraph which appeared in tiie Morning Chronide respect- 
ing the intention of proposing to Parliament that your Eoyal Highness should assume 
the title of King Consort. 

I very much regret that the Morning Chronicle inserted that paragraph. 

The prominent place assigned to it in the newspaper, and a vague intimation that there 
was some authority for it, have caused a certain degree of credit to be attached to it. It 
has been copied into all the country newspapers and has given rise to a good deal of con- 
jecture and speculation, which it is far from desirable to exdte without necessity. 

It appears to me that the editor of the Morning Chronide acted most unwarrantably 
in inserting such a paragraph with a pretence of some sort of authoritv toe it. 

It has produced an impression which strongly confirms the observations which I took 
the liberty of making to your Boyal Highness on Sunday evening. 

I trust, however, that my decided contradiction of the paragraph will put a stop to 
further surmise and discussion on Uie subject. 

To Mr Borthwick's note I add one of several letters addressed to me, which shows the 
proneness to speculate upon constitutional novelties. 

I have the honour to be. Sir, with sincere respect, your Bojal Hi^iness's most faithful 
and obedient Servant, ROBERT PEEL. 


Queen Victoria to Sir Robert Peel, 

Windsor Gastlb, 24<A March 1845. 

'' The Queen has received Sir Robert Peel's box containing his 
recommendation relative to the filling up of the vacant Bishop- 
ric of Ely. The Queen quite approves of the present Dean of 
Westminster 1 as the new Bishop. As Sir Robert has asked 
the Queen whether she would like to see Archdeacon Wilber- 
force succeed to the Deanery of Westminster in case the Dean 
should a-ccept the Bishopric, she must say that such an 
arrangement would be very satisfactory to us, and the Queen 
believes would highly please the Archdeacon. This would 
again va<5ate, the Queen believes, a stall at Winchester, which 
she would like to see filled by a person decidedly adverse to 

The Queen approves of the Bishop of Lichfield' being 
transferred to the See of Ely in case Doctor Turton should 
decline it. 

It would give the Queen much pleasure to stand sponsor 
to Sir Robert PeeFs little grandson, and perhaps Sir Robert 
would communicate this to Lady Villiers. 

Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians. 

Windsor castle, 25tA March 1845. 

... I copied what you wrote me about PeeP in a letter 
I wrote him, which I am sure will please him much, and a 
Minister in these days does require a little encouragement, 
for the abuse and difficulties they have to contend with are 
dreadful. Peel works so hard and has so much to do, that 
sometimes he says he does not know how he is to get through 

You will, I cun sure, be pleased to hear that we have suc- 
ceeded in purchasing Oshome in the Isle of Wight,* and if 
we can manage it, we shall probably run down there before 
we return to Town, for three nights. It sounds so snug and 
nice to have a plarce of one's ovm, quiet and retired, and free 
from all Woods and Forests, and other charming Departments 
who really are the plague of one's life. 

Now, dearest Uncle, adieu. Ever your truly devoted 
Niece, Victoria R. 

1 Dr Thomas Tarton (1780-1864), formerly Dean of Peterborough. 

2 John LoDsdale (1788-1867) was Bishop of Lichfield from 1843 UU his death. 

3 See Feel's reply. Life of the Prince Consort, chap. xiii. 

4 The pmcfaase was suggested by Sir Bobert Feel. 

36 THE MAYNOOTH GRANT [chap, xrv 

Queen Victoria to Viscount Melboume, 


The Queen had intended to have written to Lord Melboume 
from Osborne to thank him for his last note of the 19th, but 
we were so occupied, and so delighted with our new and really 
delightful home, that she haxdly had time for anything ; 
besides which the weather was so beautiful, that we were 
out almost all day. The Queen refers Lord Melboume to 
Mr Anson for particulars of the new property, which is very 
extensive, as she is not at all competent to explain about 
acres, etc. But she thinks it is impossible to imagine a prettier 
spot — ^valleys and woods which would be beautiful anywhere ; 
but all this neaf the sea (the woods grow into the sea) is quite 
perfection ; we have a charming beach quite to ourselves. 
The sea was so blue and calm that the Prince said it was like 
Naples. And then we can walk about anywhere by ourselves 
without being followed and mobbed, which Lord Melboume 
will easily understand is delightful. And last, not least, we 
have Portsmouth and Spithead so close at hand, that we shall 
be able to watch what is going on, which will please the Navy, 
and be hereafter very useful for our' boys. 

The Children are all well. The Queen has just had a litho- 
graph made after a little drawing which she did herself of the 
three eldest, and which she will send Lord Melboume with 
some Eau de Cologne. 

Fanny and Lord Joceljni dined here last night ; she is 
looking very well, and he seems much pleased at being in 
office, and being employed. 

The Queen hopes Lord Melboume is enjoying this fine 
weather, and here concludes with the Prince's kind remem- 

Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians. 



My beloved Uncle, — ^Here we are in a great state of 
agitation about one of the greatest measures ever proposed ; ^ 
I am sure poor Peel ought to be blessed by all Catholics for the 
manly and noble way in which he st€mds forth to protect and 
do good to poor Ireland. But the bigotry, the wicked and 

1 The Bill to increase the grant to the Boman Catholic College of Majnooth was carried 
by Peel in the teeth of opposition from half his party : another measore was passed to 
establish colleges for purely secular teaching (" godless colleges " they were nicknamed) 
in Cork, BeUast, and Oalway, and affiliate them to a new Irish nniyecBlly. 


blind paadoDS it brings forth is quite dreadful, and I blush 
for Protestantism ! ^ A Presbyterian clergyman said very 
truly, '' Bigotry is more common Uuin shame, . . ." 

Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians. 

Buckingham Falaob, 23ril AprQ 1846. 

My deabest Uncle, — Our Maynooth Bill is through the 
second reading. I think, if you read Sir Robert's admirable 
speeches, you will see how good his plan is. The Catholics are 
quite delighted at it — ^full of gratitude, and behave extremely 
well ; but the Protestants behave shockingly, and display a 
narrow-mindedness and want of sense on the subject of religion 
which is quite a disgrace to the nation. The case of Austria, 
France, etc., cannot be compared to this, as this is a Protestani 
country, while the others are Catholic ; and I think it would 
never do to support a Roman Catholic Church with money 
belonging to the Protestant Church. The Protestant Estab- 
lishment in Ireland must remain untouched, but let the Roman 
Catholic Clergy be well and handsomely educated. 

The Due de Broglie ^ dined with us last night ; his travaux 
are going on satisfactorily ; he asked when you were coming, 
and said you were " heaucoup Anglais et un peu Franqaisy* 
which is true, I think. 

With Albert's affectionate respects, believe me always, your 
devoted Niece, Viotobia R. 

Mr Ooulbum* to Qiieen Victoria. 

DOWlUNQ SiREET, ZOth April 1846. 

Mr Goulbum submits with his humble duty to your Majesty 
that several representations have been made to the Treasury 
as to the convenience which the public would derive from the 
circulation of silver threepenny-pieces. Such pieces are law- 
fully current under your Majesty's Proclamation of the 6th 
July 1838. But as such pieces have been hitherto reserved 
as your Majesty's Maundy money, and as such especially 

1 Ab Macanlay had said daring the previoos night's debate : " The Orangeman raises 
his war whoop, Exeter Hall sets up its bray, Mr Macneile shudders to see more costly 
dieer than ever proyided for the priests of Baal at the table of the Queen, and the Protec- 
tant operatives of Dublin call for impeachments in exceedinglv bad Bnglish.'* 

3 AchUle Charles, Duo de Broglie, ez-Minister of Foreign AflauB. 

s Ohaooelloc d tihe Xzcheqaflr. 

38 PUBLIC EXECUTIONS [chap, xiv 

belong to your Majesty's service, Mr Goulbum considers that 
a coinage of them for general use could not take pla<;e without 
a particular signification of yoiu: Majesty's pleasure. 

Mr Groulbum therefore humbly submits for your Majesty's 
gracious consideration the signification of yoiu: Majesty's 
pleasure as to the issue of such a coinage. 

Sir James Graham to Queen Victoria, 

WHITEHALL, IZth May 1845. 

Sir James Graham, with humble duty, begs to lay before 
your Majesty the enclosed Memorial. 

The proceedings in Newgate on the occasion of the last 
condemned sermon and on the morning of the execution have 
been fully investigated ; ^ and the report established the 
necessity of legislative interference to prevent the recurrence 
of scenes so disgraceful and demoralising. The policy of 
depriving capital executions of their present publicity is well 
worthy of careful revision ; and Sir James Graham, in obe- 
dience to your Majesty's desire, will bring the subject under 
the notice of his colleagues. He is disposed to think that the 
sentence might be carried into execution in the presence of a 
Jury to be summoned by the Sheriff with good effect ; and 
that the great body of idle spectators might be excluded, with- 
out diminishing the salutary terror and awful warning which 
this extreme ptmishment is intended to produce on the public 
mind. In dealing, however, with a matter in which the com- 
mimity has so deep an interest, it is prudent not to violate 
public opinion, and caution is necessary before a change of 
the long-established usage is proposed." 

Sir James Graham deeply regrets the part taken by the 
newspapers in seeking to indulge the general curiosity with 
respect to all details of the conduct, habits, and demeanour 
of these wretched criminals in their last moments ; but he 
fears that the license of the Press caimot be checked by any 
act of authority ; if the public be excluded from witnessing 
the executions, they will probably become still more anxious 
to obt£un a printed report of all that has taken place ; and 
Sir James Graham is so thoroughly convinced that the punish- 
ment of death in certain cases must be maintained, that he 
would consider any course inexpedient which was likely to 

1 The attaractioii ihese executions had for the general public was at this time a great 
9 Public ezecutdons were abolished in 1868. 


lead the public to desire the remission of capital executions in 
all cases without exception. ... J. R. G. Graham. 

The King of the Belgians to Qiteen Victoria. 

LAEEEN, 21<< May 1845. 

My deabest and most beloved Victoria, — Receive my 
Buicerest and most heartfelt good wishes on the happy re- 
appearance of your birthday. I need not dwell on my senti- 
ments of devotion to you ; they began with your life, and 
wiU only end vnth mine. The only claim I make is to be 
remembered with some little affection. Thank heaven, I have 
little to wish you, than that your present happiness may not 
be disturbed, and that those who are dear to you may be 
preserved for your happiness. 

My gift is Charlotte's portrait. The face is extremely like, 
and the likest that exists ; the hair is a little too fair, it had 
become also darker. I take this opportunity to repeat that 
Charlotte was a noble-minded and highly gifted creature. 
She was nervous, as all the family have been ; she could be 
violent, but then she was full of repentance for it, and her 
disposition highly generous and susceptible of great devotion. 

I am the more bound to say this, as I understood that you 
had some notion that she had been very imperious, and not 
mistress of her temper. Before her marriage some people by 
dint of flattery had tried to give her masculine tastes ; and in 
short had pushed her to become one day a sort of Queen 
Elizabeth. These sentiments were already a little modified 
before her marriage. But she was particularly determined to 
be a good and obedient wife ; some of her friends were anxious 
she should not ; amongst these Madame de Flahaut must be 
mentioned en premiere ligne. 

This became even a subject which severed the intimacy be- 
tween them. Madame de Flahaut, much older than Charlotte, 
and of a sour and determined character, had gained an influence 
which partook on Charlotte's part a little of fear. She was 
afraid of her, but when once supported took courage. 

People were much struck on the 2nd of May 1816 at Carlton 
House with the clearness and firmness with which she pro- 
nounced " and obey,'' etc., as there had been a general belief 
that it would be for the husband to give these promises. The 
Regent put me particularly on my guard, and said, " If you 
don't resist she will govern you with a high hand." Your 
own experience has convinced you that real affection changes 


many sentiments that may have been implanted into the 
mind of a young girl. With Charlotte it was the more meri- 
torious, as from a very early period of her life she was con- 
sidered as the heiress of the Crown ; the Whigs flattered her 
extremely, and later, when she got by my intervention recon- 
ciled to the Tories, they also made great efforts to please her. 

Her understanding was extremely good ; she knew every- 
body, and I even afterwards found her judgment generally 
extremely correct. She had read a great deal and knew wdl 
what she had read. Generous she was almost too much, and her 
devotion was quite affecting, from a chararcter so much pushed 
to be selfish and imperious. 

I will here end my souvenir of poor dear Charlotte, but I 
thought that the subject could not but be interesting to you. 
Her constancy in wishing to marry me, which she maintained 
under difficulties of every description, has been the foundation 
of all that touched the family afterwards. You know, I 
believe, that your poor father was the chief promoter, though 
also the Yorks were ; but our correspondence from 1814 till 
1816 was entirely carried on through his kind intervention ; 
it would otherwise have been impossible, as she was really 
treated as a sort of prisoner. Grant always to that good and 
generous Charlotte, who sleeps already with her beautiful 
Httle boy so long, where all will go to, an affectionate remem- 
brance, and believe me she deserves it. 

Forgive my long letter, and see in it, what it really is, a 
token of the great affection I have for you. Ever, my dearest 
Victoria, your devoted Uncle. Leopold R. 

Queen Victoria to Sir Robert Peel. 

WIND60B OASTLE, 12th June 1845. 

The Queen understands that the Deanery of Worcester has 
become vacant by some new arrangement. Believing that 
Sir Robert's brother, Mr John Peel, has a fair claim to such 
preferment, but being afraid that Sir Robert would perhaps 
hesitate to recommend him on account of his near relationship 
to him, the Queen wishes to offer herself this Deanery through 
Sir Robert to his brother. 

Sir Robert Ped to Queen Victoria. 

Windsor Oastle, 12th June 1845. 

Sir Robert Peel, with his humble duty to your Majesty, 
hastens to acknowledge your Majesty's most kind and con- 


edderate communication, and to express his grateful acknow- 
ledgments for it. 

He mtist, in justice to his brother, assure your Majesty that 
he never has expressed, and probably never would express, a 
wish to Sir Bobert Peel on the subject of preferment in the 

Sir Robert Peel might have hesitated to bring the name of 
one so nearly connected with him under the notice of your 
Majesty, but as his brother was highly distinguished in his 
academical career at Oxford, and is greatly respected for the 
discharge of every professional duty. Sir Robert Peel could not 
feel himself just&ed in offering an impediment to the fulfil- 
ment of your Majesty's gracious intentions in his favour, if, 
when the vacancy shall have actually occurred in the Deanery 
of Worcester, no superior claim should be preferred.^ 

Lord Stanley to Queen Victoria. 

DOWNINQ Strebt, lOth July 1845. 

Lord Stanley, with his humble duty, submits to your 
Majesty a despatch just received from the Governor of South 
Australia, enclosing the letter of a settler in the province, 
Mr Walter Duffield, who is anxious to be allowed the honour of 
offering for your Majesty's acceptance a case of the first wine 
which has been made in the colony. 

Lord Stanley will not venture to answer for the quality of 
the vintage ; but as the wine has been sent over with a loyal 
and dutiful feeling, and the importer, as well as the colonists 
in general, might feel hurt by a refusal of his humble offering, 
he ventures to hope that he may be permitted to signify, 
through the Governor, your Majesty's grarcious acceptance of 
the first sample of a manufacture which, if successful, may add 
greatly to the resources of this young but now thriving colony. 

The above is humbly submitted by your Majesty's most 
dutiful Servant and Subject, Stanley. 

Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians, 

OSBORNE, 29th July 1845. 

My deabest Uncle, — ^Accept my best thanks for yoiu: very 
kind little note of the 26th. As Albert writes to you about the 

1 Dean Peel Uved till 1875. 

VOL. n 2* 

42 THE KING OF HOLLAND [chap, xrv 

King of Holland's visit * I wiU say but little, except that it 
really went off wonderfully well in our little house. We took 
him a sail in the Victoria and Albert on Saturday, which he 
admired amazingly, and after luncheon he went away, Albert 
taking him over to Gosport. He intends, I believe, to come 
here one morning for luncheon to take leave. He is grown old, 
and has lost all his front teeth, but he is as talkative and lively 
as he used to be, and seems very happy to be in England again. 
He was very anxious that we should pay him a visit this year, 
but was quite satisfied when we told him that this year it was 
impossible, but that we hoped some other time to do so. He 
was much struck at seeing me now independent and un- 
embarrassed, and talking ; as when he was here in 1836 ^ I 
was extremely crushed and kept under cuad hardly dared say 
a word, so that he was quite astonished. He thought me 
grown. Believe me, always, dearest Uncle, your devoted 
Niece, Victoria R. 

Qtisen Victoria to Viscount Melbourne. 

Osborne, Zlst Juty 1845. 

The Queen thanks Lord Melbourne very much for his last 
kind letter of the 11th, by which she was truly rejoiced to see 
lie was better. We are comfortably and peacefully established 
here since the 19th, and derive the greatest benefit, plecisure, 
«,nd satisfa<;tion from our little possession here. The dear 
Prince is constantly occupied in directing the many necessary 
improvements which are to be made, and in watching our new 
house, which is a constant interest and amusement. We are 
most anxiously waiting for the conclusion of the Session that 
we may set off on our much-wished-for journey to Germany. 
The Queen is extremely sorry to leave England without seeing 
Lord Melbourne, and without having seen him all this season ; 
but something or other always prevented us from seeing Lord 
Melbourne each time we hoped to do so. We only return the 
night before the Prorogation and embark that same day. We 
have the children here. We went to the Undercliff — Ventnor, 
Bonchurch, etc. — on Monday, and were much delighted with 
all we saw. We had a visit from the King of Holland last 
week, who is grown old, but otherwise just the same as he used 
to be. ^ 

1 This visit lasted ten days, and included a visit to Qoodwood races and a review of the 
Hoosehold troops in Hyde Park. His Majesty was also appointed a Field-Marshal. 

3 Ante^ vol. i. p. 47. He was thai Prince of Orange, and succeeded his father, who 
abdicated in his favour in 1840. 


The Queen joins with Lord Melbourne in unfeigned satis- 
faction at the success of the Irish measures, after so much 
factious opposition. Lord Grey's death ^ will have shocked 
Lord Melbourne, as it has us. Poor Lord Dunmore's death is 
a very shocking event. The Prince wishes to be most kindly 
remembered to Lord Melbourne. 

Sir Robert Peel to Queen Victoria. 

WHTTEKALL, 6th August 1846. 

Sir Robert Peel presents his humble duty to yoiu' Majesty, 
and begs leave to acquaint your Majesty that in the course of 
a long speech made by Lord John Russell last night, reviewing 
ttie policy of the Government and the proceedings of the 
Session, Lord John expressed himself strongly on the subject 
of your Majesty's absence from the country, without provision 
made for the exercise of the Royal authority by the appoint- 
ment of Lords Justices. 

Sir Robert Peel thinks it very probable that a motion will be 
made upon the subject in the course of the next Session — 
particularly in the event of any occurrence during your 
Majesty's absence, which might caiise public inconvenience 
from the want of immediate access to the Royal authority, or 
compel any assumption of power on the part of your Majesty's 
servants of a questionable character. 

The present Law Ofl&cers of the Crown were rather startled 
at the intention of departing from the precedent of George IV.'s 
reign, on seeing the legal opinions of their predecessors ; they 
did not differ from the legal doctrines laid down by them, but 
were not very well satisfied on the point of discretion and 

Sir Robert Peel feels it to be his duty to state to your 
Majesty what has passed on this subject, and to apprize your 
Majesty of the possibility of a question being hereafter raised 
in Parliament upon it. 

Sir Robert Peel thinks that in the case of a short absence, 
and a distance not precluding easy and rapid commimication 
with your Majesty, the appointment of Lords Justices may be 
dispensed with ; but he is humbly of opinion that were the 
distance greater or the period of absence longer than that 
contemplated by your Majesty, the rea.sons for the nomination 
of Lords Justices would preponderate. 

1 Charles, second Earl Grey, had been Prime Minister, 1830-1834. 

44 VISIT TO THE ChAtEAU D'EU [chap, xnr 

Should the subject be again mentioned in Parliament and 
a direct question be put upon it. Sir Robert Peel will, of 
course, assume the entire responsibility for the non-appoint- 
ment of Lords Justices ; vindicating the departure from the 
precedent of George IV. on the ground of the shorter period 
of absence and the more easy means of communication. > . • • 

The Earl of Aberdeen to Sir Robert Ped. 

Ghatbau D'EU, Sth SeptenAer 1845. 

My deab Peel, — ^We left Antwerp very early yesterday 
morning, and anchored for a few hours off Flushing.' We 
passing down the Channel during the night, and as the weather 
was perfectly bright and fine, found ourselves off Tr6port 
before nine o'clock this morning. The King came off to the 
yacht, and took the Queen in his bcu^ to land. I need not say 
how joyfully she was received by all the Royal Family. 

Although I shall have opportimities, both this evening and 
to-morrow morning, of specddng again with the King and 
Guizot, I have already discussed several subjects with each of 
them ; and as the Queen particularly desires to send a mes- 
senger this evening, I will give you some notion of what has 
passed between us. 

I think the marriage of the Queen of Spain is the subject on 
which the greatest interest is felt at this moment. It was the 
first introduced, both by the King and Guizot, and treated by 
both in the same manner. They said, that having promised 
to support the King of Naples, they were bound not to abandon 
the Count de Trapani, so long as there was a chance of his beiog 
successful in his suit. I said in answer to their desire, that we 
would assist this airangement, that we had no objection to 
Count Trapani, and that we would take no pc^t against him ; 
but imless it should be the decided wish of the Spanish Govern- 
ment and people, we could give no support to the marriage, 
as we were honestly of opinion that it was not desired in Spain, 
and that we saw nothing in the proposal to call for our support 
under these circumstances. Both the King and Guizot scdd 

1 The Qneen was accompanied by a Secretary of State (Lord Aberdeen), so that an act 
of State coald be performed as well abroad as at home ; see Life of the Frinoe Coruortt 
vol. i. p. 272. 

2 Fsurliament was prorogued on the 9th of August, and the Queen and Prince safled 
in the evening for Antwerp in the Royal yacht. Sir Theodore Martin gives a very full 
description of the visit to Ck>barg. The Qneen was e^edally delighted with the Bosenan 
and Beinhardtsbninn. On the morning of the 8th of S^tember the yacht, which had left 
the Scheldt on the previous evening, arrived at Tr6port, and a second visit was paid to 
the King and Queen of the French at the Chateau d'Bu. 


they had no objection to the Duke of Saville ^ (Don Enrique), 
and that if it should be found that Count Trapani was im- 
possible, they would willingly support him. 

With respect to the Infanta, they both declared in the most 
positive and explicit manner, that urUU the Qtieen was married 
and had children^ they should consider the Infanta precisely 
as her sister, and that any marriage with a French Prince 
would be entirely out of the question. The King said he did 
not wish that his son should have the prospect of being on the 
throne of Spain ; but that if the Queen had children, by whom 
the succession would be secured, he did not engage to pre- 
clude himself from the possibility of profiting by the great in- 
heritance which the Infanta would bring lus son. All this, 
however, was uncertain, and would require time at all events 
to accomplish ; for I distinctly understood, that it was not only 
a marriage and a child, but children, that were necessary to 
secure the succession. 

I thought this was as much a.s we could desire at present, and 
that the policy of a marriage with a French Prince might safely 
be left to be considered whenever the contingency contem- 
plated should arrive. Many things may happen, both in 
France and Spain, in the course of a few years to affect this 
question in a manner not now appeurent. Aberdeen. 

Sir Robert Peel to Queen Victoria. 

OSBOBNB, 16th September 1846. 

Sir Robert Peel, with his humble duty to your Majesty, begs 
leave to acquaint your Majesty that there remedns the sum of 
£700 to be applied in the current year to the grant of Civil 
List Pensions. 

Sir Robert Peel humbly recommends to your Majesty that 
another sum of £200 should be offered to Mr Tennyson, a poet 
of whose powers of imagination €Uid expression many com- 
petent judges think most highly. 

He was brought under the notice of Sir Robert Peel by 
Mr Hallam. His pecuniary circumsteuices are far from being 

There is a vacancy in the Deanery of Lincoln, but the pre- 
ferment is less eligible from there being no residence, and the 
necessity for building one at the immediate expense of the new 

1 Yoanger son of Don Frandaco de Paula, and fiist ooosin to Queea Isabella, botii 
through hia father and his mother. 


Sir Robei*t Peel is inclined to recommend to your Majesty 
that an offer of this preferment should be made to Mr Ward, 
the Rector of St James's. 

Should Mr Ward decline, there is a clergyman of the name 
of Maiirice/ of whom the Archbishop says : "Of unbeneficed 
London clergy there is no one, I believe, who is so much dis- 
tinguished by his learning and literary talent as the Rev. 
Frederick Maurice, Chaplain of St Guy's Hospital. His 
private character is equally estimable." 

Should Mr Ward decline * the Deanery it might, should your 
Majesty approve of it, be offered to Mr Maurice. The Arch- 
bishop says that the appointment of Mr Maurice would be 
very gratifying to the King of Prussia. 

The King of the Belgians to Queen Victoria, 

St Gloxtd, l(kh OOdber 1845. 

My deabest Victoria, — . . . All you say about our dear 
Albert, whom I love like my own child, is perfectly true. The 
atta<2ks, however unJTist, have but one advantage, that of 
showing the points the enemy thinks weakest and best calcu- 
lated to hurt. This, being the case, Anson, without boring A. 
with daily accounts which in the end become very irksome, 
should pay attention to these very points, and contribute to 
avoid what may be turned to account by the enemy. To hope 
to esoape censure and calumny is next to impossible, but what- 
ever is considered by the enemy as a fit subject for attsM^k is 
better modified or avoided. The dealings with artists, for in- 
stance, require great prudence ; they are acquainted with all 
cl£isses of society, and for that very rea.son dangerous ; they are 
hardly ever satisfied, and when you have too much to do with 
them, you are sure to have des ennuis. . . . Your devoted 
Uncle, Leopold R. 

Queen Victoria to Lord Stanley. 

Windsor Castle, 2nd November 1846. 

The Queen has read with great concern Lord Stanley's letter 
of the 1st November. From private information she had been 
led to expect that Lord Metcalfe would not be able to continue 

1 Frederick Denison Maurice (1805-1872), the friend of Kingsley, afterwards Ohaplain 
of St. Peter's, Vere Street. 

2 Mr Ward accepted the Deanery. 


at his irksome post.^ He will be an immense loss, and the 
selection of a successor will be most difficult. The Queen hopes 
that there will not be too great a delay in making the new 
appointment, as experience has shown that nothing was more 
detrimental to the good government of Canada than the last 
interregnum after Sir Charles Bagot's death ; it would cer- 
tainly likewise be desirable that Lord Metcalfe should be able 
personally to make over his Government to his successor,, 
whom he could verbally better put in possession of the pecu- 
liarities of his position than any instructions could do. It 
strikes the Queen to be of the greatest importance, that the 
judicious system pursued by Lord Metcalfe (and which, after 
a long continuation of toil and adversities, only now just 
begins to show its effect) should be followed up by his successor. 
The Queen knows nobody who would be as fit for the 
appointment as Lord Elgin, who seems to have given great 
satisfaction in Jamaica, where he has already succeeded Lord 
Metcalfe, whose original appointment there had likewise taken 
place under circumstances of great difficulty, which his pru- 
dence and firmness finally overcame.^ 

Queen Victoria to Sir Robert Peel. 

Osborne, 2Sth November 1845. 

The Queen is very sorry to hecur that Sir Robert Peel ap- 
prehends further differences of opinion in the Cabinet, at a 
moment of impending calamity ; it is more than ever neces- 
sary that the Government should be strong and united. 

The Queen thinks the time is come when a removal of the 
restrictions upon the importation of food caiuiot be success- 
fully resisted. Should this be Sir Robert's own opinion, the 
Queen very much hopes that none of his colleagues will prevent 
him from doing what it is right to do. 

Sir Robert Peel to Queen Victoria. 

WHirEHALL, ith December 1845. 

Sir Robert Peel, with his humble duty to your Majesty, begs 
leave to acquaint your Majesty that a leading paragraph in the 

1 He retired from the Governor-Generalship of Canada through ill-health, 
a Lord Stanley, in reply, submitted a private letter from Lord Elgin, expressing a wish 
(o return home ; Earl Gathcart was provisionally appointed Govemor-G^ieral. 

48 THE CORN LAWS [chap, xiv 

Times of to-day, asserting that your Majesty's servants had 
unanimously agreed to an immediate and total repeal of the 
Ck)m Laws, is quite without foundation.^ 

Sir Robert Peel to Queen Victoria.^ 

WHTTKHATiL, Uh December 1845. 
(Friday evening.) 

Sir Robert Peel presents his humble duty to your Majesty, 
and will wait upon your Majesty to-morrow evening, leaving 
London by the half -past twelve train. 

Sir Robert Peel will avail himself of your Majesty's kind 
proposal to remain at Osborne until Monday morning. 

He will come to Osborne with a heart full of gratitude and 
devotion to your Majesty, but with a strong conviction (all 
the grounds for which he will, with your Majesty's permission, 
explain to your Majesty) that in the present state of affairs, he 
can render more service to your Majesty and to the country in 
a private than in a public station. 

Memorandum by the Prince Albert, 

OSBORNB, 1th December 1845. 

On receiving the preceding letter • ... we were, of course, 
in great consternation. Yesterday Sir Robert Peel arrived 
here and explained the condition of affairs. 

On 1st November he h£ul called his Cabinet, and placed 
before its members the reports of the Lrish Commissioners, Dr 
Buckland, Dr Playfair and Dr Lindley, on the condition of the 
potato crop, which w£is to the effect that the half of the pota- 
toes were ruined by the rot, and that no one could guarantee 
the remainder. Belgium, Holland, Sweden, and Denmark, in 
which states the potato diseckse h£ul likewise deprived the 
poorer clckss of its usual food, have immediately taken energetic 
means, and have opened the harbours, bought corn, and pro- 

1 See Memoir* of the Life */ Henry Reeve^ toI. i. p. 175, for Lord DufCerin's refutation 
of the story that Sidney Herbert confided the secret to Mrs Norton, and that she sold it to 
the Times, The story has obtained a wide corrency through Mr Meredith's Diana of the 
Crosevays, Lord Stanmore, in his Life of Sidney Herbert^ substantially attributes the 
oommunicatimi to Lord Aberdeen, but does not give the details. 

S Peel reported to the Queen the Cabinet discussions on the Oom Law question. The 
Queen wrote that the news caused her much uneasiness, and that she felt certain that 
her Minister would not leare her at a moment of such difficulty, and when a crisis was 

d From Sir Bobert Feel, 5th December, ante. 


vided for the case of a rise of prices. Sir Robert proposed the 
same thing for England, and, by opening the ports, a pre- 
pcuration for the abolition of the Com Laws. His colleagues 
refused, and of the whole Cabinet only Lord Aberdeen, Sir 
James Graham, and Mr Sidney Herbert voted with him. Sir 
Robert hoped that in time the opinions of the others would 
change, and therefore postponed a final decision. In the 
meanwhile the agitation of the Anti-Corn Law League began ; 
in every town addresses were voted, meetings were held, 
the Times — ^barometer of public feeling — became suddenly 
violently Anti-Corn Law, the meetings of the Cabinet roused 
attention, a general panic seized on the mass of the public. 
Sir Robert called anew his Cabinet. In the midst of their 
deliberation Lord John Russell issues from Edinburgh an 
address to the City of London.^ 

The whole country cries out : the Com Laws are doomed. 

Thereon Sir Robert declared to his Cabinet that nothing but 
unanimity could save the cause, and pressed for a decision. 

The Duke of Buccleuch and Lord Stanley declared they 
could not take a part in a measure abolishing the Com Laws, 
and would therefore have to resign. The other members, in- 
cluding the Duke of Wellington, showed themselves ready to 
support Sir Robert, yet, as the latter says, " apparently not 
willingly and against their feelings." Thereupon Sir Robert 
resolved to lay down his office as Minister. 

When he arrived here he was visibly much moved, and said 
to me, that it was one of the most painful moments of his life 
to separate himself from us, ** but it is necessary, and if I have 
erred it was from loyalty and too great an anxiety not to leave 
Her Majesty in a moment of such great difficulty. I ought to 
have gone when I was first left by my colleagues in a minority 
in my own Cabinet. I was anxious, however, to try my 
utmost, but it is impossible to retrieve lost time. As soon as I 
saw Lord John's letter I felt that the ground was slipping away 
from under me, and that whatever I might now propose would 
appe€ur as dictated by the Opposition, as taking Lord John's 
measure. On the 1st of November the whole country was 
prepared for the thing ; there had been no agitation, every- 
body looking to the Government, as soon as they saw this 
wavering and hesitating, the country decided for itself, and 
Lord John has the merit, owing to his most dexterous move 
and our want of unanimity." 

On my observing that Sir Robert has a majority of one 
hundred in the House of Commons, and asking whether it 

1 Declaring for the Bepeal of the Oom Laws. 

60 INTERVIEW WITH PEEL [chap, xiv 

was not possible for him to continue the Government, he 
said : — 

** The Duke of Buccleuch will cany half Scotland with him, 
and Lord Stanley, leading the Protectionists in the House of 
Lords, would lead to great and inmiediate defections even in 
Her Majesty's household. The Duchess of Buccleuch, Lord 
Hardwicke, Lord Exeter, Lord Rivers, Lord Beverley, etc., 
would resign, and we should not be able to find successors ; 
in the House of Commons I am sure I should be beat, the 
Tories, agriculturists, etc., in rage would turn round upon me 
and be joined by the Whigs and Radicals, who would say, 
* This is our measure and we will not allow you to carry it.' 
It is better that I should go now, when nobody has committed 
himself in the heat of party contest, when no factions have been 
formed, no imprudent declarations been made ; it is better for 
Her Majesty and for the country that it should be so." 

After we had examined what possibilities were open for the 
Crown, the conclusion was come to that Lord John w€W the 
only man who could be charged with forming a Cabinet. Lord 
Stainley, with the aristocracy as his base, would bring about an 
insiurection [or riots], and the ground on which one would 
have to fight would be this : to want to force the mass of 
the people, amidst their great poverty, to pay for their bread 
a high price, in favour of the landlords. 

It is a matter of the utmost importance not to place the 
House of Lords into direct antagonism with the Conmions 
and with the masses of the people. Sir Robert says very 
correctly : — 

**I am afraid of other interests getting damaged in the 
struggle about the Com Laws ; already the system of promo- 
tion in the Army, the Game Laws, the Church, are getting 
attacked with the aid of the league." 

After Victoria had in consequence [of the foregoing] de- 
cided in favour of Lord John, and asked Sir Robert : " But 
how is it possible for him to govern with so exceedingly small a 
minority ? " Sir Robert said : ** He will have difficulties and 
perhaps did not consider what he was doing when he wrote that 
letter ; but I wiM support him. I feel it my duty to your 
Majesty not to leave you without a Government. Even if 
Lord John goes to the full extent of his declaration in that 
letter (which I think goes too far), I will support him in Parlia- 
ment and use all my influence with the House of Lords to pre- 
vent their impeding his progress. I will do more, if he Hkes 
it. I will say that the increase of the estimates which will 
become necessary are my work, and I alone am responsible 
for it." 


Sir Robert intends to give me a memorandum in which he 
is to make this promise in writing. 

He was greatly moved, and said it was not *^ the loss of 
power (for I hate power) nor of office," which was nothing but 
a plague for him, but *' the breaking up of those relations in 
which he stood to the Queen and me, and the loss of our 
society," which was for him a loss, for which there was no 
equivalent ; we might, however, rely on his being always ready 
to serve us, in what manner and in what place it might be. 
Lord Aberdeen is said to feel the same, and very deeply so ; 
and on our side the loss of two so estimable men, who possess 
our whole and perfect confidence in public as well as in private 
afiEairs, and have always proved themselves true friends, leaves 
a great gap, Albebt. 

Queen Victoria to Viscount Melbourne, 

Osborne, 7th December 1845. 

Sir Robert Peel has informed the Queen that in consequence 
of differences prevailing in the Cabinet, he is very reluctantly 
conapelled to solicit from the Queen the acceptance of his 
resignation, which she hcis as reluctantly accepted. 

From the Queen's unabated confidence in Lord Melbourne, 
her first impulse was to request his immediate attendance here 
that she might have the benefit of his assistance and advice, 
but on reflection the Queen does not think herself justified, in 
the present state of Lord Melbourne's health, to ask him to 
make the sctcrifice which the return to his former position of 
Prime Minister would, she fears, impose upon him. 

It is this consideration, and this alonCy that has induced the 
Queen to address to Lord John Russell the letter of which 
she sends a copy. The Queen hopes, however, that Lord 
Melbourne will not withhold from her new Government his 
advice, which would be so valuable to her. 

It is of the vimost importance that the whole of this com- 
munication should be kept a moat profound secret until the 
Queen has seen Lord John Russell. 

Memorandum by the Prince Albert. 

8/A December 1845. 

Sir Robert helped us in the composition of the letters to 
Lord John and to Lord Melbourne. We considered it necessary 


to write to the latter, in consideration of the confidential 
position which he formerly enjoyed. 

Sir Robert Peel has not resigned, thinking it a matter of 
great strength for the Sovereign to keep his ministry until a 
new one can be got. Albebt. 

Viscount Melbourne to Qu^en Victoria, 

BROCKET Hall, 9th December 1845. 

Lord Melbourne presents his humble duty to your Majesty ; 
he has just received your Majesty's letter of the 7th inst., 
which, of course, has astonished him by the magnitude of the 
event which it announces, although something of this sort has 
been long pending and to be expected. Lord Melbourne re- 
t\ims your Majesty many thanks for this communication, and 
more for your Majesty's great kindness and consideration for 
him personally at the present moment. He is better, but so 
long a journey would still not have been convenient to him, 
and he has such a horror of the sea, that a voyage from South- 
ampton to Cowes or from Portsmouth to Ryde seems to him in 
prospect as formidable sa a voyage across the Atlantic. 

Lord Melbourne will strictly observe your Majesty's in- 
junction of secrecy. 

With respect to the kind wishes about office which your 
Majesty is plea.sed to express. Lord Melbourne will of course 
give to your Majesty's new Government, if formed under Lord 
John Russell, all the support in his power, but as to taking 
office, he fears that he would find some difficulty. He would 
be very unwilling to come in pledged to a total and iiomediate 
reform of the Com Law, and he also strongly feels the difficulty 
which has in fact compelled Sir Robert Peel to retire, viz. 
the difficulty of carrying on the Government upon the principle 
of upholding ajid maintaining the present law with respect 
to corn. 

Lord Melbourne again thanks your Majesty for your great 
and considerate kindness. 

Sir Robert Peel to Qu^een Victoria. 

Whitehall, lOth December 1845. 

Sir Robert Peel presents his humble duty to your Majesty, 
and influenced by no other motive than the desire to contribute 
if possible to the relief of your Majesty from embarrassment. 


and the protection of the public interests from injury, is in- 
duced to make this confidential communication to your Majesty 
explanatory of his position and intentions with regard to the 
great question which is now agitating the public mind. 

Your Majesty can, if you think fit, make this communication 
known to the Minister who, as successor to Sir Robert Peel, 
may be honoured by your Majesty's confidence. 

On the first day of November last Sir Robert Peel advised 
his colleagues, on account of the alarming accounts from Ire- 
land and many districts of Great Britain as to the failure of the 
potato crop from disease, and for the purpose of guarding 
against contingencies which in his opinion were not improbable, 
humbly to recommend to your Majesty that the duties on the 
import of foreign grain should be suspended for a limited period 
either by Order in Council, or by Legislative Enactment, 
Parliament in either case being summoned without delay. 

Sir Robert Peel foresaw that this suspension, fully justified 
by the tenor of the reports to which he has referred, would 
compel, during the interval of suspension, the reconsideration 
of the Com Laws. 

If the opinions of his colleagues had been in concurrence 
with his own, he was fully prepared to take the responsibility 
of suspension, and of the necessary consequence of suspension, 
a comprehensive review of the laws imposing restrictions on 
the import of foreign grain and other articles of food, with a 
view to their gradual diminution and ultimate removal. He 
was disposed to recommend that any new laws to be enacted 
should contain within themselves the principle of gradual 
and ultimate removal. 

Sir Robert Peel is prepared to support in a private cap€w;ity 
measures which may be in general conformity with those which 
he advised as a Minister. 

It would be unbecoming in Sir Robert Peel to mak:e any 
reference to the details of such measures. 

Your Majesty has been good enough to inform him that it 
is your intention to propose to Lord John Russell to under- 
take the formation of a Government. 

The principle on which Sir Robert Peel was prepared to re- 
commend the reconsideration of the laws affecting the import 
of the main articles of food, was in general accordance with that 
referred to in the concluding paragraph of Lord John Russell's 
letter to the electors of the City of London.^ 

1 That paragrs^h urged that, with a revision of taxation to make the arrangement more 
equitable, and the safegoards suggested by caation and scnipaloas forbearance, restric- 
tions on the admisBioQ of the main articles of food and clothing used by the mass of the 
people should be remoyed. 


Sir Robert Peel wished to accompany the removal of re- 
strictions on the admission of such articles, with relief to the 
land from such charges as are unduly onerous, and with such 
other provisions as in the terms of Lord John Russell's letter 
" caution and even scrupulous forbearance may suggest." 

Sir Robert Peel will support measures founded on that 
general principle, and will exercise any influence he-may possess 
to promote their success. 

Sir Robert Peel feels it to be his duty to add, that should 
your Majesty's servants, after consideration of the heavy de- 
mands upon the Army of this country for colonial service, of 
our relations with the United States, and of the bearing which 
steam navigation may have upon maritime warfare, and the 
defence of the country, deem it advisable to propose an ad- 
dition to the Army, and increased naval and military estimates, 
Sir Robert Peel will support the proposal, will do all that he 
can to prevent it from being considered as indicative of hostile 
or altered feeling towards France, and will assume for the 
increase in question any degree of responsibility present or 
retrospective which can fairly attach to him. Robebt Peel. 

Lord Stanley to Queen Victoria. 

St James's Square, 11th December 1845. 

. . . Lord Stanley humbly hopes that he may be permitted 
to avail himself of this opportunity to express to your Majesty 
the deep regret and pain with which he has felt himself com- 
pelled to dissent from the advice intended to have been 
tendered to your Majesty on the subject of the Com Laws. He 
begs to assure your Majesty that he would have shrunk from 
making no personal sacrifice, short of that of principle, for the 
purpose of avoiding the inconvenience to your Majesty and to 
the country inseparable from any change of Administration ; 
but being unconvinced of the necessity of a change of policy 
involving an abandonment of opinions formerly maintained, 
and expectations held out to political supporters, he felt that 
the real interests of your Majesty's service could not be pro- 
moted by the loss of personal character which the sacrifice of 
his own convictions would necessarily have involved ; and 
that he might far more usefully serve your Majesty and the 
country out of office, than as the official advocate of a policy 
which he could not sincerely approve. Lord Stanley begs to 
Bdssure your Majesty that it will be his earnest endeavour to 
allay, as far as may lie in his power, the excitement which he 
cannot but foresee as the consequence of the contemplated 


change of policy ; and he ventures to indulge the hope that 
this long trespass upon your Majesty's much occupied time may 
find a sufficient apology in the deep anxiety which he feels 
that his r^ret at being compelled not only to retire from your 
Majesty's serivce, but also to take a step which he is aware 
may have had some influence on the course finally adopted by 
Sir Robert Peel, may not be still farther increased by the 
apprehension of having, in the performance of a most painful 
duty, incmred your Majesty's displeasure. All which is 
humbly submitted by your Majesty's most dutiful Servant 
and Subject, Stanley. 

QtLeen Victoria to Lord Stanley, 

Osborne, 12th December 1846. 

The Queen, of course, rrvuch regrets that Lord Stanley could 
not agree in the opinions of Sir Robert 'Peel upon a subject of 
such importance to the country. However, Lord Stanley may 
rest assured that the Queen gives full credit to the disinterested 
motives which guided Lord Stanley's conduct. 

Qtieen Victoria to the Duke of Wellington. 

OSBORNB, 12th December 1845. 

The Queen ha« to inform the Duke of Wellington that, in 
consequence of Sir Robert Peel's having declared to her his 
inability to carry on any longer the Government, she has sent 
for Lord John Russell, who is not able at present to state 
whether he can form an Administration, and is gone to Town in 
order to consult his friends. Whatever the result of his en- 
quiries may be, the Queen has a strong desire to see the Duke 
of Wellington remain at the head of her Army. The Queen 
appeals to the Duke's so often proved loyalty and attachment 
to her person, in asking him to give her this assurance. The 
Duke will thereby render the greatest service to the country 
and to her own person. 

TAe Duke of Wellington to Queen Victoria, 

Strathfieldsate, 12th December 1845. 
(11 at night.) 

Field-Marshal the Duke of Wellington presents his humble 
duty to your Majesty ; he has just now received your Majesty's 
commands from Osborne of this day's date. 

56 THE DUKE'S ADVICE [chap, xiv 

He humbly submits to your Majesty that the duties of the 
CJommander-in-Chief of your Majesty's Land Forces places 
him in constant confidential relations with all your Majesty's 
Ministers, and particularly with the one filling the office of 
First Lord of the Treasury. 

Under these circumstances he submits to your Majesty the 
counsel, that your Majesty would be graciously pleased to 
consult the nobleman or gentleman who should be your 
Majesty's first Minister, before any other step should be taken 
upon the subject. He might think that he had recison to 
complain if he should find that it was arranged that the Duke 
of Wellington should continue to fill the office of Commander- 
in-Chief, and such impression might have an influence upon 
his future relations with that office. 

Field-Marshal the Duke of Wellington believes that Lord 
John Russell and all your Majesty's former Ministers were 
aware, that during the whole period of the time during which 
Lord Hill was the General Conmianding-in-Chief your Majesty's 
Forces, the professional opinion and services of Field-Marshal 
the Duke of Wellington were at all times at the command and 
disposition of your Majesty's servants, and were given when- 
ever required. 

He happened to be at that time in political opposition to the 
Government in the House of Parliament, of which he waa a 
member ; but that circumstance made no difference. 

It is impossible for the Duke of Wellington to form a political 
connection with Lord John Russell, or to have any relation 
with the political course of the Government over which he 
should preside. 

Such arrangement would not conciliate public confidence, be 
considered creditable to either party, or be useful to the service 
of your Majesty. 

Nor, indeed, would the performance of the duties of the 
Commander-in-Chief of the Army require that such should 
exist ; on the other hand, the performance of these duties 
would require that the person filling the office should avoid 
to belong to, or to act in concert with, a political party opposed 
to the Government. 

Field-Marshal the Duke of Wellington has considered it his 
duty to submit these considerations, in order that your Majesty 
may be perfectly aware of the position in which he is about 
to place himself, in case Lord John Russell should counsel your 
Majesty to command Field-Marshal the Duke of Wellington to 
continue to hold the office of Commander-in-Chief of your 
Majesty's Land Forces. 

He at once submits to your Majesty the assurance that he 


will cheerfully devote his service to your Majesty's command 
upon receiving the official intimation thereof, and that he will 
as usual make every effort in his power to promote your 
Majesty's service. 

All of which is humbly submitted to your Majesty by your 
Majesty's most dutiful Subject and devoted Servcmt, 


The King of the French to Qiteen Victoria, 

St Cloud, le 16 Decembre 1846. 

Matiatvtw ma tbes Chebe Sgeub, — J'ai k remercier votre 
Majesty de I'excellente lettre que ma bonne C16m m'a remise 
de sa pcurt. Elle m'a 6t6 droit au coeur, et je ne saurais ex- 
primer k quel point j'ai 6t6 touch6 de vos bons voeux pour 
ma famille, et de tout ce que vous me temoignez sur Ta^ccroisse- 
ment qu'il a plu k la Providence de lui donner dans mes 
ome petite fits. 

Je me disposals k dire k votre Majesty que, quoiqu'avec un 
bien vif regret, je comprenais parfaitement les motifs qui vous 
portaient k remettre k une autre ann6e, cette visite si vivement 
d^sir^, et que j'esp^rais toujours trouver une compensation k 
cette privation, en allant de nouveau Lui offrir en Angleterre, 
Yhommage de tous les sentiments que je Lui porte, et qui 
m'attachent si profond^ment k Elle, ainsi qu'au Prince son 
Epoux, lorsque j'ai re^u la nouvelle de la demission de Sir 
Robert Peel, de Lord Aberdeen et de tous leurs Collogues. 
Je me flattais que ces Ministres qui s'^taient toujours si bien 
entendus avec les miens pour ^tablir entre nos deux Gouveme- 
ments, cette heureuse entente cordiaLe qui est la base du repos 
du monde et de la prosp6rit6 de nos pays, continueraient encore 
longtemps k I'entretenir, et k la consolider de plus en plus. 
Get espoir est d^gu ! ! ^ II faut s'y r^igner ; mais je suis 
empress^ d'assurer votre Majesty, que quel que soit son nouveau 
Ministdre, celui qui m'entoure aujourd'hui, et que je d6sire, 
et que j'espdre conserver longtemps, n'omettra aucun effort 
pour cultiver et maintenir cet heureux €w;cord qu'il est si 
dvidemment dans notre int^ret conmiun de conserver intsu^t. 

Dans de telles circonstances, il me devient doublement 
pr^eux d'etre uni k votre Majesty et au Prince Albert par 
t€uit de hens, et qu'il se soit form^ entre nous cet attachement 
mutuel, cette affection et cette confiance, qui sont au dessus 

1 The retom of Falmeiston to the Foreign Office was of coaiae dreaded by the Eiing and 


et ind^pendants de toute consideration politique ; mais qm 
pourront tou jours plus ou moins exercer une influence salutaire 
BUT Taction et la marche de nos deux Gouvernements. Aussi, 
je le dis & votre Majesty et k son Epoux avec un entier abandon, 
j'ai besoin de compter sur cette assistance occasionnelle, et j'y 
compte entidrement en vous demandant d' avoir la meme 
conflance de mon c6t6, et en vous r6p6tant que cette conflance 
ne sera pas plus d69ue dans Tavenir, qu'elle ne Ta 6t6 dans le 

Votre Majesty me permettra d'offrir ici au Prince Albert 
Fexpression de ma vive et sincere amiti6. Je la prie aussi de 
recevoir celle de Tinviolable attachement avec lequel je suis, 
Madame ma tres chere Soeur, de votre Majesty, le bon Frdre 
et bien fidele Ami, Louis Phtlippb R. 

Queen Victoria to Lord John RttsseU. 

WINDSOR Castle, 16th December 1845. 

The Queen has just received Lord John Russell's letter of 
this day's date,^ and considering that it is of great importance 
that no time should be lost, has immediately forwarded it to 
Sir Robert Peel. 

The Queen fully understands the motives which guide Lord 
John in using every effort to ensure the success of the great 
measure which is impending before he undertakes to form a 

The Queen sees from Lord John's second letter that he has 
taken a copy of Sir R. Peel's letter of the 15th to her. As she 
does not feel to have been authorised to allow this, the Queen 
hopes that in case Sir Robert should have an objection to it 
Lord John will not retain the copy. 

Qiceen Victoria to Sir Robert Peel. 

Windsor Castle, ISth December 1845. 

Lord John Russell returned at five this evening, and in- 
formed the Queen that after considerable discussion, and after 
a full consideration of his position, he will undertake to form a 

1 It is printed in the Annual Register^ 1846, p. 17. Lord John considered tiie temporary 
suspension or r^eal of duties, with the prospect of their re-imposition, open to grave 


As at present arranged, the Council is to be on Monday ; 
the Queen much wishing to have a parting interview with 
Sir R. Peel, however painful it will be to her, wishes Sir Robert 
Peel to inform her when he thinks it best to come down here.^ 

Memorandum hy the Prince Albert. 

Windsor Castle, 2Qth December 1845. 
(12 o'ctocjfc.) 

We just saw Lord John Russell, who came in order to ex- 
plain why he had to give up the task of forming a Government. 
He had written to all his former colleagues to join him in his 
attempt, cunongst others to Lord Grey, who answered, " that 
he could only belong to a Government which pledged itself to 
the principle of absolute free trade and abolition of all pro- 
tection ; that he had his own views upon the sugar question 
(as to which he advocated the admission of slave labour) and 
upon the Irish question (as to which his principle was to estab- 
lish entire religious equality) ; that he hoped that in the 
formation of a new Government no personal considerations 
e(hould stand in the way of a full attention to public Duty." 

Lord John replied that he advocated free trade, but as the 
immediate question before them was the Com Laws, he thought 
it wiser not to complicate this by other declarations which 
would produce a good deal of animosity ; that the sugar 
question and Ireland might be discussed in Cabinet when 
circumstances required it ; that he agreed entirely in the last 

After this Lord Grey declared himself quite satisfied. Lord 
John considered now with his colleagues the peculiar measure 
to be proposed, and Mr Baring thought he could arrange a 
financial scheme which would satisfy Lord Lansdowne's de- 
mands for relief to the landed interest. They all felt it their 
duty to answer the Queen's call upon them, though they very 
much disliked taking office under such peculiar difficulties. 
Now Lord John undertook to apportion the different offices. 
He saw Lord Palmerston, and told him that the Queen had 
some apprehension that his return to the Foreign Office might 
cause great alarm in other countries, and particularly in France, 
and that this feeling was still more strongly manifested in the 
city ; whether under these circiimstances he would prefer 
some other office — for instance, the Colonies ? Lord Palmer- 

1 Lord John Russell, however, found insaperable difficulties in forming the Cabinet : 
and, to quote Disraeli, " handed back with courtesy the poisoned chalice to Sir RoberL'* 

60 GREY AND PALMERSTON [chap, xiv 

ston declared that he was not at all anxious for office, and 
should much regret that his accession should in any way- 
embarrass Lord John ; that he was quite prepared to support 
him out of office, but that his taking another department than 
his former one would be a public recognition of the most un- 
just accusations that had been brought against him ; that he 
had evinced throughout a long official life his disposition for 
peace, and only in one instance broke with France ; ^ that 
that matter was gone by, and that nobody had stronger con- 
viction of the necessity to keep in amity with that Power than 
himself. Upon this Lord Jolm said that he could not form a 
Government without him, and showed himself quite satisfied 
with Lord Palmerston's declaration. 

Suddenly Lord Grey, who had heard of this, cried out : 
" This was an infringement of their compact " ; that no per- 
sonal consideration should interfere with the discharge of 
public duty, and that he must decline entering the Government, 
as he considered Lord Palmerston's return to the Foreign Office 
as fraught with danger to the peace of Europe. Lord John 
could not, under these circumstances, form a Government. 
He read to us a long letter from Lord Grey, written with the ' 
intention that it should be seen by the Queen, in which Lord 
Grey enters more fully into his motives, and finishes by saying 
that therefore lie was not answerable for the failure to form aa 

Lord John gave the Queen a written statement ^ of the 
causes which induced him to relinquish the Government, and 
of the position he means to assume in Parliament. (He is most 
anxious that Sir R. Peel should re-enter and successfully carry 
his measures.) 

The arrangements Lord John had contemplated have been — 

Lord Palmsbston, .... Foreign Secretary, 

Lord Grey, Colonial Secretary, 

Sir Geobge Gbey, .... Home Secretary, 

(Sir (xeorge was anxious later to retire from Parliament, and 
willing to go as Governor-General to Canada.) 

Mr Babino, . . Chancellor of the Exchequer. 
Lord Clarendon, . President of the Board of Trade, 

(The Vice-Presidency was to have been offered to his brother, 
Mr Villiers, but finally, by his advice, to Mr Cobden ! ! (Lord 

1 In reference to affairs in Syria in 1840. 

2 Lord Grey's attitude was condemned by Macaalay in a letter to a Mr Macfarlan, who 
onwisely communicated it to the Press. 

3 Printed in Atmudt Register, 1846, p. 20. 


Grey wanted Mr Cobden to be in the Cabinet ! ! !) This Lord 
John thought quite out of the question.) 

Lord Laitsdowne, . PreMerU of the Council, 

Memorandum by the Prince Albert. 

WINDSOR CASTLE, 20th December 1845. 
(4 o'clock P.M.) 

We saw Sir Robert Peel, who had been apprised by Sir 
James Graham (to whom Lord John Russell had written) of 
what had pckssed. He was much afiected, and expressed his 
concern at the failure of Lord John to form a Government, 
seemed hurt at Lord John's not having shown more confidence 
in the integrity of his (Sir Robert Peel's) motives. He would 
have supported Lord John in any measure which he should 
have thought fit to introduce, and many would have followed 
his example. He blamed the want of deference shown to the 
Queen, by not answering her call with more readiness ; he said 
it was quite new and unconstitutional for a man to take a week 
before he undertook to form a Government, and to pass that 
time in discussion with other people, to whom the Sovereign 
had not yet committed the task ; and he had been certain it 
would end so, when so many people were consulted. He in 
1834 had been called from Italy, had travelled with all haste 
and had gone straight to the King, had told him that he had 
seen nobody, consulted nobody, but immediately kissed the 
King's hand as his Minister. 

He was now prepared to stand by the Queen, all other con- 
siderations he had thrown aside, he would imdertake to deal 
with the difficulties, and should have to go down alone to the 
House of Commons. He had written to his colleagues that he 
would serve the Queen if she called upon him to do so, that he 
expected them to meet him at nine o'clock that evening, and 
that he would tell them what he meant to do. Those who 
would not go with him, he would dismiss at once. He did not 
wish to avail himself of any undue advantage, and therefore 
would not advise an Order in Council, but go at once to Parlia- 
ment, laying his measure before it : " Reject it, if you please ; 
there it is ! " 

He called the crisis an alarming one, which determination 
alone could overcome. 

We showed him Lord John Russell's statement, with which 
he declared himself very much satisfied. He advised the 
Queen to write a letter to Lord John, annoimcing to him Sir 
Robert's consent to go on with the Government, and wrote a 
draft of it, which follows here. 

62 PEEL RESUMES OFFICE [chap, xiv 

He had heard strange instances of disagreement amongst 
the men whom Lord John had ajssemoled in town. 

Sir Robert seemed throughout much moved, and said with 
much warmth : ** There is no sacrifice that I will not make for 
your Majesty, except that of my honour." 

Queen Victoria to Lord John Russell, 

Windsor Castle, 20th December 1845. 

Sir Robert Peel has just been here. He expressed great 
regret that Lord John Russell had felt it necessary to decline 
the formation of a Government. 

He said he should have acted towards Lord John Russell 
with the most scrupulous good faith, and that he should have 
done everjrthing in his power to give Lord John support. 

He thinks many would have been induced to follow his 

Sir Robert Peel did not hesitate a moment in withdrawing 
his offer of resignation. He said he felt it his duty at once to 
resume his office, though he is deeply sensible of the difficulties 
with which he has to contend. 

Sir Robert Peel to Queen Victoria, 

WHITEHALL, 21« December 1846. 

Sir Robert Peel presents his humble duty to your Majesty, 
and proceeds to give your Majesty an account of what has 
passed since he left your Majesty at four o'clock yesterday. 

The Cabinet met at Sir Robert Peel's house in Downing 
Street at half -past nine. 

Sir Robert Peel informed them that he had not summoned 
them for the purpose of deliberating on what was to be done, 
but for the purpose of announcing to them that he was your 
Majesty's Minister, and whether supported or not, was firmly 
resolved to meet Parliament as your Majesty's Minister, and to 
propose such measures as the public exigencies required. 

Failure or success must depend upon their decision, but 
nothing could shake Sir Robert Peel's determination to meet 
Parliament and to advise the Speech from the Throne. 

There was a dead silence, at length interrupted by Lord 
Stanley's declaring that he must persevere in resigning, that 
he thought the Com Law ought to be adhered to, and might 
have been maintained. 


The Duke of Wellington said he thought the Corn Law waa 
a subordinate consideration. He was delighted when he 
received Sir Robert Peel's letter that day, announcing to the 
Duke that his mind was made up to place his services at your 
Majesty's disposal. 

The Duke of Buccleuch behaved admirably — ^was much 
agitated — thought new circiimstances had arisen — ^would not 
then decide on resigning. 

Sir Robert Peel has received this morning the enclosed note 
from the Duke.^ 

He has written a reply very stroaigly to the Duke, stating 
that the present question is not one of Com Law, but whether 
your Majesty's former servants or Lord Grey and Mr Cobden 
shall constitute your Majesty's Government. Sir Robert Peel 
defied the wit of man to suggest now another alternative to 
your Majesty. 

Lord Aberdeen will see the Duke to-day. 

All the other members of the Government cordially ap- 
proved of Sir Robert Peel's determination not to abandon your 
Majesty's service. 

There was no question about details, but if there is any, it 
shall not alter Sir Robert Peel's course. 

The Duke of BuccUiuih to Sir Robert Peel. 

Montagu House, 20th December 1845. 

My deab Sib Robert, — ^That which has occurred this even- 
ing, and that which you have conmiunicated to us, the very 
critical state in which the country now is, and above all the 
duty which I owe to her Majesty under the present circum- 
stances, has made a most strong impression upon my mind. 
At the risk, therefore, of imputation of vacillation or of any 
other motive by others, may I ask of you to give me a few 
hours' time for further reflection, before finally deciding upon 
the course which I may feel it to be my duty to pursue ? 
Believe me, my dear Sir Robert, yours most sincerely, 


Sir Robert Peel to Queen Victoria, 

Whitbhall, 22nd December 1845. 

Sir Robert Peel presents his humble duty to your Majesty, 
and has the utmost satisfaction in informing your Majesty that 
1 See next lettet. 


Mr Gladstone is willing to accept the Seals of the Colonial 
Office should your Majesty be pleased to confide them to him.^ 
Sir Robert Peel thinks this of great importance, and that 
immediate decision in filling up so eminent a post will have a 
good effect. 

Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians, 

WINDSOR GASTLE, 23rd December 1845. 

My deabest Uncle, — ^Many thanks for your two kind letters 
of the 17th and 19th, which gave me much pleasure. I have 
little to add to Albert's letter of yesterday, except my extreme 
a*dmiration of our worthy Peel, who shows himself a man of 
imbounded loyalty, courage, patriotism, and high-mindedness, 
and his conduct towards me has been chivalrous almost, I 
might say. I never have seen him so excited or so deter- 
mined, and such a good cause must succeed. We have indeed 
had an escape, for though Lord John's oum noHons were very 
good and moderate, he let himself be entirely twisted and 
twirled about by his violent friends, and all the moderate ones 
were crushed. . . . Victoria R. 

Sir Robert Peel to the Prince Albert, 

Whitehall, 23rd December 1845. 

Sib, — ^I think Her Majesty and your Royal Highness will 
have been pleased with the progress I have made in execution 
of the great trust again conmiitted to me by Her Majesty. 

It will be of great importance to conciliate Lord Stanley's 
support out of office, to induce him to discourage hostile 

I would humbly recommend Her Majesty, when Her Majesty 
sees Lord Stanley to-day, to receive him with her usual kind- 
ness, to say that I had done full justice in my reports to Her 
Majesty to the motives by which he had been a<3tuated, and 
to the openness and frankness of his conduct, to regret greatly 
the loss of his services, but to hope that he might be still 
enabled not to oppose and even to promote the accomplish- 
ment of what cannot now be safely resisted. I have the honour 
to be, etc., etc., etc., Robert Peel. 

1 Mr Gladstone, by accepting office, vacated the seat at Newark which he had held 
through the inflaence of the Protectionist Duke of Newcastle. He did not seek re-eleotioo. 
and thoagh a Secretary of State, remained without a seat in Parliament. 


Memorandum by the Prince Albert, 

Windsor Oastlb, 26«A December 1845. 

We had a Council yesterday, at which Parliament was pro- 
rogued to the 22nd of January, then to meet for the despatch 
of business. Lord Stanley had an audience of the Queen 
before, and delivered up the Seals of his office. He was much 
agitated, and had told Sir Robert that he dreculed this inter- 
view very much. The Queen thanked him for his services, 
cuod bogged he would do his best out of office to smooth down 
the difficulties her Government would have to contend with. 
At the Council Lord Dalhousie took his seat, and Mr Gladstone 
received the Colonial Seals. The Queen saw the Duke of 
Buccleuch and thanked him for the devotion he had shown her 
during these trying circumstances ; the same to the Duke of 
Wellington, who is in excellent spirits. On my saying, ** You 
have such an influence over the House of Lords, that you will 
be able to keep them straight," he answered : " I'll do any- 
thing ; I am now beginning to write to them and to convince 
them singly of what their duty is." 

We saw afterwards Sir Robert Peel, who stayed more than 
three hours. He is in the highest spirits at having got Mr 
Gladstone and kept the Duke of Buccleuch ; he proposed that 
the Duke should be made President, and Lord Haddington 
Privy Seal in his stead. (Lord Haddington had behaved very 
well, had given up his place to Sir Robert, and told him he 
should do with him just as he liked — leave him out of the 
Cabinet, shift him to another place, or leave him at the 
Admiralty, as would suit him best.) 

Sir Robert hinted to Lord Ripon that Lord Haddington had 
behaved so well, but got no more out of him, but " that he 
would almost have done the same." Sir Robert proposes to 
see Lord Ellenborough in order to offer him the Admiralty, 
received the Queen's sanction likewise to Lord St Germans 
(the Postmaster-General) being put into the Cabinet. I said : 
" With your Government that has no inconvenience, and even 
if you had a hundred members in the Cabinet, as you don't 
tell them but what is absolutely necessary, and follow your 
own course." He said in reply, that he should be very sorry if 
he had to have told his Cabinet that he meant to send for Lord 
Ellenborough. We could not help contrasting this conduct 
with the subjection Lord John has shown to his people. It is 
to his own talent and firmness that Sir Robert wUl owe his 
success, which cannot fail. He said he had been determined 
not to go to a general election with the fetters the last election 

voii. n 3 

C6 THE CORN LAWS [chap, xiv 

had imposed upon him, and he had meant at the end of the 
next Session to call the whole Conservative Party together 
and to declare this to them, that he would not meet another 
Parliament pledged to the maintenance of the Corn Laws, 
which could be maintained no longer, and that he would ma«ke 
a public declaration to this effect before another general 
election came on. This hcwi been defeated by events comiog 
too suddenly upon him, and he had no alternative but to deal 
with the Com Laws before a national calamity would force it 
on. The league had made immense progress, and had enor- 
mous means at their disposal. If he had resigned in November, 
Lord Stanley and the I^otectionists would have been prepared 
to form a Government, and a Revolution might have been the 
consequence of it. Now they felt that it was too late. 

Sir Robert has an immense scheme in view ; he thinks he 
shall be able to remove the contest entirely from the dangerous 
ground upon which it has got — that of a war between the manu- 
facturers, the himgry and the poor against the landed pro- 
prietors, the aristocracy, which can only end ia the ruin of the 
latter ; he will not bring forward a measure upon the Corn 
Laws, but a much more comprehensive one. He will deal with 
the whole commercial system of the country. He will adopt 
the principle of the League, that of removing aU protection and 
aboUshing all monopoly, but not in favour of one class and as 
a triumph over another, but to the benefit of the nation, 
farmers as well as manufacturers. He would begia with 
cotton, and take in all the necessaries of life and com amongst 
them. The experiments he had made ia 1842 and 1846 with 
boldness but with caution had borne out the correctness of 
the principle : the wool duty was tcJsen off, and wool sold 
higher than ever before ; foreign cattle were let in, and the 
cattle of England stood better in the market than ever. He 
would not ask for compensation to the land, but wherever he 
could give it, and at the same time promote the social de- 
velopment, there he would do it, but on that ground. For 
instance, one of the greatest benefits to the country would be 
the establishment of a rural police on the same principle as the 
metropolitan police. By taking this on the Consolidated 
Fund, the landowners would be immensely relieved in all those 
counties which kept a police. One of the heaviest charges on 
the land was the present administration of law and the carrying 
on of prosecutions. Sir Robert could fancy this to be very 
much improved by the appointment of a pi^Uc prosecutor by 
the State, which would give the State a power to prevent 
vexatious, illegal, and immoral prosecutions, and reduce the 
expenses in an extraordinary degree. Part of the maintenance 


of the poor, according to the Poor Law, might be undertaken 
by the State. A great calamity must be foreseen, when the 
innumerable railroads now in progress shall have been ter- 
minated, which will be the case in a few years. This will 
throw an enormous labouring population suddenly out of 
employment. There might be a law passed which would 
provide employment for them, and improve the agriculture 
and production of the country, by enabling the State to ad- 
vance money to the great proprietors for the improvements of 
their estates, which they could not obtain otherwise without 
charging their estates beyond what they already have to bear. 
Sir Robert means to go with Mr Gladstone into all these 
details. AIiBEBT. 

Viscount Pahnerstan to Viscount Melbourne.^ 

BOWOOD, 26th December 1845. 

My deab Melboubne, — ^I return you with many thanks 
Creorge Anson's letter, which was enclosed in yours of the 23rd, 
which I received just €ts we were setting off for this place. 
Pray, when next you write to George Anson, say how gratefully 
I appreciate the kind consideration on the part of H.R.H. 
Prince Albert, which suggested George Anson's communica- 
tion. But I can cissure you that although John Russell, in his 
Audience of the Queen, may inadvertently have overstated 
the terms in which he had mentioned to me what Her Majesty 
had said to him about my return to the Foreign Office, yet in 
his conversations with me upon that subject he never said any- 
thing more than is contained in George Anson's letter to you ; 
and I am sure you will think that under all the circiimstances 
of the case he could hardly have avoided telling me thus much, 
and making me aware of the impression which seemed to exist 
upon the Queen's mind as to the way in which other persons 
might view my return to the Foreign Office. 

With regard to Her Majesty's own sentiments, I have always 
been convinced that Her Majesty knows me too well to believe 
for an instant that I do not attarch the greatest importance to 
the maintenance, not merely of pea.ce with all foreign countries, 
but of the most friendly relations with those leading Powers 
and States of the world with which serious differences would 
be attended with the most inconvenience. As to Peace, I 
succeeded, as the organ of Lord Grey's Government and of 

1 Submitted to the Queen by Lord Melboome. 


yours, in preserving it unbroken during ten years ^ of great 
and extraordinary difficulty ; and, if now and then it un- 
avoidably happened during that period of time, that in pur- 
suing the course of policy which seemed the best for British 
interests, we thwarted the views of this or that Foreign Power, 
and rendered them for the moment less friendly, I think I 
could prove that in every case the object which we were pur- 
suing was of sufficient importance to make it worth our while 
to submit to such temporary inconvenience. There never was 
indeed, during those ten years, any real danger of war except 
on three occasions ; and on each of those occasions the course 
pursued by the British Government prevented war. The first 
occasion was just after the accession of the King of the French, 
when Austria, Russia, and Prussia were disposed and pre- 
paring to attsrck France, and when the attitude assumed by the 
British Government prevented a rupture. The second was 
when England and France united by a Convention to wrest the 
Citadel of Antwerp from the Dutch, and to deliver it over to 
the King of the Belgians.' If England had not then joined 
with France, Antwerp would have remained with the Dutch, 
or the attempt to take it would have led to a war in Europe. 
The third occasion was when Mehemet All's army occupied 
Syria, and when he was constantly threatening to declare him- 
self independent and to march on Constantinople ; while 
Russia, on the one hand, asserted that if he did so she would 
occupy Constantinople, and on the other hand, France an- 
nounced that if Russia did so, she, France, would force the 
Dardanelles. The Treaty of July 1840, proposed and brought 
about by the British Government, and the operations in execu- 
tion of that Treaty, put an end to that danger ; and, not- 
withstanding what has often been said to the contrary, the real 
danger of war arising out of the affairs of Syria was put an end 
to, and not created by the Treaty of 1840. 

I am well aware, however, that some persons both at home 
and abroad have imbibed the notion that I am more indifferent 
than I ought to be as to running the risk of war. That im- 
pression abroad is founded upon an entire mistake, but is by 
some sincerely felt, and being sincere, would soon yield to the 
evidence of contradictory facts. At home that impression has 
been industriously propagated to a limited extent, partly by 
the legitimate attewsks of poHtical opponents, and partly by a 
little cabal within our own ranks. These parties wanted to 
attack me, and were obliged to accuse me of something. They 

1 1830-1834, and 1836-1841. 

3 The English and French came in 1832 to the assistance of the Belgians, who-fiome 
time before had entered Antwerp, but failed to take the OitadeL 


could not charge me with failure, because we had succeeded in 
all our undertakings, whether in Portugal, Spain, Belgium, 
Sjrria, China, or elsewhere ; they could not charge me with 
having involved the country in war, because, in fact, we had 
maintained peace ; and the only thing that was left for them 
to say was that my poUcy had a tendency to produce war, and 
I suppose they would argue that it was quite wrong and against 
all rule that it did not do so. 

But notwithstanding what may have been said on this 
matter, the transaction which has by some been the most 
criticised in this respect, namely, the Treaty of 1840, and the 
operations connectcKl with it, were entirely approved by the 
leaders of the then Opposition, who, so far from feeling any 
disposition to favour me, had always made a determined run 
at the Foreign Policy of the Whig Government. The Duke of 
Wellington, at the opening of the Session of 1841, said in the 
House of Lords that he entirely approved our policy in that 
transaction, and could not find that any fault had been com- 
mitted by us in working it out ; and I happen to know that Sir 
Robert Peel expressed to the representative of one of the Ger- 
man Powers, pcurties to the Alliance, his entire approval of our 
course, while Lord Aberdeen said to one of them, that the course 
I had taken in that affair made him forgive me many things of 
former years, which he had thought he never should have 

I am quite ashamed of the length to which this letter has 
grown, and shall only add, with reference to our relations with 
France, that I had some very friendly interviews with Thiers, 
who was my chief antagonist in 1840, and that although we did 
not enter into any conspiracy against Guizot and Peel, as the 
newspapers pretended, we parted on very good terms, and 
he promised to introduce me to all his friends whenever I 
should go to Paris, saying that of course Guizot would do me 
the same good office with his supporters. My dear Melbomme, 
yours affectionately, Palmebston. 

Qtieen Victoria to the King of ike French. 

Oh. DB W., U 30 Decembre 1845. 

SiBB BT MON TBB3 CHBB Fb^be, — Votro Majesty me par- 
donnera si je viens seulement maintenant vous remercier de 
tout mon coeur de votre lettre si bonne et si aimable du 16, 
mais vous savez combien j*6tais occup6e pendant ces demidres 
3 semaines. La Crise est pass^e et j*ai tout lieu de croire que 


le Gouvemement de Sir R. Peel va s'affermir de plus en plus, 
ce que je ne puis que d6sirer pour le bien-etre du pays. Je 
dois cependant dire k voire Majesty que si le Minist^re eut 
ch6uig6, j'ai la certitude que le nouveau se serait empress6 de 
maintenir, comme nous le d^irons si vivement, cette entente 
cordiale si heureusement 6tablie entre nos deux Gouveme- 

Permettez-moi, Sire, de vous offrir au nom d' Albert et au 
mien nos felicitations les plus sincdres k Tocceision de la nouvelle 
Ann6e, dans lequel vous nous donnez le doux espoir de vous 
revoir. Nous avons lu aveo beaucoup d'int6r§t le Speech de 
V.M., dans lequel vous parlez si aimablement du " friendly 
call " 4 Eu et des cooperations des 2 pays dans diff6rentes 
parties du monde, et particuli^rement pour TAbolition de la 
Traite des noirs. 

Ayez la gr&ce, Sire, de d6poser nos hommages et nos feli- 
citations aux pieds de la Reine et de votre Soeur. Agr^ez 
encore une fois, les expressions d*aniiti6 et d'attachement 
sincere avec lesquelles je suis. Sire et mon bien cher Fr^re, de 
votre Majeste, la bien bonne Sceur et fiddle Amie, 

ViCTomA R. 

Queen Victoria to the King of ihe Belgians, 

WINDSOR OASTLE, ZOth December 1845. 

My dearest Uncle, — ^Many thanks for your kind letter 
of the 27th, by which I see how glad you are at our good Peel 
being again — and I sincerely and confidently hope for many 
years — ^my Minister. I have heftrd many instances of the 
confidence the country and aU peui^ies have in Peel ; for 
instance, he was immensely cheered at Birmingham — a most 
Radical place ; and Joseph Hume expressed great distress 
when Peel resigned, and the greatest contempt for Lord John 
Russell. The Members of the Government have behaved ex- 
tremely well and with much disinterestedness. The Govern- 
ment has secured the services of Mr Gladstone and Lord 
Ellenborough,^ who will be of great use. Lord E. is become 
very quiet, and is a very good speaker. 

We had a very happy Christmas. This weather is ex- 
tremely unwholesome. Now, ever your devoted Niece, 

Victoria R. 

1 Lord EUenboroogh was one of the few OoDservatiye statesmea of the day who, after 
remainiiig faithfal to Sir Robert Feel till the middle of 1846, subseqaently threw in his 
fortones with Lord Derbv and Mr Disraeli He was President of the Board of Control 
with those Ministers in 1868 for the fourth time. 


The dosing days of the year 1845 had been marked by startling 
political events, and Lord John Russell's failure to form a Govern- 
ment, and Sir Robert Peel's resumption of office, with Mr Gladstone 
substituted for Lord Stanley, were now followed by the Ministerial 
measure for the Repeal of the Com Laws. Embarrassed as he now 
was by the attacks of his old supporters, led by Bentinck and Disraeli, 
Peel was supported whole*hecu:tedly but in a strictly constitutional 
manner by the Queen and the Prince. Amid bitter taunts, the 
Premier piloted the measure through Parlieunent, but on the night 
that it finally passed the Lords he was defeated on an Irish Coercion 
Bill by a f e^stious combination in the Commons between the Whigs 
and I^otectionists, and resigned. Lord John Russell on this occa- 
sion was able to form an administration, though he failed in his 
attempt to include in it some important members of the outgoing 

Thus, owing to the Irish famine, the Tory party which had come 
into power in 1841 with a majority of ninety to support the Com 
Laws, was shattered ; after Peel's defeat it became clear that no 
common action could take place between his supporters in the 
struggle of 1846 and men like Bentinck and Disraeli, who now 
became leaders of the Protectionist party. For the remainder of the 
year Peel was on the whole friendly to the Russell Government, his 
chief care being to maintain them in office as against the Protec- 

In India the British army was successful in its operations against 
the Sikhs, Sir Heury Smith defeating them at Aliwal, and Sir Hugh 
Gough at Sobraon. Our troops crossed the Sutlej, and terms of 
peckce were agreed on between Sir Henry Hardinge (who became a 
Viscount) and the Sirdars from Lahore, peace being signed on 
8th March. 

On the continent of Europe the most important events took plsice 
in the Peninsula. The selection of husbands for the Queen of Spain 
€uid her sister, which had so long been considered an international 
question, came at last to a crisis ; the policy of Great Britain h€ul 
been to leave the matter to the Spanish people, except in so iax as 
might be necessary to check the undue ambition of Louis Philippe ; 
and neither the Queen, Prince Albert, Peel, nor Aberdeen had in any 
way supported the candidature of Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg. 



It was common ground that no son of Louis Philippe should marry 
the Queen, but both that monarch and Guizot had further solemnly 
engaged at the Ch&teau d'Eu that no son should marry even the 
Infanta until the Queen was married and had children. The return 
of Palmerston to the Foreign Office, and his mention of Prince Leopold 
in a Foreign Office despatch as one of the candidates, gave the King 
and his Minister the pretext they required for repudiating their 
solemn undertaking. In defiance of good faith the engagements 
were simultaneously announced of the Queen to her cousin, Don 
Francisco de Asis, and of the Infanta to the Due de Montpensier, 
Don Francisco being a man of unattractive, even disagreeable 
queJities, and feeble in physique. By this unscrupulous proceeding 
Queen Victoria and the EngUsh nation were profoundly shocked. 

At the same time Queen Maria found some difficulty in main- 
taining her position in Portugal. She dismissed in a somewhat high- 
handed manner her Minister the Due de Palmella, and had to bear 
the brunt of an insurrection for several months : at the close of the 
year her arms were victorious at the lines of Torres Vedras, but the 
Civil War was not entirely brought to an end. 

In February a Polish insurrection broke out in Silesia, and the 
Austrian troops were driven from Cracow ; the rising was suppressed 
by Austria, Russia, and Prussia, who had been constituted the 
" Protecting Powers " of Cracow by the Treaty of Vienna. This 
unsuccessful attempt was seized upon as a pretext for destroying the 
separate nationality of Cracow, which was forthwith annexed to 
Austria. This unjustifiable act only beceune possible in consequence 
of the entente between England ajid France (equally peurties to the 
Treaty of Vienna) having been terminated by the affair of the 
Spanish marriages ; their formal but sepcurate protests were dis- 

There remains to be mentioned the dispute between Great Britain 
and the United States as to the Oregon boundary, which had as- 
sumed so ominous a phase in 1845. L^rd Aberdeen's last official aot 
was to announce in the Lords that a Convention, proposed by him- 
self for adjusting the question, had been accepted by the Americcui 



Queen Victoria to Sir Robert Peel, 

BUCKINGHAM PALAOB, 2Zrd January 1846. 

The Queen must compliment Sir Robert Peel on his beautiful 
and indeed unanawerMe speech of last night, which we have 
been reading with the greatest attention.^ The concluding 
part we also greatly admire. Sir R. Peel has made a very 
strong case. Surely the impression which it has made must 
have been a good one. Lord John's explanation ia a fair one ; * 
the Queen has not a doubt that he will support Sir Robert Peel. 

He has indeed pledged himself to it. He does not give a 
very satisfactory explanation of the causes of his failure, but 
perhaps he could not do so without exposing Lord Palmerston. 

What does Sir Robert think of the temper of the House of 
Conmions, and of the debate in the House of Lords ? The 
debates not being adjourned ia a good thing. The crowd was 
inmiense out-of-doors yesterday, and we were never better 

Sir Henry Hardinge to Queen Victoria.^ 

Gamp, Lulliaitek, 24 miles from Lahore, 
ISth February 1846. 

The territory which it is proposed should be ceded in per- 
petuity to your Majesty is a fine district between the Rivers 

1 The Qaeen had opened Parliament in person ; the Prime Minister took the unosaal 
coarse of speaking immediately c^ter the seconder of tiie Address, and in his peroration, 
after laying stress on the responsibilities he was incurring, proceeded : " I do not desire 
to be Minister of England ; but while I am Minister of England I will hold office by no 
aoT-ile tenore ; I will hold office unshackled by any other obligation than that of consult- 
ing the public interests and providing for the public safety." 

3 He explained that the attitude of Lord Grey made the difficulties attending the forma- 
tion of a Whig Ministry insuperable. 

3 The Sikhs were defeated at Sobraon on 10th February bj; the British troops under 
Sir Hugh Ghsogh, reinfcnced by Sir Harry Smith, fresh from his victory at Aliwal. See 
p. 71. 

VOL. n 73 3* 


Sutlej and Beas, throwing our frontier forward, within 30 
miles of Amritsfiur, so as to have 50 miles of British territory 
in front of Loodiana, which, relatively with Ferozepore, is so 
weak, that it appeared desirable to the Gk)vemor-General to 
improve our frontier on its weakest side, to curb the Sikhs by an 
easy approach towards Amritsar across the Beas River instead 
of the Sutlej — ^to round off our hill possessions near Simla — 
to weaken the Sikh State which has proved itself to be too 
strong — and to show to all Asia that although the British 
Government has not deemed it expedient to annex this 
inmiense country of the Punjab, making the Indus the British 
boundary, it has pimished the treachery and violence of the 
Sikh nation, and exhibited its powers in a manner which 
ca«nnot be misunderstood. For the same political and military 
reason, the Governor-General hopes to be able before the 
negotiations are closed to make arrangements by which Cash- 
mere may be added to the possessions of Gholab Singh, de- 
claring the Rajpoot Hill States with Cashmere independent 
of the Sikhs of the Plains. The Sikhs declare their inability 
to pay the indemnity of one million and a half, and will 
probably offer Cashmere as an equivalent. In this case, if 
Gholab Singh pays the money demanded for the expenses 
of the war, the district of Cashmere will be ceded by the 
British to him, and the Raj all become one of the Princes of 

There are difficulties in the way of this arrangement, but 
considering the military power which the Sikh nation has 
exhibited of bringing into the field 80,000 men and 300 pieces 
of field artillery, it appears to the Governor-General most 
politic to diminish the means of this warlike people to repeat 
a similar aggression. The nation is in fact a dangerous military 
Republic on our weakest frontier. If the British Army had 
been defeated, the Sikhs, through the Protected States, which 
would have risen in their favour in case of a reverse, would 
have captured Delhi, and a people having 50,000 regulctr troops 
ajid 300 pieces of field artillery in a standing permanent camp 
within 50 miles of Ferozepore, is a state of things that cannot 
be tolerated for the future. ... 

The energy and intrepidity displayed by your Majesty's 
Commander-in-Chief, Sir Hugh Gough, his readiness to carry 
on the service in cordial co-operation with the Governor- 
General, and the marked bravery and invincibility of your 
Majesty's English troops, have overcome many serious 
obstacles, and the precautions taken have been such that no 
disaster or failure, however trifling, has attended the arduous 
efforts of your Majesty's Arms. 


Qiteen Victoria to the King of the Belgians. 

OSBORNE, 3rd March 1846. 

My dearest Uncle, — ^I hasten to thank you for a most dear 
and kind letter of the 28th, which I received this morning. 
You know how I love and esteem my dearest Louise ; she is 
the dearest friend, after my beloved Albert", I have. 

I wish you could be here, and hope you will come here for 
a few days during your stay, to see the innumerable alterations 
and improvements which have taken place. My dearest 
Albert is so happy here, out all day planting, directing, etc., 
and it is so good for him. It is a relief to be away from all 
the bitterness which people create for themselves in London. 
Peel has a very anxious and a very peculiar position, and it 
la the force of circumstances and the great energy he alone 
possesses which will carry him through the Session. He cer- 
tainly a.cts a most disinterested part, for did he not feel {as 
every one who is fully acquainted with the real state of the 
country must feel) that the line he pursues is the only right and 
sound one for the welfare of this country, he never would have 
exposed himseK to all the annoyance and pain of being attsrcked 
by his friends. He was, however, determined to have done 
this before the next general election, but the alarming state of 
distress in Ireland forced him to do it now. I must, however, 
leave him to explain to you fully himself the peculieur circum- 
stances of the present very irregular state of affairs. His 
majority was not a certain one last year, for on Maynooth, 
upwards of a hundred of his followers voted against him. 

The state of affairs in India is very serious. I am glad you 
do justice to the bravery of our good people. 

Queen Victoria to Sir Henry Hardinge. 

OSBORNE, 4th March 1846. 

The Queen is anxious to seize the first opportunity of ex- 
pressing to Sir Henry Hardinge, her admiration of his conduct 
on the last most trying occasion, and of the courage and 
gallantry of the officers and men who had so severe a contest 
to endure.^ Their conduct has been in every way worthy of 
the British name, and both the Prince and Queen are deeply 
impressed with it. The severe loss we have sustained in so 
many brave officers and men is very painful, and must alloy 

1 At JkCoodkee on 18th December, and Ferozeshah on 21st and 22nd December. 


the satisfaction every one feels at the brilliant successes of our 
Arms. Most deeply do we lament the death of Sir Robert 
Sale, Sir John M*Caskill,i and Major Broadfoot,* and most 
deeply do we sympathise with that high-minded woman, Lady 
Sale, who has had the misfortune to lose her husband less than 
three years after she was released from captivity and restored 
to him. 

We are truly rejoiced to hear that Sir H. Hardinge's health 
has not suffered, and that he and his brave son have been so 
mercifully preserved. The Queen will look forward with great 
anxiety to the next news from India. 

Memorandum by the Prince Albert. 

Buckingham Palacb, 1st AprU 1846. 

I saw this day Sir R. Peel, and showed him a memorandum^ 
which I had drawn up respecting our conversation of the 30th. 

It filled six sheets, and contained, as minutely as I could 
render it, the whole of the arguments we had gone through. 
Sir Robert read it through and over again, and, after a long 
pause, said : "I was not awctre when I spoke to your Royal 
Highness that my words would be taken down, and don't 
acknowledge that this is a fair representation of my opinion." 
He was visibly uneasy, and added, if he knew that what he 
said should be committed to paper, he would speak differently, 
and give his opinion with aU the circumspection and reserve 
which a Minister ought to employ when he gave responsible 
advice ; but he had in this instance spoken quite unreservedly, 
like an advocate defending a point in debate, and then he had 
taken another and tried to carry this a.s far as it would go, in 
order to give me an opportunity of judging of the different 
bearings of the question. He did so often in the Cabinet, when 
they discussed important questions, and was often asked : 
*' Well, then, you are quite against this measure ? " " Not at all, 
but I want that the counter argument should be gone into to the 
fuUest extent, in order that the Cabinet should not take a one- 
sided view." 

He viewed the existence of such a paper with much un- 
easiness, as it might appear as if he had left this before going 
out of ofl&ce in order to prepossess the Queen against the 
measures, which her future Minister might propose to her, and 
so lay Secretly the foundation of his fall. The existence of 

1 Who had commanded a brigade under Pollock in the second Afghan campaign. 
3 Major Oeocge Broadfoot, C.B., Political Agent on the north-western frontier. 


such a paper might cause great embarrassment to the Queen ; 
if she followed the advice of a Minister who proposed measures 
hostile to the Irish Church, it might be said, she knew what she 
undertook, for Sir R. Peel had warned her and left on record 
the serious objections that attached to the measure. 

I said that I felt it to be of the greatest importance to possess 
his views on the question, but that I thought I would not have 
been justified in keeping a record of our conversation without 
showing it to him, and asking him whether I had rightly under- 
stood him ; but if he felt a moment's uneasiness about this 
memorandum, I would at once destroy it, as I was anxious that 
nothing should prevent his speaking without the slightest 
reserve to me in future as he had done heretofore. I felt that 
these open discussions were of the greatest use to me in my 
endeavour to investigate the different political questions of 
the day and to form a conclusive opinion upon them. As Sir 
Robert did not say a word to dissuade me, I took it as an 
affirmative, and thiew the memorandum into the fire, which, 
I could see, relieved Sir Robert. Albebt. 

Mr Oladstone to Qiteen Victoria. 

13 Gabuton House terrace, lat April 1846. 

Mr Willicun Glcklstone presents his humble duty to your 
Majesty, and prays that he may be honoured with your 
Majesty's permission to direct that the Pctrk and Tower Guns 
may be fired forthwith in celebration of the victory which was 
acMeved by your Majesty's forces over the Sikh army in 
Sobraon on the 10th of February.^ 

Queen Victoria to Sir Henry Hardinge, 

Buckingham Palace, 6th AprU 1846. 

The Queen must write a line to Sir Henry Heurdinge in order 
to express her extreme satisfaction at the brilliant ajid happy 
termination of our severe contest with the Sikhs, which he 
communicated to her in his long and interesting letter of the 
18th and 19th February. The Queen much admires the skill 
and valour with which their difficult operations have been 
conducted, and knows how much she owes to Sir Henry 

1 In S^tember 1882 Mr Gladstone quoted this as a precedent for firing the Park Gtins 
after the victory of Tel-el-Eebir. See Life of Right Hon. Hugh C, E, CMldert, by Oolonel 
amdeiB, O.B., B.E., vol. ii. p. 127. 


Hardinge's exertions. The Queen hopes that he will see 
an aclmowledgment of this in the communication she has 
ordered to be made to him relative to his elevation to the 

The Prince, who fully knows all the Queen's feelings on this 
glorious occasion, wishes to be named to Sir Henry Hardinge. 

The King of the French to Queen Victoria, 

PARIS, 5 Mai 1846. 

Madame sia tbes chebe Sceub, — Quand le 1" de Mai, au 
moment ou j'allais commencer les nombreuses et longues 
receptions de mon jour de fete, on m'a remis la lettre si gra- 
cieuse que votre Majesty a eu Faimable attention de m'6crire de 
manidre k ce que je la re9oive ce jour 14, j'en ai 6t6 p6n6tr6, et 
j'ai pens6 tout de suite aux paroles du Menuet d'Iphig6nie 
comme exprimant le remerciment qu'd. mon grand regret, je 
ne pouvais que sentir, et non exprimer par 6crit dans un pareil 
moment. J'ai done fait chercher tout de suite la partition de 
ce menuet, et celles du Choeur du meme Op6ra de Gliick 
" Chantons, ceLebrona notre Reine / " mais on n'a pu, ou pas su 
se les procurer, et j'ai du me contenter de les avoir arranges 
pour le piano dans un livre (pas meme relie) qui a au moins 
pour excuse de contenir toute la musique de cet Op6ra. Je 
Tai mis dans une grande enveloppe adress6e k votre Majesty 
et j'ai fait prier Lord Cowley de I'exp^dier par le premier 
Courier qui pourrait s'en charger, comme D6peche, afin 
d'6viter ces postages dont Lord Liverpool m'a r6v616 1'^tonnaiit 

Que vous dirai-je, Madame, sur tous les sentiments dont m'a 
p6n6tr6 cette nouvelle marque d'amiti6 de votre part ? Vous 
connaissez celle que je vous porte, et combien elle est vive et 
sincere. J'esp^re bien que Fannie ne s'6coulera pas sans que 
j'aie 6t6 presenter mes hommages k votre Majesty. . . . 

Tout ce que j'entends, tout ce que je recueille, me donne de 
plus en plus I'esp^rance que la crise Parlementaire dans laquelle 
le Ministere de votre Majesty se trouve engage, se terminera, 
comme Elle sait que je le desire vivement, c'est-li-dire que Sir 
Robert Peel, Lord Aberdeen, etc., will hold fast, et qu'ils seront 
encore ses Ministres quand j'aurai le bonheur de Lui faire ma 
Cour. Je vois avec plaisir que ce voeu est k peu pres g6n6ral en 
France, et qu'il se manifesto de plus en plus. . . . 

Que votre Majesty me permette d'ofErir ici au Prince Albert 
I'expression de ma plus tendre amiti6, et qu'elle veuille bien 


me croire pour la vie, Madame ma tres chere Soeur, de votre 
Majesty, le bon Frere et bien fidele Ami, Louis Phtlipfe, K. 

J'ai vol6 ces feuilles de papier k ma bomie Heine pour 
^happer aux reproches trop bien fond^ que Lord Aberdeen a 
faits k la demiere foumiture dont je me suis servi. 

Sir Robert Ped to Queen Victoria, 

HOUSB OF OOMMONS, \2th June 1846. 
(Friday Night.) 

Sir Robert Peel, with his humble duty to your Majesty, begs 
leave to a^squcdnt your Majesty that no progress has been made 
to-night with the Irish Bill.^ 

On reading the order of the day Sir Robert Peel took that 
opportunity of defending himself from the accusations* 
brought forwfitrd by Lord George Bentinck and Mr Disra.eli 
against Sir Robert Peel for transa<5tions that took place twenty 
years since. The debate on this preliminary question lasted 
until nearly half -past eleven. 

Like every unjust and malignant attack, this, according to 
Sir Robert Peel's impressions, recoiled upon its authors. 

He thinks the House was completely satisfied. Lord John 
Russell and Lord Morpeth behaved very well. 

The vindictive motive of the attarck was apparent to all 
but a few Protectionists. 

Sir Robert Peel to Queen Victoria. 

WHTTEHAliL, 22nd June 1846. 

Sir Robert Peel presents his humble duty to your Majesty, 
and assures your Majesty that he is penetrated with a deep 
sense of your Majesty's great kindness and your Majesty's 
generous sympathy with himself and Lady Peel. 

Sir Robert Peel firmly believes that the recent attack made 
upon him was the result of a foul conspira<jy concocted by 
Mr Disra.eli and Lord George Bentinck, in the hope and belief 
that from the lapse of time or want of leisure in Sir Robert 
Peel to coUect materials for his defence, or the destruction of 
documents and papers, the means of complete refutation 
might be wanting. . . . 

1 In consequence of a serious increase of crime in Ireland, a Coercion Bill had been 

2 This refers to the Catholic Emancipation discussions of 1827, when Bentinck and 
Disraeli accused Feel of having hounded Canning to death. 

80 ATTACK ON PEEL [chap, xv 

He hopes, however, he had sufficient proof to demonstrate 
the falseness of the accusation, and the malignant motives of 
the a^ccusers. 

He is deeply grateful to your Majesty and to the Prince for 
the kind interest you have manifested during the progress of 
this arduous struggle, which now he trusts is approaching to a 
successful termination. 

Sir Robert Peel to Queen Victoria, 

DOWNING Street, 26/A Jum 1846. 
(Ttoo o'dock.y 

Sir Robert Peel, with his humble duty to your Majesty, begs 
leave to acquaint your Majesty that the members of the 
Government met in Cabinet to-day at one. 

Sir Robert Peel is just retmned from this meeting. 

He stated to the Cabinet that after the event of yesterday 
(the rejection of the Irish Bill by so large a majority as 73) he 
felt it to be his duty as head of the Government humbly to 
tender his resignation of office to your Majesty. He added 
that, feeling no assurance that the result of a Dissolution would 
be to give a majority agreeing with the Government in general 
principles of policy, and sufficient in amount to enable the 
Government to conduct the business of the country with 
credit to themselves and satisfaction to your Majesty and the 
public at laxge, he could not advise your Majesty to dissolve 
the Parliament. 

Sir Robert Peel said that, in his opinion, the Government 
generally ought to resign, but his mind was made up as to 
his own course. 

There was not a dissenting voice that it was the duty of the 
€k)vemment to tender their resignation to your Majesty, and 
for the reasons stated by Sir Robert Peel, not to advise dis- 
solution. If Sir Robert Peel does not receive your Majesty's 
commands to wait upon your Majesty in the course of to-day. 
Sir Robert Peel wiU be at Osborne about half-past three 

Memorandum by the Prince Albert. 

OSBORNE HOUSE, 28lA June 1846. 

Sir Robert Peel arrived yesterday evening and tendered his 
resignation. He is evidently much relieved in quitting a post. 


the labours and anxieties of which seem almost too much for 
anybody to bear, and which in these last six months were 
particularly onerous. In fact, he said that he would not have 
been able to stand it much longer. Nothing, however, would 
have induced him to give way before he had passed the Com 
Bill and the Tariff.^ The majority upon the Irish Bill was 
much larger than any one had expected ; Sir Robert was glad 
of this, however, as it convinced lus coUeagues of the necessity 
of resigning. He told them at the Cabinet that, as for himself 
personally, he had made up his mind to resign, and on being 
asked what he advised his Cabinet to do, he recommended 
them to do the same, which received general concurrence. 
The last weeks had not been without some intrigue. There 
was a party headed by Lord Ellenborough and Lord Brougham, 
who wished Sir Robert and Sir James Graham to retire, and for 
the rest of the Cabinet to reunite with the Protection section of 
the Conservatives, and to carry on the Government. Lord 
Ellenborough and Lord Brougham had in December last 
settled to head the Protectionists, but this combination had 
been broken up by Lord Ellenborough's acceptance of the 
post of First Lord of the Admiralty ; Lord Brougham then 
declared for free trade, perhaps in order to follow Lord Ellen- 
borough into office. The Duke of Wellington had been for 
dissolution till he saw the complete disorganisation of his 
party in the House of Lords. The Whigs, having been beat 
twice the evening before by large majorities on the Roman 
Catholic Bill, had made every exertion on the Coercion Bill, 
and the majoHty was still increased by Sir Robert's advising 
the Free Traders and Radicals, who had intended to stay away 
in order not to endanger Sir Robert's Government, not to do so 
as they would not be able to save him. Seventy Protec- 
tionists voted with the majority. 

Before leaving Town Sir R. Peel addressed a letter to Lord 
John Russell, informing him that he was going to the Isle of 
Wight in order to tender his and his colleagues' resignation to 
the Queen, that he did not the le€»t know what Her Majesty's 
intentions were, but that in case she should send for Lord John, 
he (Sir Robert) was ready to see Lord John (should he wish it), 
and give him any explanation as to the state of public affairs 
and Parliamentary business which he could desire. Sir Robert 
thought thereby, without in the least committing the Queen, 
to indicate to Lord John that he had nothing to fear on his 
part, and that, on the contrary, he could reckon upon his 
assistance in starting the Queen's new Government. He hoped 

1 Bt a zemarkable caincidience the Oom Bill passed ihroDgh the Lords on the same night 
that the Ministry were defeated in the Commons. 


likewise that this would tend to dispel a clamour for dissolution 
which the Whigs have raised, alarmed by their defeats upon 
the Catholic BiU. AiiBEBT. 

Sir Robert Fed to Queen Victoria. 

House of Commons, 2%th June 1846. 

Sir Robert Feel, with his humble duty to your Majesty, begs 
leave to CMsquaint your Majesty that he has just concluded his 
speech notifying to the House the resignation of the Grovem- 

He thinks it was very well received.* Lord Palmerston 
spoke after Sir Robert Peel, but not very effectively, but no 
other person spoke. Sir Robert Peel is to see Lord John 
Russell at ten to-morrow morning. 

Sir Robert Peel humbly congratulates your Majesty on the 
intelligence received this day from America. The defeat of the 
Grovemment on the day on which they carried the Com Bill, 
and the receipt of the intelligence from America ^ on the day 
on which they resign, are siii^gular coincidences. 

The Bishop of Oxford^ to Mr Anson. 

61 EATON FLACBy29<A June 1846. 

My deab Anson, — ^Your kind letter reached me half an 
hour ago whilst Sir T. Acland was sitting with me ; and I must 
say a few words in reply by the early post. I went down to 
hear Peel in the House of Commons, and very fine it was. The 
House crowded. Peers and Ambassadors filling every seat and 
overfiowing into the House. Soon after six all private business 
was over ; Peel not come in, all waiting, no one rose for any- 
thing ; for ten minutes this la.sted : then Peel came in, walked 
up the House : colder, dryer, more introverted than ever, 
yet to a close gaze showing the fullest working of a smothered 
volcano of emotions. He was out of breath with walking and 

1 He eroressed his hope to be remembered with goodwill " in the abodes of those whose 
lot it is to kiboar, and to earn their daily bread by the sweat of their brows, when they shall 
recruit their e^iaosted staivngth with abundant and untaxed food, the sweeter because 
no longer leavened with a sense of injustice." 

2 The Convention for adjusting the dispute as to the Oregon boundary haa been 
accepted by the United States Government, 

3 Dr S. wilberf oroe. 


sat down on the Treasury Bench (placing a small despatch box 
with the Oregon despatches on the table) as he would be fully 
himself before he rose. By-and-by he rose, amidst a breath- 
less silence, and made the speech you will have read long ere 
this. It was very fine : very effective : really almost solemn : 
to fall at such a moment. He spoke £is if it was his last 
political scene : as if he felt that between alienated friends and 
unwon foes he could have no party again ; and could only as a 
shrewd bystander observe and advise others. There was but 
one point in the Speech which I thought doubtful : the apos- 
trophe to " Kichanl Cobden." ^ I think it was wrong, though 
there is very much to be said for it. The opening of the 
American peetce was noble ; but for the future, what have we 
to look to ? Already there are whispers of Palmerston and 
War ; the Whig budget and deficiency. The first great ques- 
tion all men ask is : does Lord John come in, lecuiing on 
Radical or Conservative aid ? Is Hawes to be in the Cabinet ? 
the first Dissenter ? the first tradesman ? the Irish Church ? 
I wish you were near enough to talk to, though even then you 
would know too much that must not be known for a comfort- 
able talk. But I shall hope soon to see you ; and am. always, 
my dear Anson, very sincerely and affectionately yours, 


Memorandttm by the Prince Albert, 

Osborne House, ZOth June 1846. 

Lord John Russell arrived here this afternoon ; he has seen 
Sir Robert Peel this morning, and is prepared to undertake the 
formation of a Government which he thinks will stand ; at 
least, for the present session he anticipates no difficulty, as 
Sir R. Peel has professed himself ready not to obstruct its 
progress, and as the Protectionists have held a meeting on 
Saturday at which Lord Stanley has declared that he would 
let this Government go on smoothly unless the word " Irish 
Church " was pronounced. About men and offices. Lord John 
has consulted with Lord Lansdowne, Palmerston, Clarendon, 
and Cottenham, who were of opinion that the Liberal members 
of Sir Robert's Cabinet ought to be induced to retain office 

1 *' Sir, the name which ought to be, and which will be, assodated with the i 
pt these measures, is the name of a man who, acting, I believe, from pure and disinterested 
motives, has advocated their cause with untiring energy, and by appeals to reason, enforced 
by an eloquence the more to be admired because it was unaffected and unadorned — ^the 
name which ought to be and which will be associated with the success of these measures 
is the name of Bichard Oobden." 

84 THE NEW GOVERNMENT [chap, xv 

xinder Lord John, viz. Lord Dalhousie, Lord Lincoln, and Mr 
Sidney Herbert. Sir Robert Peel at the interview of this 
morning had stated to Lord John that he would not consider 
it as an attempt to draw his supporters away from him (it not 
being his intention to form a party), and that he would not 
dissuade them from accepting the offer, but that he feared 
that they would not accept. We concurred in this opinion, 
but Lord John was authorised by Victoria to make the offer. 
Mr F. Baring, the Chancellor of the Exchequer under the late 
Whig Government, has intimated to Lord John that he would 
prefer if no offer of office was made to him ; Lord John would 
therefore recommend Mr Chctrles Wood for this office. Lord 
Grey was still a difficulty ; in or out of office he seemed to be 
made a difficulty. It would be desirable to have him in the 
Cabinet if he could waive his opinions upon the Irish Church. 
His speech in the House of Lords ^ at the beginning of the 
session had done much harm, had been very extreme, and Lord 
John was decidedly against him in that. Lord Grey knew 
that everybody blamed it, but said everybody would be of 
those (his) opinions ten years hence, and therefore he might 
just as well hold them now. Mr Wood having great in- 
fluence with him might keep him quiet, and so would the 
Colonial seals, as he would get work enough. About Lord 
Palmerston, he is satisfied, and would no more make any 

Lord John Russell told me in the evening that he had for- 
gotten to mention one subject to the Queen : it was that Sir 
Robert Peel by his speech and his special mention of Mr 
Cobden as the person who had carried the great measure, had 
made it very difficult for Lord John not to offer office to Mr 
Cobden. The Whigs were already accused of being exclusive, 
and reaping the harvest of other people's work. The only 
thing he could offer would be a Cabinet office. Now this would 
affront a great many people whom he (Lord J.) had to con- 
ciliate, and create even possibly dissension in his Cabinet. 
As Mr Cobden was going on the Continent for a year. Lord John 
was cwivised by Lord Clarendon to write to Mr C, and tell him 
that he had heard he was going abroad, that he would not 
make any offer to him therefore, but that he considered him as 
entitled once to be recommended for office to the Queen. 
This he would do, with the Queen's permission. . . . 

1 On the 23rd of March, in the course of a long speech on the state of Ireland, Earl Gr^ 
had contrasted the poyertj of the Roman Oatholic Ghurch in that coantry with the 
affluence pf the Establishment, diyerted, as he said, by the superior power of England from 
its original objects ; adding that the Protestant Church was regarded by the great mass 
of the Irish people as an active cause of oppression and misery. 


Queen Victoria to Sir Robert Peel. 

OSBORNE, l8t July 1846. 

The Queen returns these letters, with her best thanks. 
The settlement of the Oregon question has given us the greatest 
satisfaction. It does seem strange that at the moment of 
triumph the Government should have to resign. The Queen 
recul Sir Robert Peel's speech with great admiration. The 
Queen seizes this opportunity (though she will see Sir Robert 
again) of expressing her deep concern at losing his services, 
which she regrets a.s much for the Country as for herself and 
the Prince. In whatever position Sir Robert Peel may be, we 
shall ever look on him as a kind and true friend, and ever have 
the greatest esteem and regard for him as a Minister and as a 
private individual. 

The Queen will not say anything about what passed at Lord 
John Russell's interview, as the Prince haa already written to 
Sir Robert. She does not think, however, that he mentioned 
the wish Lord John expressed that Lord Liverpool should 
retain his oflfice, which however (much as we should personaUy 
like it) we think he would not do. 

What does Sir Robert hear of the Protectionists, and what 
do his own followers say to the state of affairs ? 

Memorandum by the Prince Albert. 

Buckingham Palace, 6th Jvly 1846. 

Yesterday the new Ministry were installed at a Privy Council, 
and the Seals of Office transferred to them. We had a long 
conversation with Sir Robert Peel, who took leave. I men- 
tioned to him that his word of " Richard Cobden " had 
created an immense sensation, but he was not inclined to enter 
upon the subject. When we begged him to do nothing which 
could widen the breach between him and his party, he said, 
" I don't think that we can ever get together again." He 
repeated that he was anxious not to undertake a Government 
again, that his health would not stand it, that it was better 
likewise for the Queen's service that other, younger men should 
be brought forward. Sir Robert, Lord Aberdeen, and Sir 
James GrcJiam parted with great emotion, and had tears in 
their eyes when they thanked the Queen for her confidence and 
support. Lord Aberdeen means to have an interview with 
Lord Palmerston, and says that when he (Lord A.) came into 
office. Lord Palmerston and the Chronicle assailed him most 

86 WHIG JEALOUSIES [chap, xv 

bitterly as an imbecile Minister, a traitor to his country, etc., 
etc. He means now to show Liord P. the contrast by declaring 
his readiness to assist him in every way he can by his advice, 
that he would at all times speak to him as if he was his colleague 
if he wished it. 

The new Court is nearly completed, and we have succeeded 
in obtaining a very respectable and proper one, notwith- 
NStanding the run which the Party made upon it which had been 
formerly used to settle these matters, to tJieir liking only. 
The Government is not a united one, however, by any mecuis. 
Mr Wood and Lord Clarendon take the greatest credit in having 
induced Lord Grey to join the Grovemment,* and are respon- 
sible to Lord John to keep him quiet, which they think they will 
be able to do, as he had been convinced of the folly of his 
former line of conduct. Still, they say Lord Lcuisdowne will 
have the lead only nominally, that Lord Grey is to take it 
really in the House of Lords. There is the Orey Party, con- 
sisting of Lord Grey, Lord Clarendon, Sir George Grey, and 
Mr Wood ; they are against Lord Lcuisdowne, Lord Minto, 
Lord Auckland, and Sir John Hobhouse, stigmatising them as 
old women. Lord John leans entirely to the last-named 
gentlemen. There is no cordiality between Lord John and 
Lord Palmerston, who, if he had to make a choice, would even 
forget what passed in December last, and join the Grey Party 
in preference to Lord John personally. The curious part of 
all this is that they cannot keep a secret, and speak of all their 
differences. They got the Times over by giving it exclusive 
information, and the leading articles are sent in and praise 
the new Cabinet, but the wicked paper added immediately a 
furious attack upon Sir John Hobhouse, which alarmed them 
so much that they sent to Sir John, sounding him, whether he 
would be hereafter prepared to relinquish the Board of Control. 
(This, however, is a mere personal matter of Mr Walter, who 
stood against Sir John at Nottingham in 1841 and was un- 
seated.) Sir John Easthope, the proprietor of the Morning 
Chronicle, complains bitterly of the subserviency to the Times 
and treason to him. He says he knows that the information 
was sent from Lord John's house, and threatens revenge. 
** If you will be ruled by the Times," he said to one of the 
Cabinet, " the Times has shown you already by a specimen 
that you will be ruled by a rod of iron." 

A Brevet for the Army and Navy is proposed, in order to 
satisfy Lord Anglesey with the dignity of Field-Marshal. 


1 In q)ite of the oppoeition of the latter to Palmerston's re-appointment to the Foreign 
OfBce. See ante, p. CO. 


The Protectionists, 150 strong, including Peers and M.P/s, 
are to give a dinner to Lord Stanley at Greenwich, at which he 
is to announce his opinions upon the line they are to take. 
Lord George Bentinck is there to lay down the lead which the 
Party insisted upon. Who is to follow him as their leader in 
the Commons nobody knows. 

Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians. 

BUGEINQHAM PALAOB, 7th July 1846. 

My dbahest Uncle, — I have to thank you for your kind 
letter of the 3rd. It arrived yesterday, which was a very hard 
day for me. I had to part with Sir R. Peel and Lord Aberdeen, 
who are irreparable losses to us and the Country ; they were 
both so much overcome that it quite overset me, and we have 
in them two devoted friends. We felt so safe with them. 
Never, during the five years that they were with me, did they 
ever recommend a person or a thing which w€« not for my or 
the Country's best, and never for the Party's advantage only ; 
and the contrast now is very striking ; there is much less respect 
and much less high and pure feeling. Then the discretion of 
Peel, I believe, is unexampled. 

Stockmar has, I know, explcuned to you the state of affairs, 
which is unexampled, and I think the present Government 
i>ery weak suid extremely disunited. What may appear to you 
as a mistake in November was an inevitable evil. Aberdeen 
very truly explained it yesterday. *' We had ill luck," he said ; 
" if it had not been for this famine in Ireland, which rendered 
immediate measures necessajry. Sir Robert would have pre- 
pared them gradually for the change." Then, besides, the 
Com Law Agitation was such that if Peel had not wisely made 
this chcmge (for which the whole Country blesses him), a con- 
vulsion would shortly have taken place, £uid we should have 
been forced to yield what has been grsuited as a boon. No 
doubt the breaking up of the Party (which vnll come together 
again, whether under Peel or some one else) is a very distressing 
thing. The only thing to be regretted, and I do not know 
exactly why he did it (though we can guess), was his praise of 
Cobden, which has shocked people a good deal. 

But I can't tell you how sad I can to lose Aberdeen ; you 
can't think what a delightful companion he was ; the breaking 
up of all this intercourse during our journeys, etc., is deplorable. 

We have contrived to get a very respectable Court. 

Albert's use to me, and I may say to the Country, by his 

88 THE QUEEN'S ANXIETY [chap, xv 

firmness and sagacity, is beyond all belief in these moments 
of trial. 

We are all well, but I am, of course, a good deal overset by 
all these tribulations. 

Ever your devoted Niece, Vicjtobia R. 

I w€U3 much touched to see Graham so very much overcome 
at taking leave of us. 

Queen Victoria to Viscount Hardinge, 


The Queen thanks Lord Hardinge for his interesting com- 
munications. Lord Hardinge will have learnt all that has 
taken place in the Country ; one of the most brilliant Govern- 
ments this (Country ever had has fallen at the moment of 
victory ! The Queen has now, besides mourning over this 
event, the anxiety of having to see the Government carried on 
as efficiently s& possible, for the welfare of the Country. The 
Queen would find a guarantee for the accomplishment of this 
object in Lord Hardinge's consenting to continue at the head 
of the Government of India, where great experiments have 
been made which require unity of purpose and system to be 
cajnried out successfull5^ 

Qtieen Victoria to Lord John Russell. 

Osborne, 10;^ JiUy 1846. 

. . . The Queen approves of the pensions proposed by Lord 
J. Russell, though she cannot conceal from him that she 
thinks the one to Father Mathew a doubtful proceeding. It is 
quite true that he has done much good by prea<;hing temper- 
smce, but by the aid of superstition, which can hardly be 
patronised by the Crown.* 

The Queen is sure that Lord John will like her at all times 
to speak out her mind, and has, therefore, done so without 

Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians, 

OSBORNE, 14ih Jidy 1846. 

My dearest Uncle, — ^We are very happily established here 
since Thursday, and have beautiful weather for this truly 

1 The pension was, however, granted. 


enjoyable place ; we drive, walk, and sit out — and the nights 
are so fine. I long for you to be here. It has quite restored 
my spirits, which were much shaken by the sad leave-takings 
in London— of Sir R. Peel, Lord Aberdeen, Lord Liverpool, etc. 
Lord L. could not weU have stayed. Lord Aberdeen was very 
much overset. 

The present Government is weak, and I think Lord J. does 
not possess the talent of keeping his people together. Most 
people think, however, that they will get through this Session ; 
the only question of difficulty is the siigar question. 

I think that the King of the French's visit is more than ever 
desirable — now ; for if he were to be shy of coming, it would 
prove to the world that this new Government was hostile, and 
the entente cordude no longer sure. Pray impress this on the 
King — and I hope and heg he will let the dear Nemours pay 
us a little visit in November. It would have the best effect, and 
be so pleasant, as we are so dull in the winter all by ourselves. 
I hope that in future, when the King and the Family are at Eu, 
some of them will frequently come over to see us here. It 
would be so nice cuid so near. 

Now adieu, dearest Uncle. I hope I shall not have to write 
to you again, but have the happiness of saying de vive voix, 
that I am ever, your devoted Niece, Victobia R. 

Viscount Palmerston to Qtieen Victoria, 

FOREIGN OFnOE, 16th July 1846. 

. . . With regard to the marriage of the Queen of Spain, 
Viscount Palmerston has received a good deal of general in- 
formation from persons who have conversed with him on the 
subject, but he has learnt nothing thereupon which was not 
akeady known to your Majesty. The state of that matter 
seems, in a few words, to be that the Count of Trapani is now 
quite out of the question, that the Ck)unt of Montemolin, 
though wished for by Austria, and in some degree supported 
by the Court of the Tuileries, would be an impossible choice, 
and that the alternative now lies between Don Enrique 
and the Prince Leopold of Coburg, the two Queens being 
equally set against the Duke of Cadiz, Don Enrique's elder 
brother. In favour of Prince Leopold seem to be the two 
Queens, and a party (of what extent and influence does not 
appear) in Spain. Against that Prince are arrayed, ostensibly 
at least, the Court of the Tuileries and the Liberal Party in 
Spain ; and probably to a certain degree the Government of 


In f avonr of Don Enrique are a very large portion of the 
Spanish nation, who would prefer a Spanish prince for their 
Sovereign's husband ; and the pre f erence, expressed only as 
an opinion and without any acts in furtherance of it, by your 
Majesty's late Administration. Against Don Enrique are the 
aversion of the Queen Mother, founded on her family differ- 
ences with her late sister, and the apprehensions of the present 
Ministers in Spain, who would think their power ^idangered 
by the political connection between Don Enrique and the more 
Liberal Party. The sentiments of the King of the French in 
regard to Don Enrique seem not very decided ; but it appears 
li^ly that the King of the French would prefer Count Monte- 
molin or the Duke of Cadiz to Don Enrique ; but that he 
would prefer Don Enrique to the Prince Leopold of Coburg, 
because the former would fall within the cat^ory of Bourbon 
princes, descended from Philip the Fifth of Spain, proposed 
by the King of the French as the limited circle within which 
the Queen of Spain should find a husband. 

Queen Victoria to Viscount Palmerskm. 

leth Jtdy 1846. 

The Queen has received Lord Palmerston's interesting letter, 
and is very much satisfied with his parting conversation with 
Ibrahim Pasha, which she conceives will not be lost upon him. 
The view Lord Pedmerston takes about the present position of 
the Spemish marriage question appears to the Queen quite 
correct. She finds only one omission, which is Queen Isabella's 
personal objection to Don Enrique, and the danger which 
attaches to marriage with a Prince taken up by a Political 
Party in Spain, which makes him the political enemy of the 
opposite Party.* 

The Queen thanks Lord Palmerston for his zeal about 
Portugal, which is really in an alarming state.^ She sends 
herewith the last letter which she received from the King of 
Portugal. The Queen is sorry to have lost the opportunity of 
seeing Marshal Saldanha. 

1 On the 18th of July Lord Palmerston wrote his celebrated despatch to Mr Bulwer, and 
nnlortonately showed a copy of it to Jamac, the French Ambaasador in London. The 
mention of Prince Leopold hi it, as a possible candidate for the Queen of Spain's hand, 
gaye the French King and Afinister the opportunity they wanted, and brought matten 
to a crisis. See Life o/ the Prince Consort^ vol. i. chap. xvii. ; Dalling's Life of Lord Palmer* 
Stan, vol. lii. chaps, vii. and viii. » — o 

2 Owing to the insmrection, a run took place on the Bank of Lisbon. The lifinistry 
(in which Saldanha was War Minister) had some difficulty in raising a loan. 

Queen Victoria to Lord John Russell, 

OSBORNE HOXTSB, 16th July 1846. 

The Queen has received Lord John Russell's communication 
of yesterday, ajid sincerely hopes that Lord John's sugar 
measure ^ may be such that the (Committee of the Cabinet, as 
well as the whole Cabinet and ParliameYii, may concur in it, 
which would save the country another struggle this year. The 
Queen trusts, moreover, that late experience and good sense 
may induce the West Indians to be moderate and accommo- 
dating. As Lord John touches in his letter on the possibility 
of a Dissolution, the Queen thinks it right to put Lord John 
in possession of her views upon this subject generally. She 
considers the power of dissolving Parliament a most valuable 
and powerful instrument in the hands of the Crown, but which 
ought not to be used except in extreme cases and with a 
certainty of success. To use this instrument and be defeated 
is a thing most lowering to the Crown and hurtful to the 
country. The Queen strongly feels that she made a mistake 
in allowing the Dissolution in 1841 ; the result has been a 
majority returned against her of nearly one himdred votes ; 
but suppose the result to have been nearly an equality of 
votes between the two contending parties, the Queen would 
have thrown away her Ifiust remedy, and it would have been 
impossible for her to get any Government which could have 
carried on public business with a chance of success. 

The Queen was glad therefore to see that Sir Robert Peel did 
not ask for a Dissolution, and she entirely concurs in the opinion 
expressed by him in his last speech in the House of Conmions, 
when he said : 

" I feel strongly this, that no Administration is justified in 
advising the exercise of that prerogative, unless there be a fair, 
reasonable presumption, even a strong moral conviction, that 
after a Dissolution they will be enabled to administer the 
affairs of this country through the support of a party suffi- 
ciently powerful to carry their measures. I do not think a 
Dissolution justifiable to strengthen a party. I think the 
power of Dissolution is a great instrument in the hands of the 
Crown, and that there is a tendency to blunt that instrument 
if it be resorted to without necessity. 

** The only ground for Dissolution would have been a strong 
presumption that after a Dissolution we should have had a 
party powerful enough in this House to give effect practically 

1 In pnraoanoe of the policy of free trade, the Ministry introduced and passed a Bill 
redacing the duties on foreign slaye-grown sugar, with the ultimate intention of equalising 
them vAXb. those on Oolonial produce. 


to the measures which we might propose. I do not mean a 
support founded on a concurrence on one great question of 
dcmtestic policy, however importcmt that may be, not of those 
who differ from us on ahnost all questions of public policy, 
agreeing with us in one ; but that we should have the support 
of a powerful party united by a general concurrence of poHtical 

The Queen is confident that these views will be in accordance 
with Lord John Russell's own sentiments and opinions upon 
this subject. 

Viscount Mdboume to Queen Victoria. 

SOUIH Stbeet, ilM Jidf 1846. 

Lord Melbourne presents his humble duty to your Majesty. 
He has just received your Majesty's letter of yesterday, and is 
much delighted at again hearing from your Majesty. 

What your Majesty says of the state of public affairs and 
of parties in Parliament is true. But in November last Sir 
Robert Peel had a party which might have enabled him to 
have long ca<rried on the Government if he had not most 
unaccountably chosen himself to scatter it to the winds. 

Lord Melbourne is much gratified by the intimation that 
your Majesty would not have been displeased or imwilling to 
see him again amongst your confidential servsuits, but your 
Majesty acted most kindly £uid most judiciously in not calling 
upon him in November last, ajid John RusseU has done the 
same in forbearing to make to Lord Melbourne any offer at 
present. When Lord Melbourne was at Brocket Hall during 
the Whitsuntide holidays he clearly foresaw that Sir Robert 
Peel's Government must be very speedily dissolved ; and 
upon considering the state of his own health and feelings, he 
cfiune to the determination, which he commmiicated to Mr 
Ellice, who was with him, that he could take no active part in 
the then speedily approaching crisis. He felt himself quite 
unequal to the work, and also to that of either of the Secre- 
taries of State, or even of the more subordinate and less heavy 
and responsible offices. He is very subject to have accesses 
of weakness, which render him incapable for exertion, and 
deprive his life of much of its enjoyment. They do not appear 
at present to hasten its termination, but how soon they may 
do so it is impossible to foretell or foresee. 

Lord Melbourne hopes that he shall be able to wcut upon 
your Majesty on Saturday next, but he fears the weight of 


the full dress uniform. He begs to be remembered to His 
Boyal Highness. 

Sir Robert Peel to the Prince Albert, 

Drayton manor, fazeley, Augiut 1846. 

Sm, — ^I shall be very happy to avail myBelf of your Royal 
Highness's kind permission occasionally to write to your 
Royal Highness. However much I am enjoying the contrast 
between repose and official life, I may say — I hope without 
presumption, I am sure with perfect sincerity — that the total 
interruption of every sort of communication with your Royal 
Highness would be a very severe penalty. 

It was only yesterday that I was separating from the rest of 
my correspondence aJl the letters which I had received from 
the Queen and your Royal Highness during the long period of 
five years, in order that I might ensure their exemption from 
the fate to which in these days all letters seem to be destined, 
and I could not review them without a mixed feeling of grati- 
tude for the considerate indulgence and kindness of which 
they contained such decisive proofs, and of regret that such 
a source of constsuitly recurring interest €uid pleasure was 
dried up. 

I can act in conformity with your Royal Highness's gracious 
wishes, and occasionally write to you, without saying a word 
of which the most jealous or sensitive successor in the con- 
fidence of the Queen could complain. . . . Your faithful and 
humble Servant, Robert Peel. 

Queen Victoria to Lord John Russell. 

Buckingham Palace, Zrd August 1846. 

The Queen has just seen Lord Bessborough, who presses 
very much for her going to Ireland ; she thinks it right to put 
Lord John Russell in possession of her views on this subject. 

It is a jommey which must one day or other be undertaken, 
and which the Queen would be glad to have accomplished, 
because it must be disagreeable to her that people should 
speculate whether she dare visit one part of her dominions. 
Much will depend on the proper moment, for, after those specu- 
lations, it ought to succeed if undertaken. 

The Queen is anxious that when undertaken it should be a 
National thing, and the good which it is to do must be a per- 

94 CANADIAN AFFAIRS [chap, xv 

manent and not a transitory advantage to a particular Govern- 
ment, having the appearance of a party move. 

As this is not a journey of pleasure like the Queen's former 
ones, but a State a.ct, it will have to be done with a certain 
degree of State, and ought to be done handsomely. It cannot 
be expected that the main expense of it should fall upon the 
Civil List, nor would this be able to bear it. 

The Prince Albert to Earl Grey. 

BUGElNOHAli Paiaoe, 9rd August 1846. 

My deab Lobd Grey, — ^The Queen wishes me to return you 
the enclosed letter. The subject of the Government of Canada 
is one which the Queen has much at heart. Canada has been 
for a long time, and may probably still be for the future, a 
source of great weakness to this Empire, and a number of ex- 
periments have been tried. It was in a very bad state before 
the Union, continually embarrassing the Home Government, 
and the Union has by no means a.cted as a remedy, but it may 
be said almost to have increased the difficulties. The only 
thing that has hitherto proved beneficial was the prudent, 
consistent, and impartial administration of Lord Metcalfe. 
Upon the continuance and consistent application of the 
system which he has laid down and a^ted upon, will depend, in 
the Queen's estimation, the future welfare of that province, 
and the maintenance of proper relations with the mother 
country. The Queen therefore is most anxious that in the 
appointment of a new Governor-General (for which post she 
thinks Lord Elgin very well qualified), regard should be had 
to securing an uninterrupted development of Lord Metcalfe's 
views. The Queen thought it the more her duty to make you 
acquainted with her sentiments upon this subject, because she 
thinks that additional danger arises from the impressions 
which the different agents of the different political parties in 
Canada try to produce upon the Home Government and the 
imperial Parliament, and from their desire to mix up Canadian 
party politics with general English party politics.^ Ever yours, 
etc. Albert. 

Lord John RtcsseU to Queen Victoria, 

Ohesham Plaob, ah August 1846. 

Lord John Russell presents his hiimble duty to your Majesty, 
and is greatly obliged to your Majesty for your Majesty's com- 
1 In the eveat, JjxA Elgin was appointed. 


munication respecting a Royal visit to L^eland. He concurs 
in your Majesty's observations on that subject. He is of 
opinion that if the visit partook in any way of a party character, 
its effects would be mischievous, and not beneficial. 

He is also doubtful of the propriety of either incurring very 
large expense on the part of the public, or of encouraging Irish 
proprietors to lay out money in show and ceremony at a time 
when the accounts of the potato crop exhibit the misery and 
distress of the people in an aggravated shape. 

Qtteen Victoria to Lord John Russell. 

7th August [1846]. 

With regard to the Statue ^ on the arch on Constitution 
Hill, the Queen is of opinion that if she is considered individu- 
ally she is bound by her word, and must allow the Statue to go 
up, however bad the appearance of it will be. If the con- 
stitutional fiction is applied to the case, the Queen acts by the 
advice of her responsible advisers. One Government advised 
her to give her assent, another advises the withdrawal of that 
assent. This latter position has been taken in Lord Morpeth's 
former letter to the Conmiittee, and in the debate in the House 
of Commons ; it must therefore now be adhered to, and what- 
ever is decided must be the a-ct of the Government. It would 
accordingly be better to keep the word *' Government " at the 
conclusion of Lord Morpeth's proposed letter, and that the 
Prince should not go to Town to give an opinion upon the 
appearance of the figure, when up. 

The Prince Albert to Viscount Pahnerston, 

[9/A August 1846.] 

My deab Lobd Palmebston, — ^The Queen is much obliged 
for Lord Howard de Walden's private letter to you, and begs 
you will never hesitate to send her such private communica- 
tions, however unreserved they may be in their language, as 
our chief wish and aim is, by hearing all parties, to arrive at a 
just, dispassionate, and correct opinion upon the various 
political questions. This, however, entails a strict scrutiny of 
what is brought before us. . . . 

1 The equeetaian statae of the Duke of Wellington at Hyde Park Gomer was much 
critidsed at ttie time of its erection : it is now at Aldershot. 

96 ENGLAND AND SPAIN [chap, xv 

Queen Victoria to Lord John Russell, 

OSBORNE, nth August 1846. 

Tlie Queen has received a draft to Mr Bulwer from Lord 
Palmerston. The perusal of it has raised some apprehensions 
in the Queen's mind, which she stated to Lord Palmerston she 
would communicate to Lord John Russell. 

The draft lays down a general policy, which the Queen is 
afraid may ultimately turn out very dangerous. It is this : 

England undertakes to interfere in the internal affairs of 
Spain, and to promote the development of the present con- 
stitutional Government of Spain in a more democratic direction, 
and this for the avowed purpose of counteracting the influence 
of France. England becomes therefore responsible for a par- 
ticular direction given to the internal Government of Spain, 
which to control she has no sufficient means. All England C€Ui 
do, and will have to do, is : to keep up a particular party in 
Spain to support her views. 

France, knowing that this is directed against her, must take 
up the opposite party and follow the opposite policy in Spanish 

This must bring England and France to quarrels, of which 
we can hardly foresee the consequences, and it dooms Spain 
to eternal convulsions and reactions. 

This has been the state of things before ; theory and ex- 
perience therefore warn against the renewal of a similar policy. 

The natural consequence of this is that Don Enrique would 
appear as the desirable candidate for the Queen of Spain's 
hand, and Lord Palmerston accordingly for the first time 
deviates from the line hitherto followed by us, and urges Don 
Enrique, which in the eyes of the world must stamp him ets 
" an English Candidate,'*^ Lord Palmerston, from his wish to 
see him succeed, does, in the Queen's opinion, not sufficiently 
acknowledge the obstacles which stand in the way of this com- 
bination, and which all those who are on the spot and in the 
confidence of the Court represent as almost insurmountable. 

The Queen desires Lord John Russell to weigh all this most 
maturely, and to let her know the result. 

Lord John Russell to Queen Victoria, 

Ghesham Place, 19th August 1846. 

Lord John Russell presents his humble duty to your Majesty, 
and has the honour to state that he has maturely considered. 


together with Lord Palmerston, Lord Lansdowne, and Lord 
Clarendon, your Majesty's observations on the draft sent by 
Lord Palmerston for your Majesty's approbation. 

Lord John Russell entirely concurs in your Majesty's wish 
that England and France should not appear at Madrid as 
countensuicing conflicting parties. Lord John Russell did not 
att€tch this meaning to Lord Palmerston's proposed despatch, 
but he ha« now re-written the draft in such a manner ets he 
trusts will obtain your Majesty's approval. 

Lord John Russell will pay the utmost attention to this 
difficult and delicate subject. 

Viscount Palmerston to Queen Victoria, 

FOREIGN Offioe, 19th August 1846. 

Viscount Palmerston presents his humble duty to your 
Majesty, and has endeavoured to modify and rearrange his 
proposed instruction to Mr Bulwer in deference to your 
Majesty's wishes and feelings as expressed to Lord John 
Russell ; and with this vi^w also Viscount Palmerston hsrS 
divided the instruction into two separate despatches — the one 
treating of the proposed marriage of the Queen, the other of 
the possible marriage of the Infanta. But with regard to these 
new drafts, as well as with regard to the former one, Viscount 
Palmerston would beg to submit that they are not notes to be 
presented to any Foreign Government, nor despatches to be in 
any way made public ; but that they are confidential instruc- 
tions given to one of your Majesty's Ministers abroad, upon 
matters upon which your Majesty's Government have been 
urgently pressed, to enable that Minister to give advice ; and 
Viscount Palmerston would beg also to submit that in a case 
of this kind it would not be enough to communicate drily the 
opinion of the British Government, without stating and ex- 
plaining some of the reasons upon which those opinions are 

It is quite evident from Mr Bulwer's communication, and 
especially from the postscript to his despatch of the 4th of this 
month, that Queen Christina, the Diike of Rianzares, and 
Senor Isturitz, are earnestly and intently bent upon marrying 
the Queen Isabella to Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg, and it 
is very difficult to find conclusive grounds for saying ttiat such 
a match would not perhaps, on the whole, be the best for 
Queen Isabella and the Spanish nation. But still, all things 
considered, your Majesty's Government incline to the opinion 

VOL. n 4 

98 DON ENRIQUE [chap, xv 

that a Spanish Prince would be a preferable choice, and they 
are prepared to give that opinion to the Spanish Court. 

There is however but one Spanish Prince whom it would be 
creditable to the British Government to recommend a^ husband 
to the Queen, and to that Prince Queen Christina is known to 
feel objections, principally founded upon apprehensions bearing 
upon her own personal interests. Viscount Palmerston has 
endeavoured to furnish Mr Bulwer with such arguments in 
favour of Don Enrique as appeared likely to meet Queen 
Christina's fears, and he has occasion to believe, from a con- 
versation which he had a few days ago with Count Jamac, that 
the French Government, impelled by the apprehension that 
your Majesty's Government intend to support Prince Leopold 
of Coburg, would be willing, in order to draw the British 
(government off from such a course, to give at least an osten- 
sible though perhaps not a very earnest support to Don Henry. 
But your Majesty will no doubt at once perceive that although 
the British Government may come to an understanding with 
that of France as to which of the candidates shall be the one 
in whose favour an opinion is to be expressed, it would be im- 
possible for the British Government to associate itself with that 
of France in any joint step to be taken upon this matter, and 
that each Government must act separately through its own 
agent at Madrid. For the two Governments have not only 
different objects in view in these matters, England wishing 
Spain to be independent, and France desiring to establish a 
predominant influence in Spain ; but moreover, in regard to 
this marriage question, Great Britain has disclaimed any right 
to interfere except by opinion and advice, while France has 
assumed an authority of dictation, and it is essential that your 
Majesty's Government should so shape the mode of co-opera- 
ting with France a^ not to appear to sanction pretensions 
which are founded in no right and are inconsistent with 

V Viscount Palmerston is by no means confident that the 
joint advice of the British and French Governments in favour 
of Don Enrique will be successful, and especially because he 
fears that M. Bresson has taken so active a part in favour of 
other arrangements, that he will not be very eager in support 
of Don Enrique, and will perhaps think that if this arrange- 
ment can be rendered impossible the chances may become 
greater^in favour of some other arrangement which he and his 
Government may prefer. But such future embarrassments 
must be dealt with when they arise, and Viscount Palmerston 
submits that for the moment, unless the British Government 


had been prepared to close with the offers of the Duke of 
Kisuizares, and to follow at once the course reconunended by- 
Mr Bulwer, the steps suggested in the accompanying drafts 
are the sctfest and the best. 

Viscount Palmerston ha^ great pleasure in submitting the 
accompanying private letter from Mr Bulwer announcing the 
withdrawal of the Spanish troops from the frontier of Portugal. 

Mr Btdlwer to Viscount Palmerston, 

Madrid, 29th August 1846. 

My Lobd, — I have troubled your Lordship of late with 
many communications. . . . 

I have now to announce to your Lordship that the Queen 
declared last night at twelve o'clock that she had made up her 
mind in favour of His Royal Highness Don Francisco de Asis. 
.... Your Lordship is aware under what circiunstances Don 
Frcmcisco was summoned here, the Court having been, when 
I wrote on the 4th, most anxious to conclude a marriage with 
Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg, and only induced to abandon 
this idea from the repeated intimations it received that it could 
not be c€UTied out. . . . 

The same night a Council was held of the Queen Mother's 
friends, who determined to bring matters forthwith to a con- 
clusion. Queen Christina, I understand, spoke to her daughter 
and told her she must choose one of two things, either marrying 
now, or deferring the marriage for three or four years. That 
the Prince of Saxe-Coburg was evidently impossible ; that 
Count Trapani would be dangerous ; that Don Henry had 
placed himself in a position which rendered the alliance with 
him out of the question, and that Her Majesty must either 
make up her mind to marry her cousin Don Francisco de Asis, 
or to abandon for some time the idea of marrying. 

The Queen, I am told, took some little time to consider, and 
then decided in favoiu: of her cousin. The Ministers were 
called in, and the drama was concluded. . . . 


P.S. — ^I learn that directly the Queen had signified her in- 
tention of marrying her cousin, Coimt Bresson formally asked 
the hand of the Infcuita for the Duke of Montpensier, stating 
that he had powers to enter upon and conclude that affair, 
and the terms of the marriage were then definitively settled 
between M. Isturitz and him. H. L. B. 


QiLeen Victoria to the King of the Belgians, 

On Board the Victoria and Albert^ 
FALM0X7TH HARBOUR, Ith September 1846. 

My deabbst Uncle, — ^Though I have not heard from you 
for ages, you will perhaps be glad to hear from us, and to hear 
that our trip has been most successful. We left Osborne on 
the 2nd, at eight in the morning, and reached Jersey at seven 
that evening. We landed at St Heliers the next morning, and 
met with a most brilliant and enthusiastic reception from the 
good people. The island is beautiful, and like an orchard. 

The settlement of the Queen of Spain's marriage, coupled 
with Montpenaier^s, is infamoics, and we mtist remonstrate. 
Guizot has had the barefacedness to say to Lord Normanby 
that though originally they said that Montpensier should only 
marry the Infanta when the Queen was married and had chit- 
dren, that Leopold's being named one of the candidates had 
changed all, and that they must settle it now ! This is too 
bad, for we were so honest as almost to prevent Leo's marriage 
(which might have been, and which Lord Palmerston, cirS mat- 
ters now stand, regrets much did not take place), and the return 
is this unfair coupling of the two marriages which have nothing, 
and ought to have nothing, to do with one another. The King 
should know that we are extremely indignant, and that this 
conduct is not the way to keep up the entente which he wishes. 
It is done, moreover, in such a dishonest way. I must do 
Palmerston the credit to say that he takes it very quietly, and 
will act very temperately about it. 

I must now conclude. Ever yoxu* devoted Niece, 

Victoria R. 

Vicky and Bertie enjoy their tour very much, and the people 
here are deUghted to see " the Duke of Cornwall." 

The Queen of the French to Queen Victoria, 

Neuilly, 8 Septembre 1846. 

Madame, — Confiante dans cette pr^cieuse amiti6 dont votre 
Majest6 nous a donn6 tant de preuves et dans I'aimable in- 
t6ret que vous avez toujours t6moign6 k tous nos Enfants, 
je m'empresse de vous annoncer la conclusion du mariage de 
notre fils Montpensier avec 1' Infante Louise Fernanda. Get 
6v6nement de famille nous comble de joie, parce que nous 
esp^rons qu'il assurera le bonheur de notre fils ch^ri, et que 
nous retrouverons dans I'lnfaute une fille de plus, aussi bonne 


et axissi aimable que sea Ain^es, et qui ajoutera k notre bon- 
heur int^rieur, le seul vraid^ns ce monde, et que vous, Madame, 
sayez si bien appr^cier.' Je- vous demande d*avance votre 
amiti6 pour notre nouvel Enfcuii^ ^e qu'elle partagera tous 
les sentiments de d^vouement et.dJ<iff3Ction de nous tous pour 
vous, pour le Prince Albert, et potuc^oute votre chere Famille. 
Madame, de votre Majesty, la toute d6voil^e Soeur et Amie, 

" .- Ma'rttc Ameue. 

Qtieen Victoria to the Queen of the French. ^ _ 

OSBORNE, 10 aeptenOre^ASAR, 

Madame, — Je viens de recevoir la lettre de votre Maje^te. 
du 8 de ce mois, et je m'empresse de vous en remercier. Vous 
vous souviendrez peut-etre de ce qui s'est pa8s6 h, Eu entre le 
Roi et moi, vous connaissez, Madame, Timportance que j'ai 
toujours att€bch6e au maintien de Notre Entente Cordiale et le 
zele avec lequel j'y ai travaill6, vous avez appris sans doute 
que nous nous sommes refuses d'arranger le mariage entre la 
Reine d'Espagne et notre Cousin Leopold (que les deux Keines 
avaient vivement d6sir6) dans le seul but de ne pas nous 
floigner d'une marche qui serait plus agr^able k votre Koi, 
quoique nous ne pouvions consid^rer cette marche comme la 
meilleure. Vous pourrez done ais6ment comprendre que 
Tannonce soudaine de ce doiible moHage ne pouvait nous causer 
que de la surprise et un bien vif regret. 

Je vous demande bien pardon de vous paxler de politique 
dans ce moment, mais j'aime pouvoir me dire que j'ai toujours 
6t6 sindre envers vous. 

En vous priant de presenter mes hommages au Roi, je suis, 
Madame, de votre Majesty, la toute d6vou6e Sceur et Amie, 


Viscount PcUmerston to Queen Victoria. 

Oari/ton Terrace, 12th September 1846. 

ViscoujLt Palmerston presents his himible duty to your 
Majesty, and returns with many acknowledgments the accom- 
panying letters which your Majesty has been pleased to send 
him, and which he has thought your Majesty would wish him 
also to communicate to Lord John Russell. 

The letter of the Queen of the French seems to Viscount 
Palmerston to look like a contrivance to draw your Majesty on 


to express, in reg€u*d to the Montpensier marriage in its char- 
acter as a domestic arrangement, ^me sentiments or wishes 
which might be at variance with the opinions which your 
Majesty might entertain regar^iiig that marriage in its political 
ch£u*acter and bearing. Bji^ .your Majesty's most judicious 
answer has defeated thepfc intention, if any such existed, and 
has stated in a firm^'but'at the same time in the friendliest 
manner, the grounds- of complaint against the conduct of the 
French Groveniiftent'in this affair. 

Viscount Palto^rston had yesterday afternoon a very long 
conversation with the Count de Jamac upon these matters. 

Visftount Palmerston said that with regard to the marriage 
of the Qvieen of Spain, that was a matter as to which the British 
Government have no political objection to make. They 
deeply regret that a young Queen should have been compelled 
by moral force, and to serve the personal and political interests 
of other persons, to accept for husband a person whom she can 
neither Uke nor respect, and with whom her future life will 
certainly be unhappy at home, even if it should not be char- 
acterised by circumstances which would tend to lower her in the 
estimation of her people. But these €u*e matters which con- 
cern the Queen and people of Spain more than the Government 
emd people of England. But that the projected marriage of the 
Duke of Montpensier is a very different matter, and must 
have a political bearing that must exercise a most unfortunate 
effect upon the relations between England and Frcmce. 

Qtteen Victoria to the King of the Belgians. 

Osborne, lith September 1846. 

My deabest Uncle, — ^I have to thank you for a most kind 
letter of the 31st from Basle, by which I was sorry to see that 
your journey had been delayed, and that you were still not 

We are, alas ! sadly engrossed with this Spanish marriage, 
which, though it does not threaten uHir (for the English care 
very little about the Spanish marriages) threatens complica- 
tions. Albert has told you all that passed between the dear 
Queen and me, and the very absurd ground on which the 
French make their stand. The details of the story are very 
bad — and I grieve to say that the good King, etc., have behaved 
very dishonestly. 

We have protested, and mean to protest very strongly, 
against Montpensier's marriage with the Infanta, as long as 


she is presumptive heiress to the Throne of Spain. The King 
departs from his principle, for he insisted on a Bov/rbon, because 
he declared he would not marry one of his sons to the Queen ; 
and now he effects the Queen's mcuniagewith the worst Bourbon 
she could have, and marries his son to the Infanta, who in all 
probability will become Queen ! It is very bad. Certednly 
at Madrid [Palmerston] mismanaged it — as Stockmar says — 
by forcing Don Enrique, in spite of all Bulwer could say. If 
our deeur Aberdeen was still at his post, the whole thing would 
not have happened ; for he would not have forced Enriquito 
(which enraged Christine), and secondly, Guizot would not 
have escamote Aberdeen with the wish of triumphing over him 
as he has done over Palmerston, who has behaved most openly 
and f€drly towards France, I must say, in this affair. But 
say what one will, it is he again who indirectly gets us into a 
squabble with France ! And it is such a personal sort of a 
quarrel, which pains and grieves me so ; and I pity the poor 
good Piat,^ whom we are very fond of. One thing, however, 
I feel, that in opposing this marriage, we €u*e not really affecting 
his happiness, for he has never seen the Infcuita — and she is a 
child of fourteen, and not pretty. The little Queen I pity so 
much, for the poor child dislikes her cousin, and she is said to 
have consented against her vnU. We shall see if she really 
does marry him. Altogether, it is most ajinoying, and must 
ruffle our happy intercourse with the French family for a time 
at least. 

I was obliged to write very strongly and openly to poor dear 
Louise too. You may rely upon nothing being done rashly 
or intemperately on our paii;. Lord Palmerston is quite ready 
to be guided by us. In haste, ever your devoted Niece, 

Victoria R. 

We go into our new house to-day. 

Baron Stockmar to Queen Victoria, 

ISth September 1846. 

Baron Stockmar has been honoured with your Majesty's 
kind note of the 17th instant. The very day the Baron heard 
of the Sp€UDish news, he wrote to a man at Paris, whom the 
King sees as often as he presents himself at the palace. In this 
letter the Baron stated fairly and moderately but withovi pallia- 
tion in what light M. Bresson's conduct must necessarily appear 

1 A name by which the Doc de Moni^encder was sometimeB called in the family circle. 


in London, and what vory naturally and most probably must be 
the political consequences of such conduct. 

The Bcffon's statement was read to the King, word for word, 
the very evening it reached Paris. 

His Majesty Ustened to it most attentively, and said after 
some pause : " Notwithstanding all this, the marriage will 
take plctce. I don't consider Montpensier's marriage fwi affair 
between nations, and the English people, in particular, care 
very little about it ; it is much more a private affair between 
myself and the English Secretary, Lord Palmerston, and as 
such it will not bring on importauit political consequences." 

Queen Victoria to the Queen of the Belgians. 

OSBORNE, 18 Septembre 1846. 

Ma bien chebe Louise, — Je te remercie pour ton retour de 
franchise ; je ne desire pas que cette controverse entre de plus 
dans notre correspondance priv6e, comme elle est le sujet et 
le sera je crains encore davantage de discussion politique. 
Je veux seulement dire qu'il est impossible de donner k cette 
affcdre le cachet d'une simple affaire de famille ; I'attitude 
prise k Paris sur cette affaire de mariage des le commencement 
^tait une fort Strange ; il fallait toute la discretion de Lord 
Aberdeen pour qu'elle n'amenat un 6clat plutot ; mais ce 
denouement, si contraire k la parole du Koi, qu'il m'a donn6e 
lors de cette demi^re visite k Eu spontanement, en ajoutant k 
la complication, pour la premiire fois, celle du pro jet de mariage 
de Montpensier, aura mauvaise mine devant toute FEurope. 

Rien de plus p6nible n'aurait pu ajriver que toute cette 
dispute qui prend un cara^tere si personnel. . . . 

Victoria R. 

Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians. 

Osborne, 2\st September 1846. 

My deabest Uncle, — ^I have to thank you very much for 
your very kind letter of the 6th from Zurich. It is very un- 
fortunate that you should be so far off at this moment. Since 
I wrote to you wo have decided to remonstrate both at Madrid 
(this went a week ago), and at Paris, but this last not in a 
formal note but in a despatch to Lord Normanby, against this 
very unjustifiable breaxjh of faith on the pcfft of France. We 

From the miniature by Millet at Windsor Castle 

To face p. 104, Vol. Ii. 


have seen these despatches, which are very firm, but written 
in a very proper and kind tone, exposing at the same time the 
f alla^cy of what has been done ; for the King himself declared 
that he would never let one of his sons marry the Queen, he 
insisted on her marrying a descendant of PhiUp V. This has 
been done, and at the same moment he says his son is to marry 
the Infanta, who may become Queen to-m/orrow ! And to all 
this he says, " C'est seulement une affaire de faimlle '* ! The 
King is very fond of England, and still more of peace, and he 
never ixin sacrifice this (for though it would not be immediate 
war it would cause coolness with us and with other Powers, 
and would probably lead to war in a short time), for a breach 
of faith and for one of his sons* marriages. No quarrel or mis- 
understanding in the world could be more disagreeable and to me 
mere cruelly painful, for it is so personal, and has come into the 
midst of all our communications and correspondence, aud is 
too annoying. It is so sad, too, for dear Louise, to whom one 
cannot say that her father has behaved dishonestly. I hope, 
however, another ten days will show us some daylight. I will 
not mention anything about Leopold's ^ answer, as Albert will, 
I doubt not, write to you all about it. It is very satisfcu^tory, 

We euro since this day week in our charming new house, 
which is delightful, and to-morrow we go, alas ! to Windsor, 
where we expect the Queen-Dowager and the Princess of Pnissia, 
who will remain a week with us. Ever your devoted Niece, 


I received this afternoon your kind letter from Gais of the 
12th. One word more I must just add. No doubt if Lord 
Aberdeen had been at his post what has happened would not 
have taken pla^e, and suspicion of Lord PaJmerston has been 
the cause of the unjustifiable conduct of the French Govern- 
ment. But just as they did suspect him, they should have 
been more cautious to do anything which coiild bring on a 
quarrel, which is surely not what the King cem wish. 

Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians. 

Windsor OASTLD, 29^^ September 1846. 

My deabest Uncjle, — ^I received last week your very kind 
and satisfactory letter of the 16th. Your opinion on this 
truly unfortunate and, on the part of the French, disgra^jeful 

■1 Fzinoe Leopold of Saxe-Coburg. 

vol.. n d* 


affair is a great support to us. Stockmar has, I know, com- 
municated to you what has passed, and he will send you copies 
of the King's letter and my answer. Our conduct has been 
throughout Jumest, and the King's and Guizot's the contrary. 
How the King can wantonly throw away the friendship of one 
who has stood by him with such sincere affection, for a doubtful 
object of personal and family aggrandizement, is to me and to 
the whole country inexplicable. Have confidence in him I fear 
I never c€ui again, and Peel, who is here on a visit, a&js a war 
may arise any moment, once that the good understanding is 
disturbed ; think, then, that the King has done this in his 74th 
year, and leaves this inheritance to his successor ; and to whom 
— ^to a Grandchild, and a Minor ! And for Nemours and Pcuis, 
our friendship \& of the greatest importcmce, and yet he prefers 
the troubles of governing Spain, which will be a source of con- 
stant worry and anxiety, to the happy understanding so happily 
existing between our two countries ! I ccmnot comprehend 
him. Guizot behaves shamefully, and so totally without good 
faith. Our protests have been presented. I feel more than 
ever the loss of our valuable Peel. 

I wish, de£u*est Uncle, you would not go to Pcois at all at 

The Queen-Dowager find the Princess of Prussia ^ have left 
us this morning after a week's stay, and I have been delighted 
with the Princess. I find her so clever, so amiable, so well 
informed, and so good ; she seems to have some enemies, for 
there are whispers of her being false ; but from all that I have 
seen of her — ^from her discretion, her friendship through thick 
and. thin, and to her own detriment, for H61^ne, and for the 
Queen-Dowager who has known her from her birth, I cannot 
and will not believe it. Her position is a very difficult one ; 
she is too enlightened emd liberal for the Prussian Court not to 
have enemies ; but / hdieve that she is a friend to us and our 
f ajnily, and I do believe that / have a friend in her, who may 
be most useful to us. I must conclude, envying your being 
in Tyrol. Ever your devoted Niece, Victobia R. 

Queen Victoria to Viscount Pahnerston, 

Windsor Oasilb, lu Oeuber 1846. 

The Queen wishes to express her approval of the step taken 
by Lord Palmerston in urging the Three Northern Powers to 

1 Marie LooiBe Angnsta, daughter of the Grand Duke Oharles o< Saxe- Weimar, subee- 
quently Empress of Qermany, mother cA Prince Frederick William, afterirords tbe 
Bmpenv liwderick, who in 18&8 mamed the Frinoeas Boyal. 


join in the protest against the Montpensier marriage on the 
ground of the Treaty of Utrecht and the Declaration of Philip V. 
She thinks, however, that it is necessary to do more, and 
wishes Lord Palmerston should send a note to the Cabinets 
of the three Powers, explanatory of the whole of the proceed- 
ings relative to the Spanish marriages, showing the attitude 
taken by us from the first, and disclosing the facts which led 
to this unfortunate termination. The three Powers ought to 
be enabled to see the whole of the trcmsaction if we wish them 
to sympathise with us. 

Lord John RtisseU to Qiteen Victoria. 

Ist October 1846. 

Lord John Russell saw Count Jamac to-day, and told him 
that your Majesty's displeasure had not been removed. He 
had in his hands a memorandum, which is apparently word 
for word the letter of the King of the French to the Queen of 
the Belgians.^ 

Lord John Russell observed that it was admitted that the 
Duke of Montpensier was not to marry the Infcmta till the 
Queen of Spain had children, and that voluntary engagement 
had been depcurted from. We might expect the same depcu'tiu'e 
from the professions now made not to interfere in the affairs 
of Spcun. 

Count Jamac protested against this inference, and repeated 
that the promise with regard to the Lifanta was only con- 

Lord John Russell expects that in consequence of the re- 
naonstrcuices of England, and the attention of Europe to the 
question, France will be cautious in her interference with the 
internal government of Spain, and may probably not be able 
to direct her external 'J)olicy. 

M. Bresson has written a long letter to Lord Minto, defending 
his own conduct. 

Qtieen Victoria to the King of the Belgians. 

WINDSOR Castle, 6th October 1846. 

My dearest Uncle, — ^I thank you very much for your last 
kind letter from Gais of the 23rd. This unfortunate Spanish 

1 See Loois Philippe's long letter of the 14th of September, printed in the Life of the 
friuee Coiuort, vol. L Appendix B. Queen Victoria's complete and unanswerable reply 
will be foond there also. 


affair has gone on, heedlessly — and our entente wantonly thrown 
away ! I mourn over it, and feel deeply the ingratitude 
shown ; for — ^without boasting — I must say they never had a 
truer friend them we ; and one who always stood by them. 
When Hadjy wrote that foolish brochure, who stood by him 
tlirough thick and thin but we ? and our friendship for the 
children will ever continue, but how can we ever feel at our 
ease with L. P. again ? Guizot's conduct is beyond all belief 
shameful, and so shabbily dishonest. M0I6 and Thiers both 
say he cannot stand. It is the King's birthday to-day, but I 
thought it better not to write to him, for to say fine words at this 
moment would be mockery. For my beloved Louise my 
heart bleeds ; it is so sad. . . . 

I must now conclude. Begging you to believe me, over 
your devoted Niece, Victobia R. 

Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians. 

Windsor Castle, nth November 1846. 

My deabest Uncle, — ^I yesterday received your long and 
interesting letter of the 14th. I would much rather not say 
anything more about this truly unfortunate and painful 
Spanish business ; but in justice to myself I must make a few 
observations. You say that the King thinks me resentful ,- 
this is extraordinary, for I have no such feeling ; my feelings 
were and are' deeply wounded at the unhandsome and secret 
manner (so totally, in letter and in meaning, contrary to an 
entente cordiale) in which this affair was settled, and in which 
the two marriages were incorporated. 

What can I do ? 

The King and French Government never expressed regret at. 
the sudden and unhandsome manner, to say the lea^t, in which 
they behaved to their best ally and friend, and we really cannot 
admit that they have to forgive us for duping us ! Why have they^ 
not tried to make somA sort of apology ? What do I do, but- 
remain silent for the present ? 

It is a sad affair, but resenJtmerd I have none whatever, and. 
this accusation is a new version of the affair. 

With respect to Portugal, I refute most positively the un- 
founded accusations against us ; we cannot interfere in in- 
ternal dissensions beyond ensuring the personal safety of the^ 
King, Queen, and Royal Family. The Constitution may be^ 
and I believe is, an unfortunate thing in those Southern coim- 
tries ; but once it is established, the Queen must abide by it ;. 

1846] ETON MONTEM 109 

but, unfortunately, the coup de main in sending away Falmella's 
Government (which would inevitably have crumbled to pieces 
of itself), was both unconstitutional and unsafe, and I feeur 
they are in a much worse position via-d-via of the country than 
they ever were.^ 

We Bjre all going to-morrow to Osborne for four weeks. 
Ever your truly devoted Niece, Viotobia R. 

Lord John Russell to Queen Victoria. 

DOWNINO Street, 19th NovenAer 1846. 

. . . Lord John Russell breakfasted with Dr Hawtrey yester- 
day, and had much conversation with him. He finds DrHawtrey 
strongly impressed with the evils of Montem, and he declared 
himself as decidedly against its continuance. He thinks your 
Majesty would please the Etonians equally by going to the 
boats once a yecu*, which he said the late King was in the habit 
of doing. The Chfuicellor of the Exchequer ,» who was at Eton, 
wishes to see Montem abolished. Lord Morpeth would prefer 
seeing it regulated. Upon the whole, Lord John Russell 
thinks it would not be advisable for your Majesty to interpose 
your authority against the decided opinion of Dr Hawtrey, 
the Provost, and the assistants.^ 

Queen Victoria to the Duke of Wellington, 

Osborne, 2hth NoverrS>er 1846. 

The Queen has learned from various quarters that there still 
exists a great anxiety amongst the officers and men who served 
tinder the Duke of Wellington's orders in the Peninsula to 
receive and wecu* a medal as a testimony that they assisted the 
Duke in his great undertaking. The Queen not only thinks 
this wish very reasonable, considering that for recent exploits 
of infinitely inferior importance such distinctions have been 
granted by her, but she would feel personally a great satisfac- 

1 The Dake de Palmella's Ministry was abruptly dismissed by the Queen of Portugal 
OQ the 10th of October, in consequence of their inability to raise money on loan. Civil 
war broke out. Das Antas, Loul6, Fornos, and S& da Bandeira being the chief rebel leadens. 
The British Fleet was ordered to the Tagus to support the Queen against her subjects, 
with the ulterior object of restoring Constitutional Goyermnent. 

3 Mr Cwko a few weeks later became Sir) Charles Wood. 

8 Montem, the triennial Eton ceremony, the chief part of which took place at Salt Hill 
{Qd montem), near Slough, was abolished in 1847. 

110 A PENINSULAR MEDAL [chap, xv 

tion in being enabled publicly to mark in this way her sense of 
the great services the Duke of Wellington has rendered to his 
country and to empower many a brave soldier to wear this 
token in remembrance of the Duke. 

The Duke of Wellington to Queen Victoria. 

STRATHPIBLDSAYB, 27th November 1846. 

Field-Marshal the Duke of Wellington presents his humble 
duty to your Majesty. 

He has just now received your Majesty's most gracious 
commands from Osborne, dated the 26th instant. 

He does not doubt that many of the brave officers and 
soldiers who served in the armies in the Peninsula under the 
command of the Duke are anxious to receive and wear a 
medal, struck by command of the Sovereign, to commemorate 
the services performed in that seat of the late war. 

Many of them have, upon more than one occasion, expressed 
such desire, in their letters addressed to the Duke, in their 
petitions to Parliament, and, as the Duke has reason to 
believe, in petitions presented to your Majesty. 

Although the Duke has never omitted to avail himself of 
every occasion which offered to express his deep sense of the 
meritorious services of the officers and soldiers of the Army 
which served in the Peninsula, he did not consider it his duty 
to suggest to the Sovereign, under whose auspices, or the 
Minister under whose direction the services in question were 
performed, any particular mode in which those services of the 
Army should be recognised by the State. 

Neither has he considered it his duty to submit such sugges- 
tion since the period at which the services were performed, 
bearing in mind the various important considerations which 
must have an influence upon the decision on such a question, 
which it was and is the duty of your Majesty's confidential 
servants alone to take into consideration, and to decide. 

Neither can the Duke of Wellington now venture to submit 
to your Majesty his sense of a comparison of the services of 
the Army which served in the Peninsula, with those of other 
armies in other parts of the world, whose recent services your 
Majesty has been most graciously pleased to recognise by or- 
dering that medals should be struck, to commemorate each of 
such services, one of which to be delivered to each officer and 
soldier present, which your Majesty was graciously pleased to 
permit him to wear. 

1846] THE DUKE'S VIEW 111 

Field-Marshal the Duke of WeUington humbly solicits your 
Majesty, in grateful submission to your Majesty upon the 
subject of the last paragraph of your Majesty's most gracious 
letter, that, considering the favour with which his services 
were received and rewarded by the greu^ious Sovereign, under 
whose auspices they were performed ; the professional rank 
and the dignity in the State to which he was raised, and the 
favour with which his services were then and have been ever 
since received, that your Majesty would be graciously pleased 
to consider upon this occasion only the well-founded claims 
upon your Majesty's attention of the ofi&cers and soldiers who 
served in the Army in the Peninsula ; and to consider him, as 
he considers himself, amply rewarded for any service which 
he might have been instrumental in rendering ; and desirous 
only of opportunities of manifesting his gratitude for the 
favour and honour with which he has been treated by his 

All of which is humbly submitted to your Majesty by your 
Majesty's most dutiful and devoted Servant and Subject, 


Queen Victoria to Viscount Palmeraton. 

OSBORNE, 2Sth November 1846. 

The Queen has just received Lord Palmerston's draft to 
Mr Southern,^ and must observe that she does not quite ap- 
prove the tone of it, as it will be likely only to irritate without 
producing cmy effect. If our advice is to be taken, it must 
be given in a spirit of impartiality and fairness. Lord Palmer- 
ston's despatch must give the impression that we entirely 
espouse the cause of the rebels, whose conduct is, to say the 
least, illegal and very reprehensible. Lord Palmerston like- 
wise takes the nation and the Opposition to be one and the 
same thing. What we must insist upon is a return to Con- 
stitutional Grovemment. And what we may advise is a com- 
promise with the Opposition. What Ministry is to be formed 
ought to be left to the Portuguese themselves. It being the 
28th to-day, the Queen is afraid the despatch went already 
yesterday. The Queen hopes in future that Lord Palmerston 
will not put it out of her power to state her opinion in good 

1 Secretary of Legation at Lisbon, and Ch.arg6 d' Affaires in the absence of Lord Howard 
de Walden. 

112 THE PENINSULAB MEDAL [cjhap. xv 

Queen Victoria to the Duke of Wellington, 

Abundel Oastlb, 1^ December 1846. 

The Queen has not yet acknowledged the Duke of Welling- 
ton's last letter. 

She fully appreciates the delicacy of the Duke in not wishing 
to propose himself a step having reference to his own axjhieve- 
ments, but the Queen ^11 not on that account forgo the satis- 
faction of granting this medal as em acknowledgment on her 
part of those brilliant €W5hievements. 

The Queen has been assured by Lord John Russell that her 
confidential servants will be recwiy to assume the responsibility 
of advising such a measure. 

The Duke of Wellington to Queen Victoria. 

Abttndeii OASTLB, 2nd December 1846. 

Field-Marshal the Duke of Wellington presents his humble 
duty to your Majesty. He did not receive your Majesty's 
commands, dated the 1st instant, in this Castle, till seven 
o'clock in the afternoon ; and being under the necessity of 
attending at [? Dover] in the evening, he has not had it in his 
power till this time to express his acknowledgment of the 
receipt of them. 

He submits to your Majesty that he has always been aware 
that it would be impolitic to confer upon the ofi&cers and 
soldiers who served in the Peninsula the wished-f or distinc- 
tion without the concurrence of your Majesty's confidential 

They alone can give the orders to carry into execution the 
measure, and can adopt means to remedy any inconvenience 
which may result from it ; and it is satisfactory to him to 
learn, from the perusal of your Majesty's note, that Lord 
John Russell is disposed to adopt it, notwithstanding that the 
Duke has no personal wish or feeling in the adoption of the 
measure, excepting to see gratified the wishes of so many gallant 
officers and brave soldiers, who have so well served. 

The few words which he addressed to your Majesty in his 
last letter of the 27th of November in relation to himself, re- 
ferred to the expressions in that of your Majesty of the 26th 
November, to the Duke ; from which it appeared to be your 
Majesty's intention " to empower many a brave soldier to wear 
this token, in remembrance of the Duke." 


Having stated to your Majesty that he would serve your 
Majesty, and would promote the objects of your Majesty's 
Government, to the utmost of his power, he has faithfully per- 
formed his engagement, as he believes, to the satisfaction of 
your Majesty's servfuits. 

His whole life being devoted to your Majesty's service, he is 
most anxious to deserve and receive your Majesty's appro- 

But he wishes that it should be conveyed only when it may 
be convenient to your Majesty's Government. Your Majesty 
and your Majesty's servfuits must be the best judges upon this 
point, as well as whether the medal in question shall be struck 
and granted at all or not. 

If granted, or whatever may be the mode in which granted, 
or whether the Duke's name is recalled to recollection or not, 
the Duke will be equally satisfied, and grateful for your 
Majesty's gracious favour, and desirous to merit a continuance 
of it, by his devotion to your Majesty's service. 

All of which is humbly submitted by your Majesty's most 
dutiful Subject and most devoted Servant, Wellington. 

Queen Victoria to Lord John RuasdL 

Osborne, lith December 1846. 

The Queen has still to acknowledge Lord John Russell's 
letter of the 1 1th. She has ccuref ully read the Duke of Welling- 
ton's letter to Lord John, which evinces all the Duke's honour- 
able feelings. He should certainly be relieved from the ap- 
pearance of having refused honours to others, but agreed to 
the granting of them the moment it was intended to couple 
the measure with fwi honour conferred upon himself. On the 
other hand, the Queen still wishes the step to be taken as a 
means of doing honour to the Duke. His name should, there- 
fore, certainly be connected with it. The introduction of the 
names of other commanders, even of that of Sir John Moore, 
the Queen does not think advisable. She does not quite un- 
derstand from Lord John's letter whether he proposes to adopt 
the Duke's recommendation to re-issue all the medals formerly 
granted, or to adhere to the original idea of striking a new one. 
In the latter case, which appears the most natural, the word 
" Peninsula " woiild cover all the campaigns, and in these the 
Duke of Wellington hcwi by far so much the greatest share that 
his name being introduced on all the medals cannot be con- 
sidered as anomalous. 


Queen Victoria to Viscount Palmerston. 

Osborne, 14th December 1846. 

The Queen returns the enclosed private letters.^ The view 
Lord Pabnerston takes of the affair of Cracow appears to the 
Queen a very sound one, and she would much wish to see the 
plan of a conference realised against which Lord Ponsonby 
does not bring any very relevant reasons. Prince Metter- 
nich's plan of a declaration " that the case is to be considered 
an exceptional one and not to afford a precedent to other 
powers " is too absurd. The Prince very justly compared 
it to the case of a person giving another a box on the ear and 
declaring at the same time that he is to consider it as ex- 
ceptional, and that it is in no way to afford him a precedent 
for returning it. The Queen hopes the Cabinet will well con- 
sider the question, and contrive to find means to prevent the 
evil consequences of the unjustifiable step against Cracow by 
speaking out in time, before Russia or France may have de- 
cided on acts of further infraction of the Treaty of Vienna. 
It seems quite clear that Russia was at the bottom of the 
meetsure relative to Cra«ow, and it is therefore but reasonable 
to expect that she has an ulterior object in view. 

1 The first ill frnits of the disroption of the entente between England and France were 
seen in the active co-operation of Boasia, Pniasia, and Austria to destroy Polish indepen* 
dence. See (mie^ p. 72. 


DuBiNa the year 1847 the Pajrliament which had been elected in 
1841 with a great Tory majority was dissolved, and, as a result, the 
position of the Whig Ministry was sUghtly improved ; but they were 
still dependent on the support of Sir Robert Peel. A Factory Act 
limiting the labour of women and children to ten hours a day 
was passed. An autumn session was rendered necessary by an acute 
financial crisis, the Ministry having authorised the Bank of Englemd 
to infringe the provisions of the recent Bank Charter Act, and as a 
consequence being compelled to ask Parliament for an indemnity. 
The Imowledge of the Bank's authority to issue notes beyond the 
prescribed limits was of itself sufficient to allay the panic. The 
Church of England was convulsed by the promotion of Dr Hampden, 
whom Lord Melbourne had made Regius Professor of Divinity at 
Oxford, to the See of Hereford ; his orthodoxy was impugned in a 
memorial presented by thirteen bishops to the Prime Minister, and 
an unsuccessful application was made to the Queen's Bench (the 
Court being divided in opinion) to compel the Primate to hear 
objections to Dr Hampden's consecration. The new House of 
Lords was used for the first time this yeetr. 

Perhaps the most important event in France was the cold-blooded 
murder of the Duchesse de Praslin (daughter of Count Sebastiani, 
formerly French Ambassador in England) by her husband, an in- 
cident which, like the Spanish intrigue of 1846, contributed sub- 
sequently to the downfall of the Orleanist dynasty. 

Switzerland was torn by internecine strife, partly owing to the 
existence, side by side, of Catholic and Protestant cantons ; the pro- 
posed expulsion of Jesuits and the formation of the " Sonderbund " 
were the questions of the day. The latter was an offensive and de- 
fensive confederation of seven cantons, and civil war raged round 
the question of its legality. 

In Italy the death of Pope Gregory XVI. and the election of a more 
liberal successor induced Lord John Russell to send his father-in-law. 
Lord Minto, the Lord Privy Seal, on a special mission to the new 
Pope Pius IX., to encourage him in the path of Reform. But more 
violent measures were in progress, and it was soon clear that Lom- 
bardy and Venetia were rising against Austria, and the way being 
paved for the Unity of Italy. 


116 INTRODUCTORY NOTE [chap, xvi 

Spain was in a ferment, frequent changes of Ministry taking place, 
and the miserable ma>rriage of the Queen having all the evil results 
anticipated in England. Portugal continued in a state of civil war, 
the British attempting to mediate, but the revolutionary Junta 
refused to abide by their terms, and ultimately armed intervention 
became necessary. 



Queen Victoria to Lord John RuaseU, 

WINDBOB Oasilb, 7th January 1847. 

The turn which the Portuguese affairs are now likely to take 
is really very satisfcMstory. The Queen is sure that the Court 
will not allow violent measures of revenge to be taken against 
the vanquished party nor the overthrow of a Constitutional 
Grovemment ; but the Queen of Portugal will have to pimish 
those who have broken their oath of allegiance, and wiU have 
to remove from the country those who would infallibly ere long 
plunge the country afresh into those horrors from which it is 
just emerging. The further infusion of democracy into the 
Charter would at this moment be quite misplaced, but this, 
opportunity should be taJken by the Queen of Portugal to 
establish a state of legality and security, by compelling any new 
Ministry to lay the accounts every year before the Cortes 
(which heus not been done for the last ten years, either by 
Progressistas, Septembristas, or others), by establishing irre- 
movable judges, and appointing thereto incorruptible per- 
sons, by honestly and fairly distributing the patronage in the 
Army — apart from the party — ^which will now be possible a» 
the King has the conmiand himself, cuid by CKlopting such 
meetsures of irUemal improvement as will promote the material 
welfare of the people. 

These are the principles which the Queen would wish to 
see her representative urge upon the Portuguese Court and 
Government, and she has no doubt that they are in perfect 
conformity with Lord John Russell's own views. The Queen 
cannot help repeating that the tone cuid bearing of Mr Southern 
are more those of a Portuguese Demagogue than of an English 

The King of the Belgians to Queen Victoria, 

TUILBBIBS, 16th January 1847. 

My deabest Victoria, — ^I am truly happy to learn what 
you say about your feelings on those troublesome politics ; 



I can assure you that many people who are, in fact, quite in- 
different to politics, rencIierisserU in expressions of dislike and 
contempt setdemeni, because they believe that you have those 
opinions. Many wise people repeat sa3dngs which they assume 
to come from your own mouth, such, for instance, " that Louis 
Philippe could never be trusted, being, after all, an old fox," 

The King's Speech was as unobjectionable as possible. I 
trust that there will be no biUemess in yours. It is as much, if 
not more, in the interest of Great Britain to keep France quiet 
and continuing a peaceable policy them in that of France. 
France, as the old Duke once said with great truth, has been 
already under water several times, what could he spoiled haA been 
spoiled, what remains is pretty solid. To attack Frcuice in 
France would lead to the most demgerous consequences. In 
general, if we get once a great war again you will be sure to 
have everywhere revolutions, and to imagine that you will 
escape in England &il reactions would be a grievous mistake. 
When one looks to the chemges, brought about in England in 
consequence of the Revolution of July, one is quite astounded. 
Here they changed nothing but the dynasty, in Englcuid ^le 
very spirit of the old Monarchy has been abolished, cuid what 
will be, in the course of time, the consequences, it is not easy 
to telL A bad Constitution acts strongly on the people. 
Look to America, even to Belgium. Ever, my dearest Vic- 
toria, your devoted Uncle, Leopold R. 

Queen Victoria to Lord John Russell. 

BUCKINGHAH PALACE, 14/A Fdfruory 1847. 

Lord John Russell's memorandum contains two different 
questions. The one is this : how fcur the interests of England 
require €ui interference in the affairs of Portugal for the restora- 
tion of peace in that country and the preservation of its Throne, 
fiuid how far England is bound by existing treaties to interfere. 

As to this question, it appears from Lord John's memoran- 
dum that the ancient treaties having reference to foreign 
invasion only are inapplicable to the present case, that the 
Quadruple Treaty would revive on the appearance of Dom 
Miguel in Portugal, that an understanding with Spain ought to 
be come to for its execution, but Lord John does not make any 
specific proposal. 

The other question is, what wrongs the Queen, the Ministers, 
and the rebels may have done to bring about the present state 


of affairs. This the Queen conceives can only be decided by 
a most minute, im/partial, and anxious scrutiny. She indig- 
nantly rejects the notion to leave this decision to Mr Southern. 
. . . Lord John's statement contains, however, nothing but 
the echo of his reports. 

Lord John will upon reflection admit that to say " that 
recent events exhibit a spirit of tjnranny and cruelty in the 
Portuguese Government vnthovi a paraUd in any part of 
Europe," there, where not one execution has taken pl£tce, is 
rather a strong expression. 

That the cruelties and miseries inseparable from a Civil War 
are to be deplored, there can be no doubt of, and it is in order 
to stop a further continuance and perhaps aggravation of these 
horrors, that the Queen is so anxious to see the struggle 
brought to an early termination. 

The Queen hopes to see Lord John to-morrow at three 
o'clock, when she hopes that he will be able to submit a de- 
finitive step. 

Queen Victoria to Lord John BusseU, 

lHh March 1847. 

The Queen wishes again to call Lord John Russell's serious 
attention to the state of Spain and Portugal, and to the policy 
which has been pursued with regard to them, and the result of 
this policy. Li Spain we have taken up the cause of the 
Progressistas, and what has been the consequence ? They 
desert us. 

We have no longer the slightest influence in that country ; 
France has it all her own way, and we shall see the Cortes 
confirm the succession of the Infanta and her children without 
being able to prevent it. Of the Progressistas, on whom Lord 
Palmerston, Lord Clarendon, and others always placed their 
hopes, Mr Bulwer says now : " The fa»ct is, that though they 
are the party least servile to France, they cu'e the most im- 
practicable party, and belonging to a lower class of society, 
who have not the same feelings of honourable and gentleman- 
like conduct which sometimes guide a portion, though a very 
small one, of their opponents." 

In Spain therefore it is, the Queen fears, too late ; but let us 
not throw away this lesson, cuid, if it is still possible, not also 
lose Portugal. Our influence there is fast going, and Sir H. 
Seymour ^ confirms what every one but Mr Southern has stated 

1 Enyoy Extraordinazy at IMxm. 

120 ENGLAND AND PORTUGAL [chap, xvi 

for the last two months, viz. that we are believed to be favour- 
able to the rebels ; consequently, that no advice of ours will be 
listened to. Sir H. Seymour further says : "I should have 
been glad to have gained a little time, and not at the outset of 
my mission to be obliged to call the Government to account 
upon various scores. Your orders, however, leave me no 
option, and I shall be obliged to administer a series of reproofs 
which will, I fear, confirm the notion as to our unfriendly 
feelings." This is the course the Queen thinks so very im- 
fortunate ; trifles about two horses, the beating of a gardener 
of Lord Howard's by some soldiers on a march in times of Civil 
War, etc., are made topics of serious complaint. Most peremp- 
tory notes are written, threatening the Government with our 
men-of-war, whilst it is held to be unwise to threaten the 

Then the Court is told to believe our fedinga of attachment 
for them ! 

Sir H. Seymour says that his position is rendered very 
difficult in consequence. We have now the results before us. 
Let us, therefore, before Portugal, our ancient ally, turns also 
away from us, and leans to France or Spain in preference, as 
she mvst, if we give her such doubtful support, try to pursue 
a more conciliatory course ; these peremptory and dictatory 
notes, these constant complaints, produce the worst and most 
unfortunate effect. 

These very Septembristas have been always the greatest 
enemies of England, and would be the first to turn against us 
should they succeed. 

There should more latitude be given to the resident Minister 
not to press things at moments when they produce embarrass- 
ment to a Government already tottering, but to give him the 
option of waiting for a fit opportunity, and for the manner in 
which it is to be done, which a person on the spot can be a 
better judge of than we can in England. 

Once more the Queen earnestly warns Lord John of the 
imminent danger of England losing all legitimate influence in 
Portugal, which ought now, more than ever, to be of the 
greatest im/portance to us. 

The Queen hets in all this spoken solely of English influence, 
but this influence becomes of still greater importance to her 
when the Sovereigns of that country are her near and dear 

1 This letter at once bore froit, a conference being held In London between the repre- 
Bentatives of Great Britain, Spain, France, and Portugal, and armed co-operation to 
enforce the acceptance of certain terms by the Berolationary Junta being decided 


Lord John Russell to Queen Victoria. 

Chbsham Place, l^th March 1847. 

Lord John Russell presents his humble duty to your 
Majesty. Lord John Russell thinks it right to state to your 
Majesty that the prevailing opinion in the Cabinet is that when 
the necessary business in the House of Commons has been 
finished, a Dissolution of Parliament should take place. 

This course would be conformable to the usage from the 
passing of the Septennial Act till 1830. From 1830 to the pre- 
sent year no House of Commons has been allowed to continue 
six years. The Dissolutions of Lord Grey in 1831 and 1832, 
of Sir Robert Peel in 1834, the death of William the Fourth in 
1837, Lord Melbourne's Dissolution in 1841, have all inter- 
rupted the natural life of Parliaments. But all Governments 
since the accession of the House of Hanover have been of 
opinion (with one or two exceptions) that it is hazardous to 
iJlow a Parliament to continue seven years, as circumstances 
may arise making a Dissolution very detrimental to the public 

These being general considerations. Lord John Russell would 
reserve €«iy decision on the subject till the moment shall arrive 
when a Dissolution may appear to your Majesty's CKlvisers to 
be the course most likely to secure moderate and fair elections. 

Queen Victoria to Lord John RusseU, 

mh March 1847. 

The Queen with pleasure approves the appointment of Lord 
Clfiurendon's brother to the vacant stall at St Paul's. The 
Queen would, however, draw Lord John's attention generally 
to the mode of filling up those Church sinecures. She is quite 
aware how necessary it is for a Minister to be able to recom- 
mend to such places persons of political connections, but she 
thinks that where it can be done, it would be of great use both 
to the Church and the country to give these places of emolu- 
ment to Churchmen distinguished for their scientific attain- 
ments, who have neither the means nor the time to prosecute 
their researches, whilst their labours might be of the greatest 
importance to the country. Such person of this kind, for 
instance, the Prince thinks, is a Mr Cureton, who has just 
published the real epistles of St Ignatius, which he translated 
from the Syxiac, and is about to produce a Gospel of St Matthew 
which is considered the undoubted original in the Coptic 


dialect, and other most important docimients lately acquired 
for the British Museiun. 

Qtieen Victoria to Viscount Pcdmerston. 

Buckingham palace, 17th April 1847. 

The Queen has several times asked Lord Palmerston, through 
Lord John Russell and personally, to see that the drafts to our 
Foreign Ministers are not despatched previous to their being 
submitted to the Queen. Notwithstanding, this is still done, 
as for instance to-day with regard to the drafts for Lisbon. 
The Queen, therefore, once more repeats her desire that Lord 
Palmerston should prevent the recurrence of this practice. 

Lord John RusseU to Queen Victoria, 

Chesham Place, l%th May 1847. 

Lord John Russell has the painful duty of aimouncing to 
your Majesty the death of the Earl of Bessborough.^ The 
firmness and kindness of his temper, together with his intimate 
knowledge of Ireland and his sound judgment, make this event 
a public misfortune. 

It appears to Lord John Russell very desirable that his 
successor should be named without loss of time, and 8ts the 
Cabinet agreed yesterday that the Earl of Clarendon was the 
fittest person for the office. Lord John Russell would suggest 
that a Council should be held on Thursday next, at the hour 
your Majesty may appoint, for a Council for the purpose of the 
declaration of your Majesty's pleasure. 

It was the opinion of the Cabinet that although it is advisable 
finally to abolish the office of Lord-Lieutenant, it is not ad- 
visable to propose any measure, or make any announcement 
for the present. 

Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians, 

Buckingham Palace, 12th June 1847. 

My dearest Uncle, — ^We are here in terrible hot water, 
though I think we shall get out of it.* But only think that the 

1 John William, formerly Lord Doncamion, 4th Earl, bom 1781 ; Lord-Lieutenant of 

2 The Government were severely attacked by a coalition of Badicals and ProtectionistR 
for their intervoition in Portugal. A hostile motion of Lord Stanley's in the House of 
Lords was opposed by the Duke of Wellington and defeated, while one of Mr Hume's 
in the House of Oommons was talked out, Sir Bobert Peel supporting tiie Ministry. 

1847] JENNY LIND 123 

Radicals and, Protectionists join to attack Government for our 
interference in Portugal ! A chaoige of Government on such 
a subject would be jvJO, of mischief for the future, independent 
of the great momentary inconvenience ; but it would cripple 
all future Governments in their future conduct respecting 
Foreign Affairs, would create distrust abiK)ad in our promises, 
and is totally contrary to England's ancient policy of upholding 

In short, it would be very bad. The old Duke will do every 
thing to set matters right. 

To-night we are going to the Opera in state, and will hear and 
see Jenny Lind ^ (who is perfection) in Norma, which is con- 
sidered one of her best parts. Poor Grisi is quite going off, and 
after the pure angelic voice and extremely quiet, perfect acting 
of J. Lind, she seems quite passie. Poor thing ! she is quite 
furious about it, and was excessively impertinent to J. Lind. 

To-morrow we go to a ball at Stafford House, and on Thiu«- 
day to one at Gloucester House. Ever your truly devoted 
Niece, Victoria R. 

The Duke of WeUington to Queen Victoria, 

LONDON, 12th July 1847. 
(Five in the afternoon.) 

Field-Marshal the Duke of Wellington presents his humble 
duty to your Majesty. He submits to your Majesty the ex- 
pression of his sorrow and shame that your Majesty should be 
troubled for a moment by anything so insignificant as a statue 
of himself. 

When he first heard of the intention to remove the statue 
from the pedestal on which it had been placed, he was appre- 
hensive that the measure might be misconstrued and misre- 
presented in this country as well as abroad. 

That feeling was increased when the probable existence of 
such misconstruction was adverted to in one of the printed 
papers circulated by the Committee for the erection of the 
statue ; and still farther when the removal became the subject 
of repeated discussions in Parliament. His daily experience 
of your Majesty's gracious reception of his endeavours to serve 
your Majesty ; and the events of every day, and the repeated 
marks which he received of your Majesty's consideration and 
favour proved clearly, 8ts the Duke stated in his letter to Lord 

1 She made her debut in London on the 4th of May in Roberto U Diavolo. The Queen 
had heard her sing previously at Stolzenfels. In May 1849, after singing for two years 
to enthnsiastic aadiences, she retired from the stage, and made extended concert tours in 
Enrope and America. 


John Russell, that there was no foundation for the miscon- 
struction of the intended act — ^which undoubtedly existed. 
The apprehension of such misconstruction had from the first 
moment created an anxious wish in the mind of the Duke that 
the removal should be so regulated and should be attended by- 
such circumstances as would tend to relieve the transaction 
from the erroneous but inconvenient impression which had 
been created. 

The Duke apprehended that he might find it impossible to 
perform the duties with which he had been entrusted, and 
therefore, when Lord John Russell wrote to him, he deprecated 
the measure in contemplation ; and he rejoices sincerely that 
your Majesty has been most graciously pleased to countermand 
the order for the removal of the statue. 

All of which is most humbly submitted to your Majesty by 
your Majesty's most dutiful Subject and most devoted Servant, 


Qiteen Victoria to Lord Palmerston, 

Buckingham Palace, I2th Jtdy 1847. 

The Queen has been informed by Lord John Russell that the 
Duke of Wellington is apprehensive that the removal of his 
statue from the Arch to another pedestal might be construed 
as a mark of displeasure on her part. Although the Queen had 
hoped that her esteem and friendship for the Duke was so well 
known to the public in general as not to render such a con- 
struction possible, and although she had thought that another 
pedestal would have been more suitable for this statue, and 
thp.t the Arch might have been more becomingly ornamented 
in honour of the Duke than by the statue now upon it, she has 
given immediate direction that the Statue should remain in 

1 The Duke of Wellingon wrote to Croker, 19th o£ December 1846 : — " I should desire 
never to move from mj principles of indifEerence and non-interference on l^e subject of 
a statue of myself to commemorate my own actions." 

And again, on the 14th of June 1847, the Duke wrote to Croker : — " It has always been 
my practice, and is my invariable habit, to say nothing about myself and my own actions. 

" More than forty years ago Mr Pitt observed that I talked as little of myself or my own 
acts as if I had been an aasLstant-surgeon of the army. . . . 

" I follow the habit of avoiding to talk of myself and of what I have done ; with the 
exception only of occasions when I am urging upon modem contemporaries measures 
which they don't like, and when I tell them I have some experience, and have had some 
success in these affairs, and feel they would experience the benefit of attending to my 
advice, I never talk of myself. 

** These are the reasons for which they think that I don't care what they do with the 

*" But they must be idiots to suppose it possible that a man who is working day and 
night, without any object in view excepting the public benefit, will not be sensible of a 
disgrace inflicted upon him by the Sovereign and Government whom he is serving. The 
ridicule will be felt, if nothing else is 1 " . . . 


its present situation, and only regrets that this monument 
should be so unworthy of the great personage to whose honour 
it has been erected. 

Viscount Hardinge to Queen Victoria, 

21th July 1847. 

Lord Hardinge, with his most humble duty to your Majesty, 
humbly acknowledges the letter in which your Majesty has 
been graciously pleased to approve of his conduct in tho 
Grovemment of your Majesty's Eastern Empire, and to sanc- 
tion his return to Europe the end of this year. 

It will always be a source of happiness to Lord Hardinge to 
have contributed his efforts towards maintaining the stability 
of your Majesty's Indian possessions committed to his charge, 
and he feels, in the performance of these duties, that the 
approbation of his Sovereign is the most grateful distinction 
to which honourable ambition can aspire. 

The Govemor-Greneral entertains the most sanguine expecta- 
tions that pea^e has been securely established beyond the 
north-west frontiers, as well as throughout India, and in this 
confidence he has ordered nearly 60,000 men of the native 
force to be reduced, which reductions have caused no discontent, 
being for the most part voluntary on the part of the men and 
accomp€uiied by gratuities in proportion to the service per- 

As regards internal dangers, there is no native power re- 
maining able to fjMje a British army in the field. The people 
are very generally engaged in trade and agriculture, and to a 
great extent in the British Provinces no longer carry arms. 
Confidence in the protection of the Government has super- 
seded the necessity. Formerly trade and wealth were con- 
centrated in a few large cities — and Indian manufactures have 
been ruined by cheaper goods sent from England ; but wealth 
and comfort have, under British rule, been more extensively 
diffused through the agricultural districts, and all classes, 
including the warlike tribes, are becoming more devoted to 
the happier and safer pursuits of peace. 

In this state of things Lord Hardinge entertains a very con- 
fident expectation that the Government of India, by judicious 
attention to the native army in time of peace — ^which may 
have its peculiar dangers — ^will maintain due subordination in 
its ranks ; and by abstaining from all interference in the re- 
ligious prejudices of the people, will secure their loyal attach- 

126 A GENERAL ELECTION [chap, xvi 

ment to your Majesty, and their willing obedience to the 
Governor acting in your Majesty's behalf. 

Lord Haj'dinge has the honour to subscribe himself your 
Majesty's most humble and dutiful Subject and Servant, 


Lord John Rvssdl to Queen Victoria, 

FEMBBOEB LODGE, 5^ Augutt 1847. 

Lord John Russell presents his humble duty to your Majesty, 
£uid has the honour to state that he considers the elections 
which have taken place since he last addressed your Majesty 
as satisfactory. 

The Liberal gains, upon the whole, have been upwards of 
thirty, and when the elections are concluded will probably be 
upwards of forty. 

The rejection of so distinguished a man as Mr Macaulay^ 
is the most disgraceful act in the whole election. It has only 
a parallel in the rejection of Mr Burke by the city of Bristol. 

The result of the whole elections will be, even if Sir George 
Grey is defeated in Northumberland, that neither Lord John 
Russell or any other Minister will have the command of a 
regular party majority. 

But it is probable that Government wiU be sufficiently strong 
to resist both a reaction against free trade, and any demo- 
cratic movement against the Church or the aristocracy. 

Lord John RuaseU to Queen Victoria. 

PEMBROEB lodge, 2Ut August 1847. 

Lord John Russell presents his humble duty to your Majesty, 
£uid has the honour to state that Lord Fitzwilliam writes that 
he shall feel hurt if the Earldom of Strafford should be given to 
Lord Strfrfford. 

To save his feelings on this subject (Lord Fitzwilliam having 
the first Wentworth Earl of Strafford's property). Lord John 
Russell would humbly propose that Lord Strafford should be 
created Earl of Middlesex. 

But as the relations of the late Duke of Dorset might also 
object. Lord John Russell will adhere to his original proposal 
if your Majesty should deem it best. 

1 InooDseqaenceofhisyoteonMaynooth. The poem he wrote on the present occasion 
will be remembered. 


In fact, many titles have been given in succession to different 
families. Leinster, Orford, Westmorland, cu'e familiar in- 

Lord John Russell hfi« drawn up a paper respecting the Irish 
elections, on which the Prince wished to have his remarks. 
The subject is a dark and a dreary one. . . . 

Chajiges of Ministry may occur, but it is to be hoped that 
your Majesty may be enabled to keep the present Parliament 
for five or six years. For nothing tends so much to favour 
such reformations, to impede sober improvements, and to 
make members stand in servile awe of their constituents, as 
frequent Greneral Elections. 

Lord John Russell is happy to see in the newspapers the 
successful progress of your Majesty's journey. It has occurred 
to Lord John Russell that as the hcu^est is very promising, 
and the election heats will have subsided, it may be desirable 
that your Majesty should go for three days to Ireland on your 
Majesty's return. The want of notice might in some respects 
be favourable, and would be an excuse to many Irish peers, 
who might otherwise complete their ruin in preparations. 

Queen Victoria to Earl FitzwUliam. 

Zrd September 1847. 

The Queen has received Lord Fitzwilliam's letter of the 31st.i 
As she sees Lord Strafford's elevation to an Earldom already 
announced in the Gazette of the same day, it will be impossible 
for the Queen to have the question of Lord Fitz William's ad- 
verse claim reconsidered. She thinks it right, however, to say, 
that, knowing that the Wentworth property came to Lord 
Fitzwillieun, it was only after the Heralds College had proved 
that Lord Strafford was the representative of the Earl of 
Strafford of the Second Creation, whilst Lord Fitzwillieun was 
not properly considered the representative of the first, that the 
Queen approved the selection of the title of Earl of Strafford 

1 On John, Baron Strafford, who as Sir John Byng had been distingnifthed in the 
PeniDSola and at Waterloo, receiving the Earldom of Strafford, Lord Fitzwilliam had 
written : " Yoor Majesty has, undoabtedly, tiie power of conferring this, or any other 
tatular dignity, according to your good pleasure, bat I yentore to hope that, if it be your 
Majesty's pleasure to revive the Earldom of Strafford, it will not be bestowed npon any 
other perscm than the individual who has now the honour of addressing your Majesty. 

" The name and history of the first Earl of Strafford is, of course, familiar to your 
Majesty, and I venture to conclude that your Majesty is not unaware of my b^ng his 
descendant, his heir, and his successor. I own his lands, I dwell in his house, I possess 
his papers, and, if neither my father nor myself have evo: applied to the Grown for a 
renewal of his titles, it has not been because either of us was indifferent to those honours 
or to tiie favour of tiie Sovereign, but because we were well aware of the embarrasament 
which such applicati<»s frequently occasion to the Grown and its advisers.** 

128 MISSION TO THE VATICAN [chap, xvi 

for the present Lord. The Queen is very sorry to find that 
this step should have been annoying to Lord Fitzwilliam, for 
whom she has ever entertained a sincere regard. She has sent 
his letter on to Lord John Kussell. 

Queen' Victoria to Lord John Russdl, 

Abdyerikie:, Zrd September 1847. 

The Queen has received Lord John Russell's two letters of 
the 31st and 1st inst., and is glad to find that the views 
expressed in the Prince's Memorandum coincide with those 
entertained by Lord John and Lord Palmerston, and also by 
Lord Minto» as she infers. As it seems difficult to find a person 
of inferior rank and position than Lord Minto, and of equal 
weight, the Queen sanctions his undertaking the mission on 
the understanding that the object of it will be communicated 
beforehand to the Courts of Vienna and Paris, and that both 
these Governments will be made fully acquainted with the 
position England thinks herself bound to take with regard to 
the Italian controversy.^ After this shall have been done, the 
sending of Sir William Parker with his fieet to the West Coast 
of Italy strikes the Queen as a very proper measure to give 
countenance to the Sovereigns engaged in Liberal Reform, 
and exposed alike to the inroads of their absolutist neighbour, 
and to the outbreaks of popular movements directed by a 
republican party, and perhaps fostered by the Austricui 

Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians. 

Ardvbrikib, Ith September 1847. 

My deabest Uncle, — I thank you much for your kind letter 
of the 28th. Mamma writes me such a good report of you 
both, which gives us the greatest pleasure. I hope you like 
young Ernest ? This horrid PrasKn tragedy » is a subject one 
cannot get out of one's head. The Government can in no way 
be accused of these murders, but there is no doubt that the 
standard of morality is very low indeed, in France, and that the 

1 Lord John Bnssell proposed tiiat Lord Ifinto shoold be sent on a special mission to 
the Vatican. See Litrodoctory Note for the Year, arUe^ p. 115. 

a The sensational murder in Paris of the Duchesse dePrasIin, daughter of the diploma- 
tist, Sebastian!, by her husband, who committed suicide. This event, as well as the aflCair 
of the Spanish marriages, largely contributed to the Orleanist catastrophe of 1848, for it 
was suspected that the Gourt and the police had not merely connived at, but had actually 
furnished the means for, the Duke's suicide, in order to prevent certain ezpoeores which 
would have resulted from his trial. 

1847] PORTUGAL 129 

higher classes cure extremely unprincipled. This must shake 
the security and prosperity of a nation. In my opinion, 
nothing heis gone on so well since the unfortunate false move 
of the Spemish marriages, and I think you will admit que cela 
fCa pas ports honheur au Roi. I am very anxious to explcun 
that I was out of spirits, and, I fecur, humour, when I wrote to 
you last, for I love this place dearly, and the quiet, simple and 
wild life we lead here, particularly, in spite of the abominable 
weather we have had ; and I am not the enemy of La ChassCf 
as I expressed myself — on the contrary, I am very keen about 
it, and am. only annoyed at being unable to see it all. Keally, 
when one thirds of the very dull life, and particularly the life 
of constant self-denial, which my poor, dear Albert leads, he 
deserves every amusement in the world, and even about hia 
amusements he is so accommodating that I am deeply touched 
by it. He is very fond of shooting, but it is all with the 
greatest moderation. Do you know that you never wished 
Albert joy of his birthday ? 

The state of politics in Europe is very critical, and one feels 
very anxious for the future. 

With my dearest Albert's love, and mine, to my beloved 
Louise. Believe me, ever your devoted Niece, Victoria R. 

Queen Victoria to Viscount Palmerston, 

Windsor Gasile, 9<A Ocuiber 1847. 

The Queen has just received these drafts, which she heis read 
attentively, and thinks very proper ; she only perceives one 
omission which should be rectified, viz. the one in which Lord 
Palmerston directs Sir H. Seymour and the Admiral to remain 
perfectly neutral in ca^e of a conflict, and that is that our Fleet 
should naturaJly give protection to the persons of the King and 
Queen and Royal Family in case of danger, for we cannot 
allow them to be murdered, even if we should not be able to 
prevent their losing their Crown (which God forbid). 

The Queen must again observe that the drafts have since 
some weeks peat been sent to her after they were gone, so that 
she can make no remark upon them. The Queen wishes to 
have copies of these drafts. 

Lord John Ru^sseU to Queen Victoria, 

Chesham plage, 14/A Oetober 1847. 

Lord John Russell presents his humble duty to your Majesty. 
He has seen the Governor (Mr Morris) and Deputy-Governor 
vol.. n 5 

130 CRISIS IN THE CITY [chap, xvi 

(Mr Prescott) of the Bank, Mr Jones Loyd ^ and Mr Newman* 
Sir Charles Wood has seen many others connected with the 
City, and they have both made statements to the Cabinet. 

The general result is : That an unsound state of trade has 
prevailed for some time. 

More failures may be expected.* 

The funds may fall still lower. 

Any interference by Government in the way of issuing more 
notes might postpone but would aggravate the distress. 

The railway calls odd much to the present difficulty. 

No forcible interference with railways would be justifiable, 
but a voluntary postponement of the execution of their Acts 
might be proposed to Parliament. 

It will be seen by this short summary that the persons who 
by official position, practical experience, and much reflection, 
are most capable of giving an opinion think that little or 
nothing can be done by Parliament or by Government. 

It is one of those revulsions in trade which take place> 
periodically, increased in extent by the expansion of com- 
merce, but controlled in its operation by the sound principles 
of currency which have lately prevailed. 

The Act of 1844 is generally blamed, but without the least 
reason. The accommodation afforded by the Bank has been, 
large, liberal, and continuous. The circulation of notes ap« 
preaches nineteen millions. 

Upon fully considering the difficulty of finding a person of 
ability and experience to place at the head of the Poor Law 
Conmiission, Lord John Russell has come to the conclusioa 
that the best course he can take is to propose to Mr Cobden: 
to accept the Presidency with a seat in the Cabinet, and to 
propose to the Duke of Bedford at the same time a seat in the 
Cabinet without office. 

Various retwons for making this offer to Mr Cobden will 
occur to your Majesty. His ability, his popularity with the- 
working classes, and his knowledge of sound principles of 
political economy are undoubted. Sir Robert Peel's tribute ta 
him has raised him both on the Continent and in this country, 
so that his presence in the Cabinet would give satisfaction ta 

On the other hand, the landed nobility and gentry would 
be glad to see the Duke of Bedford take part in the delibera.- 
tions of the Government. 

With your Majesty's permission Lord John Russell will 
propose these arrangements to the Cabinet to-morrow. 

1 Afterwards Lord Overstone. 

a There had been many failnroB in London, Lirecpool, and elae^i^iere. 

1847] MR COBDEN 131 

He has sent for Mr Lee^ to offer him the Bishopric of 
Manchester. It is with great regret he states that Mr Stephen a 
is obliged from ill health to retire from the Colonial Office. 
He has asked Lord Grey to be made a Privy Councillor, having 
received an assurance from Lord Stanley that Sir Robert Peel 
would propose it to your Majesty on his retirement. Lord 
John Russell submits the proposal to your Majesty as an honour 
due to Mr Stephen's long, able, and calumniated ^ public 

Lord John Russell has the honour to submit a letter of Lord 
Clarendon's in reference to a Memorandum of His RoycJ 
Highness Prince Albert. 

Lord John Russell thinks that in the present state of affairs, 
the abolition of the Lord-Lieutenancy must not be thought of, 
and that with the exception noticed by Lord Clarendon, the 
suggestions made by the Prince would be the best measures 
for adoption, when that event takes place. 

It is possible the Prince may not have a copy of the 

Queen Victoria to Lord John RtisselL 

WINDSOR Gastlb, 14th October 1847. 

The Queen has received Lord John Russell's letter, bringing 
several very important subjects before her. She regrets that 
the state of the Money Market should still be so uncomfortable, 
but is sure that the Government cannot by any interference 
do much to mend matters, though it might easily render them 
still more complicated, and make itself responsible for a crisis, 
which it has in no way either brought on or been able to 

As to Mr Cobden's appointment to the Poor Law Board, the 
Queen thinks that he will be well qualified for the place in 
many respects, and that it will be advantageous to the Govern- 
ment and the Country that his talents should be secured to the 
service of the State, but the elevation to the Cabinet directly 
from Covent Garden ^ strikes her as a very sudden step, cal- 
culated to cause much dissatisfaction in many quarters, and 

1 James Prince Lee, then Headmaster of King Edward's School, Birmingham, 
Bishop of Manchester, 1847-1869. 

2 James Stephen, Under-Secretary for the Colonies, 1836-1847, afterwards Professor 
d Modem History at Cambridge. 

3 He had made enemies by supporting the abolition of slavery. 

4 Matters, however, became worse, and Lord John Bussell and Sir Charles Wood wrote 
recommending that the Bank should enlarge their discounts and advances, for* which they 
would propose a bill of indemnity. By degrees the panic subsided. 

fi Free Trade meetings had taken place in Covoit Gkurden Theatre. 


setting a dangerous example to agitators in general (for his 
main reputation Mr Cobden gained as a successful agitator). 
The Queen therefore thinks it best that Mr Cobden should 
first enter the service of the Crown, serve as a public func- 
tionary in Parliament, and be promoted subsequently to 
the Cabinet, which step will then become a very natural 

The Duke of Bedford's entrance into the Cabinet the Queen 
would see with great pleasure. 

The Queen returns the Prince's Memorandum to Lord John, 
whilst she has retained Lord Clfiurendon's letter upon it, which 
the Prince is anxious to keep if Lord John will allow him. 
The Queen must agree with Lord John and Lord Clarendon 
that the present moment is not a favourable one for the ex- 
periment of abolishing the Lord-Lieutenancy. 

Mr Stephen's elevation to the Privy Coiuicil will be a very 
proper reward for his long and faithful services. Would he not 
be a proper person for one of the new Civil degrees of the 
Bath ? 1 

Qtieen Victoria to Lord John Russell, 

Windsor Castle, ISth October 1847. 

The Queen cannot resist drawing Lord John Russell's atten- 
tion to the enclosed paragraph taken from the Revue des Deux 
MondeSy which gives an account of the late events in Spjiin. 
How little honourable our lino of policy appears according to 
this version, which the Queen is afraid is so very plausible that 
it will be received as the truth by the whole French public and 
a great part of the European public at large ! It is, no doubt, 
perverted, but still the Queen must admit that our policy, ajid 
especially Mr Bulwer's conduct at Madrid, lays itself open to 
flimilar construction. After the gross duplicity and inmiorality 
which characterised the conduct of France with respect to the 
Spanish marriages, though she had all the profit and we all the 
loss, still we had a very strong position on the side of integrity, 
morality, and honour. The Queen is afraid that the diplo- 
matic intrigues and counter intrigues at Madrid have made us 
lose daily more of that advantageous position without any 
compensation on the other side. The Queen entreats Lord 
John Russell not to underrate the importance of keeping our 
foreign policy beyond reproach. Public opinion is recognised 
as a ruling power in our domestic affairs ; it is not of less 
importance in the society of Europe with reference to the 

1 He was made a K.C.B. 


conduct of an individual state. To possess the confidence of 
Europe is of the utmost importance to this country. That is 
the reason why the Queen is uneasy about our dealings in 
Greece, and anxious that we should not be misunderstood with 
respect to Italy. The Queen is sorry to perceive that the 
French complain of unfair dealing on our part with reference 
to the negotiations in the River Plate.^ Have they any right 
to do so ? Have Lord Howden's private instructions been at 
variance in any way with the public instructions which had 
been agreed upon with the French Government ? The Queen 
would consider any advantage gained at the expense of an ally 
as a loss. 

Queen Victoria to Viscount Palmeraton, 

Windsor Oastle, 2Uh October 1847. 

The Queen has perused with eagerness Mr Bulwer's accounts 
of the late extraordinary events in Spain, but must confess 
that she has in vain looked for an explanation of the real 
motives and causes of the crisis. Has Lord Palmerston re- 
ceived any private letters throwing more light upon the 
matter ? There seems to prevail the greatest mystery about 
the a^air. Is the Queen reconciled with her husband ? Has 
she sent for him ? Have all the accounts of her hatred for Don 
Francisco and the Queen-Mother been false ? All these 
questions are unanswered. 

Viscount Palmeraton to Queen Victoria, 

Foreign Office, ZOth October 1847. 

Viscount Palmerston presents his humble duty to your 
Majesty, and has many apologies to make for not having 
attended your Majesty's Council to-day, and the more so as 
his absence arose from an inadvertence which he is almost 
c^hamed to mention. But having got on horseback to ride to 
the station, with his thoughts occupied with some matters 
which he W6« thinking of, he rode mechanically and in a fit of 
absence to the Nine Elms Station,* and did not recollect his 
mistake till he had got there ; and although he made the best 
of his way afterwards to the Paddington Station, he could not 

1 Sir John Hobart Oaradoc, second Lord Howden, British Minister at Bio Janeiro, was, 
together with Count Walewski, the French Minister there, engaged in a special mission to 
the Biver Plate and Urogoay ; Buenos Ayres was blockaded by the British Fleet. 

3 The former terminus of the London and South- Western Railway. 

134 THE QUEEN OF PORTUGAL [chap, xvi 

get there in time for any train that would have taken him 
early enough to Windsor. 

Viscount Palmerston received this morning your Majesty's 
remarks upon his proposed drafts to Sir Hamilton Seymour, 
and has modified some of the expressions in those drafts ; but 
those drafts are only private and confidential answers in his 
own name to private and confidential communications from 
Sir Hamilton Seymour, and they express only his own personal 
opinions, and not those of the Government. 

Viscount Palmerston is sorry to say that the circumstaoices 
lately mentioned by Sir Hamilton Seymo^ir, coupled with the 
course pursued at Lisbon almost ever since the successful inter- 
ference of the Allied Powers, have brought Viscount Palmer- 
ston to the painful convictions expressed in the above-men- 
tioned drafts, and he feels desirous, for his own sake, to plarce 
those convictions at least upon record in this Office. He will 
be most happy to find that he is mistaken, and will most truly 
and heartily rejoice if events should prove that the confidence 
which your Majesty reposes in the sincerity and good faith of 
the Queen of Portugal is well founded ; but in a matter of 
this importance Viscount Palmerston feels that it is his bounden 
duty to your Majesty not to conceal his opinions, even though 
they should, as in the present case, unfortunately differ from 
those which your Majesty entertains. 

Queen Victoria to Viscount PdLmeraton, 

Windsor Oastle, Zlst October 1847. 

The Queen acknowledges Lord Palmerston's letter of yester- 
day. She can have no objections to Lord Palmerston's putting 
on record his opinion that the Queen of Portugal is leaning 
to the Chartist Party, and exposing herself, her Throne and 
country, to great danger by so doing ; but she would inMAch 
deprecate the putting on record the grave accusation " that 
the Queen of Portugal is in a secret and perfect understanding 
with the Cabrals," ^ which is really not warranted by the facts 
of the case, and is likely to mislead both our Government and 
the Minister at Lisbon. Since the Queen wrote yesterday the 
Prince received a letter from the King of Portugal (which he 
sent to Lord Palmerston), and which quite explains the position 
and views of the Court : we must not forget either that Sir 
Hamilton Seymour acknowledges that a change of Ministry at 

1 The Ministry in which Gastro Gabral had been Premier, and his brother, Jos^, Ifinister 
of Justice, had resigned in May 1846. 


this moment would provoke a fresh Revolution at Lisbon. 
Although this would come from the Cabralists, the Queen of 
Portugal very naturally may not feel inclined to run that risk 
to avoid a danger the existence of which she does not see or 

Lord John RuaaeU to Qtieen Victoria, 

CZESHAM PLACE, 10th November 1847. 

Lord John Russell presents his humble duty to your Majesty, 
and after reflecting on the various reasons in favour of, and 
objections against, different Bishops for promotion to the 
Archbishopric of York, he humbly submits to your Majesty 
the name of Dr Musgrave, Bishop of Hereford, to be appointed 
Archbishop of York. The Bishop of Hereford is a man of 
sound information, good judgment, and business habits. It 
is of such consequence to have an Archbishop of York, who 
wiU, like the late Archbishop, avoid quarrels and crotchets, 
and live peaceably with all men. 

Should your Majesty approve, he would then submit the 
name of Dr Hampden to be the new Bishop, and that of the 
Bishop of Oxford ^ as Queen's Almoner. 

The Bishop of Oxford to Mr Anson, 

16th November 1847. 

My deab Anson, — ^I enclose you a letter from Lord John 
Russell, offering me the Lord Ahnonership. I have ventured 
to write direct to Her Majesty, to express to her my grateful 
feelings at this notice of me. But I have been so afraid of 
offending by anything hke freedom of expression that I much 
fear I have instead said coldly and formally what, if I had 
said it naturally, would have expressed the deepest and most 
exuberant feelings of what I trust I may venture to say is not 
an ungrateful heart. Ungrateful it would be most certainly 
if it did not feel to its deepest core the \mif orm and great kind- 
ness I have received now for so many years from Her Majesty 
and from the Prince. I wish I could better show them my 
feelings. . . . 

You have read no doubt the Times article on Dr Hampden. 
I am afraid it is too true. I cannot conceive what was Dr 
Hampden's recommendation. He was not a persecuted man, 

1 Samuel Wilberforce. 


for he had got a station far higher than he ever dreamed of 
ahready ; he is not an able, or an active man, or one popular 
■with any party, and unless Lord John Russell wished for an 
opportunity of shocking the young jconfidence of the Church 
in him, I cannot conceive why he should have made it. I 
deeply lament it. Pray let me hear of your health, if it be 
only a single line (to Cuddesdon), and believe me to be, ever 
your truly affectionate, S. Oxon. 

Queen Victoria to Viscount Palmeraton, 

nth November 1847. 

The Queen has oeen struck by the concluding passage of the 
accompanying draft to Mr Bulwer. It gives an official declarer 
tion of the views of England with respect to a point of the 
greatest gravity and importance, and upon which the Queen 
apprehends that the mind of the Cabinet is not yet made up. 
The Queen herself has come to no determination upon it, and 
it may involve the question of peace or war. Surely our line 
of policy under future and uncertain contingencies ought not 
to be pledged beforehand and in such an indirect way. The 
Quesn wishes Lord Palmerston to speak to Lord John Russell 
upon the subject, and to show him the draft and these remarks 
of the Queen upon it. 

Viscount Palmerston to Qv^een Victoria, 

FOREiaN Ofpicb, nth November 1847. 

Viscount Palmerston presents his humble duty to your 
Majesty, and in compliance with your Majesty's wishes he has 
omitted the whole of the latter part of the proposed despatch 
to Mr Bulwer. 

Queen Victoria to Lord John Russell, 


The Queen has seen with surprise in the Gazette the appoint- 
ment of Mr Corigan,^ about wluch she must complain to Lord 
John Russell. Not only had her pleasure not been taken upon 
it, but she had actually mentioned to Lord Spencer that she 

1 Dominic John Gorigan, M.D., Physician-in-Ordinary to Her Majesty in Ireland. 

1847] SWITZERLAND 137 

had her doubts about the true propriety of the appointment. 
Lord John will always have found the Queen desirous to meet 
his views with regard to all appointments and ready to listen 
to any reasons which he might adduce in favour of his recom- 
mendations, but she must insist upon appointments in her 
Household not being made ivithoiU her previous sanction, and 
least of all such as that of a Physician to Iter person. 

The King of Prussia to Queen Victoria. 

26th November 1S47. 

... I hear with delight and thankfulness that it heis pleased 
your Majesty to agree to a Conference for regulating the dread- 
ful Swiss qucurrels.^ I took the Uberty to propose my beloved 
and truly amiable town of Neuchatel as the plsrce for the 
Conference, not only because its position in neutral territory 
and in Switzerland herself qualifies it above every other place 
for that purpose, but particularly because this meeting of the 
representatives of the great Powers there would protect it and 
the courageous and faithful country of Neuchatel from in- 
dignities, spoUation, and all the horrors which oppress at this 
moment the unfortunate and far from courageous Fribourg. 
I am afraid that your Majesty has not a full appreciation of the 
people and the partisans who fill Switzerland with murders 
and the miseries of the most abominable Civil War. Your 
Majesty's happy realms have centuries ago passed through the 
*' phase " of such horrors, and with you the state of parties has 
been (as one says here) grown in bottles,' under the glorious 
Constitution given by God and History, but not " made " ; 
but there, in Switzerland, a party is becoming victorious ! ! ! 
which, notwithstanding the exercise of Christian charity, can 
only be called " QottLos und RecMLos " (without God and 
without right). For Germany, the saving of Switzerland from 
the hands of the Radicals is simply a vital question. If they 
are victorious there, in Germany likewise torrents of blood will 
flow ; I will answer for that. The murder of Kings, Priests, 
and Aristocrats is no empty sound with them, and Civil War 
in song, writing, word, and deed, is their watchword. " Toute 
charit6 bien entendue commence par soi-meme.'* So they 
begin with their own country, true to this " Christian " (!) 
motto. If they are allowed to proceed, surely they wonH 

1 See Introductory Note for the year, ante, p. 115. 
3 Aa old wine improves by being kept in bottles. 

vol.. n 6* 


stop there. Thousands of emigrated malefactors wait only for 
a sign (which their comrades and allies in Grermany will not be 
backward in giving) to pour forth beyond the German frontier. 
In Germany the people are just as little fond of them as they 
were in Switzerland, but the experience of Switzerland tea>ches 
us that that alone cannot stem their victorious march, if 
circumstances are favourable to them. The German people 
rely upon their Governments, and do nothing, but Govern- 
ments are weaJsened by the modem Liberalism (the precursor 
of Radicalism, as the dying of chickens precedes the Cholera) 
and will have to take the consequences of their own negligence. 
Notwithstanding people and princes, that godless bcmd will 
march through Germany, because, though small, it is strong 
through being united and determined. All this I have pon- 
dered in my head and heart (led, so to say, by the hcuid of 
History), and that has prompted me now to propose that the 
German Confederation (which en par&niMae includes a popula- 
tion of more than forty millions) should appecur as one of the 
great Powers of Europe at the settlement of the Swiss dispute^ 
and should be admitted as such by the other great Powers. 
Would your Majesty do justice, and give pboteotion to this 
idea f . . . F. W. 

Queerh Victoria to the King of Prussia. 

OSBORNB, 6th Deeemlber 1847. 

Since your letter was written events have followed ea<ih 
other so rapidly that at this moment the war in Switzerland 
may be considered as terminated ; by the capitulations of the 
Cantons formerly constituting the Sonderbund, two parties, 
between which a mediation of the great Powers could have 
taken place, have ceased to exist, and consequently mediation 
and the Conference resulting from it are in fact no longer 
necessary or possible. I had proposed London as the place of 
conference, but should with pleasure have waived this pro- 
position to adopt the place which you have expressed a wish 
of seeing fixed for that pvirpose, viz. Neuchatel, and I should 
have felt truly happy if by so doing I could have met your 
wishes, and given further protection to the principality against 
possible aggressions on the part of the Federal Government of 
Switzerland. As matters now stand, the only complication 
which might arise is that between Neuchatel and the Diet. 
I have, in anticipation of any such event, instructed Sir Strat- 
ford Canning to exert himself to his utmost to dissuade the 
Diet from any plan of aggression on your territory, cuid he has 


1847] THE QUEEN'S REPLY 139 

been furnished with an able and elaborate state paper for his 
guidance, which Chevalier Bunsen had drawn up, discussing 
the legal merits of the case. Should events prove that Sir S. 
Canning did not arrive in time, or had not the power of averting 
a hostile step against Neuchatel, you may rely upon my 
readiness at all times to put my good offices at your disposal. 
Should a conference upon Swiss affairs still become necessary^ 
I conceive that the only plea upon which the great Powers 
could meet in conference would be their having guaranteed 
the independence and neutrality of Switzerland, and by 
implication the Federal Compax;t amongst the Cantons. This 
has not been the case with regard to the (German Confederation, 
and I do not readily see in consequence how the Confederation 
could be admitted into this Conference, however much I confess 
I would like to see Germany take her place amongst the 
Powers of Europe, to which her strength and population fairly 
entitle her. I may say that my Government are equally im- 
pressed with me with the importeuice of Germaii luiity and 
strength and of this strength weighing in the balance of power 
of Europe ; I am sure that the EngUsh public generally share 
this feeling, but I must not conceal from your Majesty that 
much would depend upon the manner in which this power waa 
represented. Much as the EngUsh would like to see this power 
represented by the enlightened councils of your Majesty, they 
would be Guiimated with very different feelings in seeing it in 
the hands of Prince Mettemich . . . Victoria K. 

Queen Victoria to Lord John Russell. 

OSBORNB, 19th December 1847. 

The Queen has to acknowledge the receipt of several letters 
from Lord John Russell. She was pleased to see that the 
Debates have been brought to such a satisfactory conclusion, 
all the propositions of the Government having passed with 
such good majorities. The Queen must mention to Lord John 
that she was a little shocked at Sir Charles Wood in his speech 
upon the Commission of Inquiry, designating the future 
Cfovemment, and selecting Lord Greorge Bentinck, Mr Disra«li(!), 
and Mr Herries as the persons destined to hold high offices in 
the next Government. 

The Bishops behave extremely ill about Dr Hampden, and 
the Bishop of Exeter ^ is gone so far, in the Queen's opinion, 
that he might be prosecuted for it, in calling the Act settling 

1 Henry Phillpotis, Bishop of Exeter, 1830-1869. 


140 LORD MELBOURNE [chap, xvi 

the supremacy on the Crown a f(yul act and the Magna Charta 
of Tyranny, 

The Queen is glad to hear that Lord John is quite recovered. 
We are going to Windsor the day after to-morrow. 

Viscount Melbourne to Queen Victoria, 

BROCKET HALL, 30<A December 1847. 

Lord Melbourne presents his humble duty to your Majesty. 
He has received with great pleasure your Majesty's letter of 
this morning, and reciprocates with the most cordial heartiness 
your Majesty's good wishes of the season, both for your Majesty 
and His Royal Highness. Lord Melbourne is pretty well in 
health, perhaps rather better than he has been, but low and 
depressed in spirits for a cause which has long pressed upon 
his mind, but which he has never before communicated to your 
Majesty. Lord Melbourne has for a long time found himself 
much straitened in his pecuniary circumstances, and these 
embarrassments are growing now every day more and more 
urgent, so that he dreads before long that he shall be obliged 
to add another to the list of failures and bankruptcies of which 
there have lately been so many. This is the true reason why Lord 
Melbourne has always avoided the honour of the Garter, when 
pressed upon him by his late Majesty and also by your Majesty. 
Lord Melbourne knows that the expense of accepting the blue 
ribbon amounts to £1000, and there has been of late years no 
period at which it woiild not have been seriously inconvenient 
to Lord Melbourne to lay down such a sum> 

1 The Qaeen, throagh the agency of Mr Anson, adyanced Lord Melbourne a considerable 
sum of money, which seems to have been repaid at his death. Apparently Lord Mel- 
boome's declining health caused him to magnify his difficulties. The r^ort which JiSx 
Anson made shows that he was in no sense seriously embarrassed. 


At the outset of the yectr 1848 great eJarm was felt throughout 
England at the supposed inadequacy of her defences, a peuiic being 
caused by the indiscreet pubHcation of a confidential letter from the 
Duke of Wellington to Sir John Burgoyne, to the effect that in his 
judgment the whole South Coast was open to invasion, emd that 
there were no means of opposing a hostile force. The Government 
turned its attention to reconstructing the Militia, euid raising the 
Income Tax for the purpose. But the outlook was completely 
changed by the French Revolution ; Louis Philippe, who had just 
bst his sister emd counsellor, Madame Adelaide, impulsively ab- 
dicated, on a rising taking place, euid escaped with his family to this 
country. England emd Belgium were unaffected by the outburst of 
revolution which convulsed Europe : the Emperor of Austria was 
forced to abdicate, and Mettemich, like Guizot, became a fugitive ; 
Prussia was shaken to her foundation, emd throughout Germcuiy the 
movement in favour of representative institutions made rapid head- 
way ; a National Assembly for Germcuiy was constituted, and 
Schleswig was claimed as em integral part of the German dominions. 
In Italy also the Revolution, though premature, was serious. The 
Pope, not yet reactionsbry, declsbred war against Austria ; the 
Milanese rose against Radetzky, the Austrian Governor, emd King 
Charles Albert of Sardinia marched to their assistance. A repubUe 
was proclaimed in Venice, but these successes were afterwards 
nullified, emd a Sicilian rising against Ferdinand II. of Naples was 
suppressed. In Fremce the revolutionfikry movement held steadily on 
its course, a National Assembly was elected, and national workshops 
established ; Louis Bonaparte, who hskd been a fugitive in Englemd, 
was allowed to return, and was elected President of the Republic by 
cm immense majority of the populctr vote. 

The friends of Revolution had no success in England ; a very 
serious riot at Glasgow was dispersed, emd the meeting convened by 
Feargus O'Connor for the 10th of April on Kennington Common, 
which was to carry a huge petition in favour of the People's Charter 
to the House of Commons, proved a ridiculous fiasco. Ireland was 
much disturbed during the year by what was known as the Young 
Ireland agitation, a movement organised by youthful, and for the 
most part cultivated, leaders, emd utterly different from the sturdy 
Repeal movement of O'Connell. Smith O'Brien, brother of Lord 


142 INTRODUCTORY NOTE [chap, xvn 

Inchiquin, wm the ringleader, and was backed by Mitchel, DufEy, 
Meagher, €uid others, as well as by the Nation and United Irishman 
newspapers. Like Chartism, the movement ignominiously collapsed 
€uid its leaders were convicted of treason. An Act was at the same 
time pckssed reducing some offences (till then legally defined as 
treason) to felonies, and improving the law as to offences against the 
person of the Sovereign. 

The treacherous murder of two Englishmen in the Punjab led to 
operations against the Sikhs, Lord Dalhousie— who had recently 
become Viceroy — after some hesitation, reinforcing Lord Gough, 
the Commander-in-Chief, and proceeding in person to the frontier ; 
a British force sustained a reverse at Ranmuggur on 22nd November, 
and a decisive result was not arrived at till 1849. 

Li South Africa, a proclamation by Sir Hcury Smith, the Governor 
of the Cape of Good Hope, extending British sovereignty over the 
country between the Orange and Vaal rivers, led to a collision with 
the Boers, and ultimately to the founding of the Transvaal State. 
Sir Harry Smith defeated the Boers on the 29th of August at Boom 



T7ie King of the Belgians to Queen Victoria, 

Labeen, lit January 1848. 

My deabest Victobia, — ^This is a most melancholy begin- 
ning of the year. Our poor Aunt Ad^laide,^ so kind to us, has 
depcurted this life yesterday morning. Poor Louise feels it 
dreadfully, as nothing could be more affectionate and more 
motherly than she was for Louise. She was always very kind 
and friendly to me, and I must confess I feel the blow much. 
I am very much alarmed about the poor King ; he must feel 
the loss of a sister and friend so entirely devoted to him 
deeply ; it is the thing most likely to hurt and shake his health. 
You will forgive if I cut short here, as I am much disturbed by 
this melancholy event. I think you would act kindly in 
writing to the King. We are too nearly connected not to do 
it, and it will soothe him, who has been enough persecuted 
since last yeax. I trust you begin better than we do this most 
melancholy January. My best love to Albert, and believe me 
ever, my dearest Victoria, your truly and devoted Uncle, 

Leopold R. 

Queen Victoria to Lord John Russell,^ 

Windsor Gasilb, 3rd January 1848. 

The Queen sends Lord John Russell a letter from her Uncle, 
the King of the Belgians, which will show how dreadful a blow 
Mme. Adelaide's death will be to the King of the French and 
Royal Family. The Queen's first thought was to write to the 
King, which she would not have done without first menticming 
it to Lord John ; but upon reflection she thought it quickest 

1 Sister of Zing Loois Philippe. 

2 This letter is headed " Beprodaction— Substance of a letter to Lord John BusBell* 
^vzitten from reoollecti<m." 



and best to write at once to her cousin Clementine (Princess 
Augustus of Saxe-CJoburg), to convey in her name to the King 
her sincere sympathy at this melancholy event. The Eang of 
the Belgians' letter has, however, brought back to the Queen 
her first thought of writing to the King, and she wishes to know 
what Lord John thinks of it. The Queen thinks it as im- 
dignified sis unfeeling to carry on political coolness at momentr 
lilie these, when her own feelings of sympathy are so strong 
and so sincere. The Queen would certainly under other 
circumstances have instantly written to the King. On the 
other hand, her first letter to her cousin (the King's daughter) 
may be sufficient, as it conveys a direct message ; and there 
may be people who will construe this into a political act, but 
the Queen thinks that this risk should rather be run than that 
she should appear unfeeling and forgetful of former kindness 
and intimacy. 

The Queen would be glad to have Lord John's opinion or 
this subject as soon sis possible. 

The Queen of the Belgians to Queen Victoria* 

LABEEN, 8rd January 1843. 

My deably beloved Victoria, — ^I thank you most sincerely 
for your kind last letter, and all your good wishes for the New 
Year. Alas ! the year ended and began in a most painful and 
heartrending vxiy for us. The loss of my good, excellent, be- 
loved Aunt is an immense misfortune for us aU, and the most 
dreadful blow for my poor Father. We are all broken-hearted 
by this, at last unexpected event. Some years we were uneasy 
about my poor Aunt's health, ard of late I had been particu- 
larly alarmed by what I heard of her increasing weakness ; but 
I was very far from believing that her end was so near. I was 
only anxious for the winter. At least her end wsis peaceful. 
She went to sleep and did not wake more. She died without 
a struggle ; the horror of death, and the still greater pang of 
the last farewell, of the last leave-taking of her beloved brother, 
was spared her. I thank God for this proof of His mercy, and 
hope He will keep up my Father under such a heavy affliction. 
To him the loss is irretrievable. My Aunt lived but for him ; 
one may almost say that her affection alone had kept her alive 
these last years, and a devotion like hers — ^that devotion of 
all instants — so complete, so full of self-denial — caimot, will 
never, be replaced. A heart like h^rs, so true, so noble, so 
warm, so loving, so devoted, is rarely seen. To us also, inde- 
pendently of my Father, the loss is a dreadful one. My Aunt 


was a second mother for us ; we loved her and looked up to 
^ I her in this way, and certainly few mothers do for their children 
^ I what she did for us, or loved them better. We are overwhelmed 
•^ I with grief by the sudden disappearance of a being so dear and so 
^ I necesaary to us all, and we go to-morrow to Paris, to mourn 
"" with the remainder of the feunily, and offer my poor Father 

the only consolation he can feel at this cruel moment, that of 
being surrounded by all those he loves. I have still so much 
to do previous to our melancholy journey that I cannot say 
more to^iay. I am sure you will excuse me. I shall, God will- 
ing, write in a more proper way the next time. In the mean- 
while I thank God that you are unberufen all well, and, in sorrow 
or in joy, I am equally, my beloved Victoria, from the bottom 
of my heart, yours most devotedly, Louise. 




Lord John RusseU to Qiteen Victoria. 

WOBUBN Abbbt, 4th January 1848. 

Lord John Russell presents his hiunble duty to your Majesty, 
and has no hesitation in saying that he thinks your Majesty 
will do well to follow your own kind impulse to write a letter 
to the King of the French. There will be some persons, and 
M. Guizot perhaps among the number, who will construe this 
into a political act ; but it is better to be subject to such mis- 
constructions than to leave undone any act of sympathy to 
the King of the French in his sore affliction. 

Should the King attempt to found upon your Majesty's 
letter any political intercourse. Lord John Russell has no 
doubt that your Majesty will explain to him that your present 
proceeding is entirely founded upon private regard, and past 
recollections of intimsrcy, and is not intended as an opening 
for political correspondence. 

Qiieen Victoria to the King of the French, 

Gs. DB WINDSOR, 5 Janvier 1848. 

SiBE BT MON BON Fbebe, — Je uc voulais pas suivre Timpulse 
de mon coeur, dans les premiers instants de la vive douleur 
de votre Majesty, en vous 6crivant — ^mais maintenant oii la 
violence de cette rude secousse peut-etre sera un peu adoucie, 
je viens moi-mSme exprimer k votre Majesty la part sincere que 
nous prenons, le Prince et moi, k la cruelle perte que vous venez 
d'6prouver, et qui doit vous laisser un vide irreparable. 

146 ENGLAND AND THE PORTE [ohap. xvn 

Ayez la bont6. Sire, d'ofifrir nos expressions de condol^ance 
h, la Keine, et faisant des voeux pour le bonheur de V.M., je me 
dis, Sire et mon bon Frere, de V.M., la bonne Soeur, V. R. 

A S.M. le Koi des Fran9ais. 

The King of the French to Queen Victoria. 

PABIB, 8 Jawoier 1848. 

Madame ma bonne Sosub, — ^Dans la profonde douleur oii 
m'a plong6 le coup cruel qui vient de me frapper, une des plus 
douces consolations que je pusse recevoir, est la lettre que votre 
Majesty a eu la bont6 de m'adresser, tant en son nom qu'en 
celui du Prince son Epoux. L' expression de la part que vous 
prenez tous deux a mon malheur, et de Tint^rSt que vous 
continuez k me porter, m'a vivement 6mu, et quelque dou- 
loureuse qu'en soit Toccasion, qu'il me soit permis, Madame, de 
vous en remercier, et de dire h, votre Majesty que mon coeur 
et mes sentimens pour elle, sont et seront toujours les mSmes 
que ceux que j'^tais si heureux de Lui manif ester k Windsor 
et au Chateau d'Eu. 

Je prie votre Majesty de vouloir bien etre, aupres du Prince 
son Epoux, rinterprete de toute ma sensibility. La Keine est 
bien touch^e de ce que votre Majesty m'a charg6 de Lui t^- 
moigner, et je la prie de croire que je suis toujours, Madame, 
ma bonne Soeur, de votre Majesty, le bon Fr^re, 

Louis Phujppe R. 

Queen Victoria to Viscount Palmerston. 

Olarbmont, nth Jamian/ 1843. 

The Queen has this morning seen a draft addressed to Lord 
Cowley, in which he is desired to advise the Sultan to give 
Abd-el-Kader a command in his Army — a step which the 
Queen cannot approve, not because it is not good advice to the 
Porte, but because it is uncalled for on our part, and might be 
considered by France as a hostile step towards her. What 
would we say if the French were to advise M. Ali to give Akbar 
Khan the command of his army ? ^ 

Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians. 

CLARBifONT, llth January 1848. 

My deabest Uncle, — I always write with pleasure to you 
from this so very dear old place, where we are safely and 

1 See cmU, vol. i. p. 254. 

1848] CLAREMONT 147 

hi^pily housed with our whole little family since yesterday. 
The weather is very cold, and it is the third night of a black 
host which is likely to continue for some days. Many thanks 
for your kind letter of the 7th, which, according to the new 
arrangemient, I received already on the 8th. Your visit will, I 
fear, have been a very melancholy one. Poor Mme. Adelaide's 
death was so extremely sudden, it must be a dreadful blow to 
the poor King. I have written to him. Louise will have told 
you that poor Aunt Sophia ^ is decidedly sinking. 

I wish, dearest Uncle, if even Louise feels unequal to coming 
to us now (which would be a sad disappointment)^ you would 
come to see us. Why not come while she is at Paris ? It 
would be such a pleasure to us. You will of course have no 
balls, and you might come even sooner than you originally 
intended. Pray do see if you could manage this. I am sure 
you could. If Louise coiUd come, of course that would be 
still better. 

Albert desires me to ask you the following favour, viz. if 
you would give us the picture that is here of Grand Uncle 
Frederic (the Field-Marshal), that we might hang it up in 
liOndon, where we have made a fine collection of his con- 
temporaries, and we would replace it by a faithful copy, which 
could be hung up in the frame here. Will you grant this ? 

We are very desirous of getting the Woods and Forests 
to buUd a small glass dome to the greenhouse here where the 
palm-trees are, and (if you approved) there could be no 
difficulty in getting this done ; the palm-trees are beautiful, 
Wid will be quite stunted and spoilt if not allowed to grow. 
We shall stay here till Monday next. With Albert's love, ever 
your truly devoted Niece, Victobia R. 

The King of the Belgians to Qtieen Victoria. 

Laeeen, 12th January 1848. 

My deabest Victobia, — ^A messenger of my own going to 
England, I take advantage of it to write you a few words. 
Your kind letter to the poor King was an act for which I thank 
you from the bottom of my soul, because it made him so 
happy. T was still in his rooms — where the family has been 
breakfeusting and dining till now — when yoiu* letter arrived ; 
he was so delighted with it that he kissed it most tenderly. 1 
left him tolerably well on Monday, but with rather a severe 
cold. He had certainly at the end of December the Grippe, 

1 Fifth daughter of George UL, bom 1777. She died in May 1848. 


which perhaps was the immediate cause of poor Aunt's death, 
as from over-anxiety for her beloved brother, she got up in the 
night to find out how he weus. His cold had been better when 
he went to Dreux, then he met the procession, and walked with 
it bareheaded to the church ; this seems to have given him 
a new cold. His nerves are also a good deal shaken, and this 
renders him very irritable. He is much occupied about some 
of the arrangements connected with poor Aunt's fortime ; she 
left her landed property to Nemours, Joinville, and Mont- 
pensier, charged with the various sums she left to nearly all 
the branches of her family. The King is to have, however, the 
enjoyment of the whole of this fortune for his life. His great 
wish would be to employ the revenues, from the whole of the 
succession legacies as well as landed property, to free the 
landed property of the mortgage of the various legacies. This 
will require a good many years, and I told him that it would 
force him to live till it would be arranged, which will easily 
require ten years. In France a good feeUng has been shown on 
this occasion. I heard from trustworthy quarters that even 
people who were known to be personally not very kind to the 
King, expressed themselves most anxious for his preservation. 
Whenever that sad event will take place, the reaction in 
Europe will be great, eus all the bad passions which are kept 
down by him will then of course try to get the over hand. The 
Queen is much affected by all this, and thinks much of her own 
end. The children, including good H61ene, have all behaved 
with the utmost affection to their parents, and nothing can 
equal particularly good Nemours' devotion and attention. 
My beloved Child, your truly devoted Uncle, Leopold R. 

T?ie King of the Belgians to Qtteen Victoria. 

Laeeen, I2th February 1848. 

My deabest Victobia, — . . . From Paris the news are alarm- 
ing ; 1 the struggle of the Liberal Party leaning towards 
radicalism, or in fact merely their own promotion ; principles 
are otU of the question. This state of affairs reacts in a very 
lamentable way upon the well-being of the great European 
commimity. Great complaints are made that the working 

1 The Republican movement had been making rapid headway in Paris, and the leader 
of the Opposition, M. Odilon Barrot, proposed Guizot's impeachment on the 22nd of 
February. Louis Philippe, when it was unfortunately too late, consented to a change of 
Ministry, but the formation of a new Government proved impossible. The Bevolutioa 
could have been quelled, had it not been for the King's reluctance to shed blood in defence 
of the Throne to which he had been elected ; even to the agitators themselves the com- 
pleteness of the Revolution was a surprise. 


are deprived of work and at the same time political 
agitation is kept up, which must have the effect of stopping 
tranfiactions of every description. The human race is a sad 
ereation, and I trust the other plamets are better organised and 
4hat we may get there hereafter. . . . Your devoted Uncle, 

Leopold R. 

Lord John RusaeU to Queen Victoria, 

DOWNlKa Strbkt, S8rd Fdmiary 1848. 

Lord John Russell presents his humble duty to your Majesty, 
and will have the honour of waiting upon your Majesty at three 
o'clock to-morrow. 

Lord Normauiby's letters from Fcuns give a little infor- 

There Yiaa been some fighting in the streets, and some appre- 
hension for the night. But it does not appear probable that 
any serious danger will be incurred, with the troops in such 
force in Paris. 

Hereafter there may be a serious struggle between the 
Government of the King, and the Republicans. But in that 
> such men as M. Odilon Barrot will shrink from the contest. 

The King of the Belgians to Queen Victoria, 

Laeeen, 26th February 1848. 

My deabest Victoria, — 1 am very unwell in consequence 
of the awful events at Paris. How will this end ? Poor Louise 
is in a state of despair which is pitiful to behold. What will 
soon become of us God alone knows ; great efforts will be made 
to revolutionise this country ; as there are poor and wicked 
people in all countries it may succeed. 

Against France we, of course, have a right to claim protection 
from England and the other Powers. I caui write no more. 
Qod bless you. Ever your devoted Uncle, Leopold R. 

1 A letter from Lcnrd Kormanby on the IZih ot March to Lord Paknerston (published 
in Ashlej'B Life of Palmerstan^ vol. i. chap, iii.) gives an accoont of the situation on the 
«▼» of the 22nd ot February. On the 25tii of February he wrote : — 

** The National Guards, mixed witti the people, .were in full march upon the Tuileries, 
«iid the latter threatening the life of the King, when Emile Girardin, the editor of the 
Frss$e nefwroaper, who was in advanoe as an officer of the National Guard, hastily drew 
m an Act of Abdication, and placed it before the £ing as the only means of safety. The 
ung at first refused, saying that he would rather die ; but the Due de Montpensier urged 
Um, not only for his own sake, but to save his country from confusion. The King at last 
ilgned it, and threw it impatiently at the Due de Montpensier, who, I believe, has been in 
favour of c(»iciliatory counsel throughout. The Royal Family then retired through the 
Ovden, the King saying to every one as he passed, ' J'abdique, j'abdique.' '* 

Tlie Queen of the Belgians to Queen Victoria. 

BBUBBEifi, 27CA FdrtKuy 1M8. 

My deably BEiiOVED Victoria, — I understemd by an ao- 
count arrived this morning, and which seems to be correct, that 
my unf ortmiate parents arrived in England before yesterday 
evening : but I don't know where they are. (I don't know 
anything of them since the 23rd, evening ! ! !) But you will 
surely know, 8uid kindly forward the letter to my poor mother. 
I have just received your kind letter of the 25th, but I am 
unable to say more to-day. You will easily conceive my agony 
and anguish. What an uribdievable clap of thimder I I know 
still nothing of what Nemours and Montpensier are become. I 
rely on your interest and sympathy, and remain as ever, youra 
most devotedly, Louise. 

I hear this moment with an extreme relief that my parents 
were to arrive yest^day at London, 8uid thank God from the 
bottom of my heekrt for their safety ! In my agony I did not 
wish for anything else. 

The King of Prussia to Queen Victoria. 

27th Februaiy 1848. 

Most gracious Queen and Sister, — Even at this midnight 
hour of the day, on the evening of which the awful news from 
Paris has arrived, I venture to address these lines to your 
Majesty. God has permitted events which decisively threaten 
the peace of Europe. 

It is 8U1 attempt to " spread the principles of the Revolution 
by every means throughout the whole of Europe." Thia 
programme binds together both these individueds and their 
parties. The consequences for the peace of the world are dear 
and certain. If the revolutionary party carries out its pro- 
gramme, " The sovereignty of the people," my minor crown 
will be broken, no less certainly than the mighty crowns of 
your Majesty, and a fearful scourge will be laid upcm the na- 
tions ; a century [will foHow] of rebellion, of lawlessness, and 
of godlessness. Tlie late Eong did not dare to write " by the 
Grace of God." We, however, call ourselves King " by the 
Grace of God," because it is true. • Well, then, most gracious 
Queen, let us now show to men, to the peoples threatened with 
(Eruption and nameless misery, both that we understand our 


sacred office and how we understand it. God has placed in 
your Majesty's hauids, in the hands of the two Emperors, in 
those of the Germaui Federation, and in mine, a power, which, 
if it now acts in union and harmony, with reliance on Heaven, 
is able humanly speaking, to enforce, with certainty, the 
maintenance of the peace of the world. This power is not that 
of arma, for these, more them ever, must only cifford the uUima 

The power I mean is '* the power of united speech.'* In the 
year 1830 the use of this immeasurable power was criminally 
neglected. But now I think the danger is much more pressing 
than it was then. This power is divided among us in equal 
portions. I possess the smallest portion of it, and your Majesty 
has by far the greatest share. That share is so great that your 
Majesty, by your powerful word, might alone carry out the 
task. But the certainty of victory lies, subject to the Divine 
blessing, solely in our utterance being united. This must be 
our message to France ; *' that all of us are cordial well-wishers 
to France ; we do not grudge her all possible welfare and glory ; 
we mean never to encroach on it, and we will stand by the 
new Government as by the old, foi de gentUs-hommes. But 
the first breach of the peace, be it with reference to Italy, 
Belgium, or Germany would be, imdoubtedly and at the 
same time, a breach with ' all of us,' and we should, with 
all the power that God has given us, let France feel by sea 
and by land, as in the years '13, '14, and '15, what our u^on 
may mean." 

Now I bless Providence for having placed Lord Pahnerston 
at the head of your Foreign Office, and keeping him there at this 
very moment. During the last quarter of the past ye€ur I could 
not always cordially agree with him. His genuine British 
disposition will honour this open confession. All the more 
frankly may I now express the hopes which rise in me, from the 
very fact of his holding that office at the present moment ; for 
a more active, more vivid, more energetic Minister of foreign 
affairs, a man that would more indef atigably pursue great aims, 
your Majesty could probably never have. If at this grave hour 
he sets himself to proclaim that our forces are united ; if he 
himself utters his message as befits St Greorge, he will earn the 
blessing of millions, and the blessing of God and of the world 
will rest on your Majesty's sacred head. That I am your 
Majesty's and Old England^s most faithful and most devoted 
brother and companion, you are aware, and I mean to prove 
it. On both knees I adjure you, use, for the welfare of Europe, 
" EngeUands England" 
With these words I fall at your Majesty's feet, most gracious 

162 ANARCHY IN PARIS [chap, xvn 

Queen, and remain your Majesty's most faithfully devoted, most 
attached Servant and good Brother, Fbedebio Wiixiam. 

P,S. — ^The Prince I embrace. He surely feels with me, and 
justly appraises my endeavours. 

Post saiptumf 28^, in the evening, 

I venture to open my letter ag€un, for this day has brought 
us news from France, which one can only call horrible. Ac- 
cording to what we hear, there is no longer left a King in 
France. A regency, a government, and the most complete 
anarchy has ensued, under the name of the Republic — a con- 
dition of things in which, at first, there will be no possibility of 
communicating with the people, infuriated with crime. In case 
a Government shovdd evolve itself out of this chaos, I conscien- 
tiously hold that the " united word " of the great Powers, such 
as I have indicated in the preceding pages, should be made 
known, without any modification, to the new holders of power. 
Your Majesty's gracious friendship will certainly not take amiss 
this addition to my letter, though it be not conformable to strict 

The fate of the poor old King, of the Duchess of Orleans, of 
the whole honourable and amiable family, cuts me to the heart, 
for up to this time we do not know what has become of any of 
them. We owe Louis Philippe eighteen happy years of peace. 
No noble heart must forget that. And yet — ^who would not 
reco^mise the avenging hand of the King of kings in all this ? 

I kiss your Majesty's hands. 

The Queen of the Belgians to Queen Victoria, 

Brussels, 2Sth February 1848. 

My deably beloved Victoria, — WJiat a misfortune / What 
an awful, overwhelming, unexpected and inexplicable catastrophe. 
Is it possible that we should witness such events, and that this 
should be the end of nearly eighteen years of courageous and 
successful efforts to maintain order, peace, aaid make France 
happy, what sJie was ? I have heard, I read hourly, whaJt has 
happened : I cannot believe it yet ; but if my beloved parents and 
the remainder of the family are at least safe I won't mind the 
rest. In the hours of agony we have gone through I asked God 
only to spare t?ie lives, and I ask still nothing else : but we don't 
know them yet all saved, and till I have heard of my unfortunate 
parents, of my unhappy brothers far away, of all those for 
whom I would lay my life at any moment and whose danger I 
could not even share or alleviate, I cannot exist. 


I was sure, my beloved Victoria, of all you would feel for us 
when you would hear of these awful events. I received yester- 
day your two kind, warm, sympathising letters of the 25th and 
26th, and thank you with aU my heart for them, and for yours 
and Albert's share and sympathy. 

Our anguish has been undescribable. We have been thirty-six 
hours vrUhout any news, not knowing even if my parents and the 
family were still alive or not, and what had been their fate. 
Death is not worse than what we endured during these horrible 
hours. We don't know yet what to think, what to believe, I 
would almost say, what to wish ; we are stunned and crushed 
by the awful blow. What has happened is unaccountable, 
incomprehensible ; it appears to us like a fearful dream. Alas ! 
I fear my dear beloved father was led away by his extreme 
courage ; by that same courage which had made his success and 
a p€urt of his strength ; for it is strange to say that even those 
that deplored most his resolution never to yield on certain 
things gave him credit for it. The exaggeration of the system 
of peace and resistance, or rather immobility, lost him, as that 
of war lost Napoleon. Had he shunned less war on all occa- 
sions, and granted in time some trifling reforms, he would have 
satisfied public opinion, and would probably be still where he 
was only eight days ago, strong, beloved, and respected ! 
Guizot's accession has been a>s fatal as his fall, and is perhaps the 
first cause of our ruin, though my father cannot be blamed 
for having kept him in office, as he had the majority in the 
Chamber, and an overwhelming one. Constitutionally, he 
could not have been turned out, and it was impossible to foresee 
that when all was quiet, the country prosperous and happy, the 
laws and liberty respected, the Government strong, a Revolution 
— and su/:h a Revolution — ^would be brought on by a few im- 
prudent words, and the resistance (lamentable as it was) to a 
manifestation which, in fact, the Government had a right to 
prevent. It was the Almighty^ s will : we must submit. He had 
decreed our loss the day He removed my beloved brother ^ from 
this world. Had he lived stiU, all this would have turned 
otherwise. It has been also an immense misfortune that 
Joinville and Aumale were both away. They were both 
popular (which poor dear never-to-be-sufficiently'respected 
Nemours was not), energetic, courageous, and capable of turn- 
ing chance in our favour. Oh ! how I long to know what is 
become of them ! I caimot live till then, and the thought of 
my unfortunate parents annihilates me ! Poor dear Joinville 
had foreseen and foretold almost all that has happened, and it 

1 The Doc d'OrlSans, who was killed on 13th July 1842. 


was the idea of the crisis he apprehended which made him so 
unhappy to go. He repeated it to me several times six weeks 
ago. Alas ! nobody would believe him, and who covld believe 
that in a day, almost without struggle, aUwoidd be over, and the 
past, the present, the future carried away on an unaccountable 
storm ! God's will be done ! He was at least merciful to my 
dear Aunt, and I hope He will preserve all those dear to me ! 

Here everything is quiet : the horror general, and the best 
feeling and spirit prevailing. There is still now nothing to 
fear : but if a republic really established itself in France, it is 
impossible to tell what may happen. For this reason your 
Uncle thinks it right that we should remove to some place of 
safety what we have of precious. If you permit I will avail 
myself of the various messengers that are going now to send 
under your care several boxes, which you will kindly send to 
Claxemont to Moor, to keep with those your Uncle already sent. 
They contain your Uncle's letters and those of my parents — 
the treasure I most value in the world. 

29th. — ^My deably beloved Victoria, — This was written 
yesterday, in a moment of comparative quiet, when I thought 
my parents at least safe and in security in England. Albert's 
letter to your Uncle of the 27th, which arrived yesterday even- 
ing, says they were not arrived yet, and I am again in the most 
horrible agony. I had also yesterday evening details of their 
flight (my father flying / / 1) by Madame de Murat, Victoire's 
lady, who has gone to England, which quite distracted me. 
Thank God that Nemours and C16m at least are safe / I am 
quite unable to say more, and I hope the Duchess and Alexan- 
drine will excuse me if I don't write to them. Truly, I canH. 
I thank you only once more, my beloved Victoria, for all your 
kindness and irUerest for my unfortunate family, and trust aU 
the anxiety you feel for us won't hurt you. God bless you ever, 
with all those dear to you. Believe me always, my J^eloved 
Victoria, yours most devotedly, Louise. 

I send you no letter for my mother in the present uncer- 

Lord John Russell to Queen Victoria. 

Chesham Place, 2dth FeUmutry 1848. 

Lord John Russell presents his himible duty to your Majesty, 
and has the honour to transmit a short note from Lord 
Normanby, which is very satisfactory. 

Lord John Bussell declared last night that your Majesty 
would not interfere in the internal affairs of France. But in 


repeating this declaration, in answer to Mr Cobden, he added 
that the sacred duties of hospitality would be, as in aH times, 
performed towards persons of all opinions. Both declarations 
were generally cheered. In extending this hospitality to 
members of the Royal Family of France, it is only to be ob- 
served that no encourcigement should be given by your Majesty 
to any notion that your Majesty would assist them to recover 
the Grown. In this light it is desirable that no Prince of the 
House of Orleans should inhabit one of your Majesty^s palaces 
in or near London. 

Queen Victoria to Viscount Palmerston. 


The Queen has perused the enclosed despatches and the 
proposed Minutes of a draft to Lord Normanby with Lord John 
Russell's remarks. She approves generally of the Minutes, but 
would like that amongst the laudable intentions of the new 
French Government, t?icU of keeping inviolate the European 
Treaties should be brought in in some way. In the paper No. 
2, the expression " moat cordial friendship '* strikes the Queen 
as rather too strong. We have just had sad experience of 
cordial understandings. " Friendly relations " might do better 
or the whole sentence might run thus : '* that not peace only 
but cordial friendship with France had been at aU times [instead 
of ** is one of the,*' etc.] one of the first wishes of the British 
Government, and that this wiU remain," etc., etc., etc. 

Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians. 

Buckingham Palaob, in March 1848. 
My deabest Uncle, — Every hour seems to bring fresh news 
and events. Victoire and her children and Montpensier are at 
Jersey, and are expected to arrive to-morrow. About the King 
and Queen, we still know nothing, but we have some clue, and 
think he may be somewhere on the coast, or even in England. 
We do everything we can for the poor defiur Family, who are 
indeed most dreadfully to be pitied ; but you will naturally 
understand that we cannot make cause commune with them and 
cannot take a hostile position opposite to the new state of things 
in France ; we leave them alone, but if a Government which 
has the approbation of the country be formed, we shall feel it 
necess€ury to recognise it, in order to pin them down to maintain 

1 Apparently written at the end of Febmary. 


peace and the existing Treaties, which is of great importance. 
It will not be pleasant for us to do this, but the public good and 
the peace of Europe go before one's feelings. God knows what 
one feels towards the French. I trust, dear Uncle, that you will 
maintain the fine and independent position you are now in, 
which is so gratifjring to us, and I am sure you will feel thai 
much as we all must sympathise with our poor French re- 
lations, you should not for that quarrel with the existing state 
of things, which however is very uncertain. There were fresh 
reports of great confusion at Paris, which is sure to happen* 
All our poor relations have gone through is worthy only of a 
dreadful romance, and poor C16m behaves beautifully, courage- 
ously, and calmly, and is full of resignation : but she can get no 
sleep, poor thing — and hears the horrid cries and sees those 
fiend-like faces before her ! The children are very happy with 
ours, but very unmanageable. I saw the Duchesse de Mont- 
pensier to-day. 

Now, with every wish for aU going on well, believe me ever, 
your devoted Niece, Victobia R. 

Mr Featherstonhaugh^ to Viscount Palmerston. 

Havre, 3rd March 1848. 

My dear Lobd Palmerston, — It was a hair-trigger affair 
altogether, but thanks be to God everything has gone off 
admirably. I was obliged to abandon the plan of trusting the 
King in a fishing-boat from Trouville. The weather was very 
stormy ; had he attempted to find the steamer, he might have 
failed, for the sea was in a furious state and the wind ahead. 
There was also the danger of the fishing-boat being lost, a 
contingency the very idea of which made me miserable. 

I therefore abandoned the plan altogether, and after much 
and careful refiection determined to execute one more within 
my control, and the boldness of which, though trying to the 
nerves, was its very essence for success. It was to bring the 
King and Queen into Havre itself before anybody could suspect 
such a dangerous intention, and have everything ready for 
their embarkation to a minute. To carry out the plan, I 
wanted vigilant, intelligent, and firm agents, and I found them 
as it turned out. It was known to me that the lower classee 
suspected it was M. Guizot concealed at Trouville, and as some 
sinister occurrence might reasonably be expected there, I sent 
a faithful person into Calvados. It was high time. The mob 

1 British Oonsul at Havre. This letter was sabmitted to the Queen by Lord Palmerston. 


had assembled at the place where the King was, who had to 
slip out at the back door and walk two leagues on foot. At 
length he reached a small cottage belonging to a gardener at 
Honfieur, where the Queen was. This was half-past six o'clock 
A.M. yesterday. My agent saw the King and Queen, who, after 
some conversation, sent him back with this message, that they 
*' woidd wait where they were until they again heard from me, 
and would carry out my final eirrangements with exactitude, 
as far as it depended upon them.*' I now instructed Captain 
Paul to be ready at half -past seven p.m., when it would be dark, 
to have his water hot, ready to get up steam ; to have only a 
rope mioored to the quay with an anchor astern ; to expect 
Xne with a party a Httle before eight p.m., and as soon as I had 
got on board with my party and told him to push off, he was 
to let me go on shore, cut his rope and cable, get into the middle 
of the Basin, up with his steam and jib and push for England, 
^ot a word was to be spoken on board. 

To get the King here from Honfleur the following method 
A^as adopted : M. Bresson, a loyal and inteUigent officer in the 
French Navy and well known to the King, and Mr Jones, my 
Vice-Consul and principal Clerk, went in the steam ferry-boat 
a quarter before five p.m. to Honfieur. From the landing-place 
it is three-quarters of a mile to the place where the King and 
Queen were concealed. The ferry-boat was to leave Honfleur 
for Havre a quarter before seven o'clock. I had given M. 
Bresson a passport for Mr and Mrs Smith, and with this pass- 
port the King was to walk to the landing-place, where he was 
to be met by my Vice-Consul and be governed by him. 

If the gens (Tarmea disputed his passport Mr Jones was to 
vouch for its regularity, and say that he was sent by me to 
conduct Mr Smith to Havre, who was my Uncle. M. Bresson 
was to follow with the Queen, and the rest of the suite were to 
come to the ferry-boat one after another, but none of the party 
were to know each other. The ferry-boat w€w to arrive in 
Havre about half -past seven, and I was to do the rest. A white 
pocket-handkerchief was to be twice exhibited as a signal that 
all was right so far. The difl&culty of the gens d'armes being 
infinitely more to be provided against and apprehended here, 
I fijrst confidentially communicated to the greatest gossips in 
the town that I had seen a written statement from an official 
person that the King had reached England in a fishing-boat 
hoxD. the neighbourhood of Tr^port, and then got some persons 
whom I could rely upon, sons of my tradesmen here who are in 
the National Guard, to be near the steamer that was to receive 
the Eling, to give me their assistance if it should be necessary, 
on account of the turbulence of the crowd, to embark some 

168 A GRAPHIC NARRATIVE [chap, xvn 

friends of mine who were going to England. And if an extra- 
ordinary ninnber of gens d'armes were stationed at the steamer^ 
and they hesitated about letting my Uncle go on board, then 
about one hiuidred yards off I had two persons who were to 
pretend a quarrel and a fight, to which I Imew the gena d^armes 
would all go as well as the crowd. In the meantime I hoped 
that as Captain Paul made no noise with his steam that the 
crowd would not assemble, and that we might find no gena 
d'armes. The anxiously expected moment at length arrived. 
The ferry-boat steamer came to the quay ; it was almost dark» 
but I saw the white pocket-handkerchief. There was a great 
nimiber of passengers, which favoured the debarkation. When 
half of them were out, the trembling Queen came up the ladder. 
I took her hand, told her it was me, and M. Bresson walked 
with her towards our steamer. At last came the King, dis- 
guised, his whiskers shaved off, a sort of casquette on his head» 
and a coarse overcoat, and immense goggles over his eyes. Not 
being able to see well, he stumbled, when I advanced, took his 
hand and said, ** Ah, dear Uncle, I am delighted to see you." 
Upon which he answered, " My dear Greorge, I am glad you are 
here." The English about me now opened the crowd for their 
Consul, and I moved off to a quiet and shaded part of the quay. 
But my dear Uncle talked so loud and so much that I had the 
greatest difficulty to make him keep silence. At length we 
reached the steamer ; it was like a clock-work movement. The 
crowd was again opened for me. I conducted the King to a 
state-room below, gave him some information, and having 
personally ascertained that the Queen was in her cabin, and 
being very much touched with her tears and her grateful ac- 
knowledgments, I respectfully took my leave, gave the Captain 
the word to cut loose, and scrambled ashore. In twenty 
minutes the steamer was outside, steaming away for England. 
I drove down to the jetty, and had that last satisfaction of see- 
ing her beyond all possibility of recall, and then drove home. 
Much has been said this morning about the mysterious depar- 
ture of Captain Paul, and I have been obliged to confess that 
the gentleman I was seen conducting on board was a brother 
of the King of Naples, who was immensely frightened without 
cause, and that I had engaged the steamer for him and his 
family. Many think, however, that it was the King, but then 
again that could not be if he crossed over from Tr^port in a 
fishing-boat. We have got everybody completely mystified, 
and there are only four persons in the secret, who wUl all remain 
in the same story. 

I have scribbled, amidst the most hurried engagements, this 
little narrative, believing that it would interest your Lordship. 


It has the interest of romance and the support of truth. I 
have the honoiir to be, etc. G. W. Featherstonhaugh. 

Information has just reached me that one hour after the 
King and Queen left their hiding-place la^t night, and just 
when I was embarking them, an ofl&cer and three gens d'armes 
came to the place to arrest him. They were sent by the new 
Republican Prefet, It appears that the man who gave him 
refuge had confessed who he was as soon as the King had left 
Trouville, and had betrayed the Bang's hiding-place at Hon- 
fieur. What an escape ! Yoiu* Lordship will see a paragraph 
in the enclosed newspaper not altogether false. We in the 
secret know nothing about Louis Philippe ; we know something 
about the Count of Syracuse and something about Mr WiUiam 
Smith. If it leaks out, it must come from England. Here no 
one has any proof. In the meantime almost everybody here 
is delighted to think that he may have escaped. 

Viscount Palmerston to Queen Victoria, 

Oablion Gabdbns, 3rd March 1848. 
(3 P.M.) 

Viscount Palmerston presents his hiunble duty to your 
Majesty, and begs to state that General Dumas has just been 
with hmi to announce that the King and Queen of the French 
landed this morning at Newhaven, having been brought over 
in the Stecun Packet Express, in which they embarked at Havre 
yesterday evening about eight o'clock. 

General Dmnas says that till the morning of their arrival at 
Dreux the King and the Queen imagined that the Comte de 
Paris hfitd succeeded to the Throne, and that the Duchess of 
Orleans had been declared Regent ; that when they heard that 
a RepubUc and a Provisional Government had been declared 
they thought it unsafe to remain at Dreux ; and that they then 
separated in order to go by different roeids to Honfleur, where 
they were to meet at a small house belonging to a friend of 
General Diunas. At that house they remained 'for some days, 
until Mr Featherstonhaugh opened a communication with 
them. The King then removed to TrouviUe in order to embark 
from thence in a manner which Mr Featherstonhaugh had 
arranged, and he remained there two or three days for that 
purpose ; but the weather was too stormy, and prevented his 
departure. In the meanwhile the people of Trouville found out 
who he was, and their demonstrations of attachment became 
inconvenient. He therefore returned to Honfleur, and the 
arrangements were altered. Yesterday evening at seven 


o'clock the King, the Queen, and General Dumas came to the 
ferry-boat which pHes between Honfleur and Havre, and were 
met by the Vice-Consul, who treated the King as uncle of the 
Consul. On landing at Havre the King walked straight down 
to the Express Packet, which was lying ready ; the Queen went 
separately, and after making a slight rovind through the streets 
of Havre embarked also ; the Packet then immediately started, 
and went into Newhaven in preference to any other port, 
because no Packets start from thence for the French coast. 
General Dumas says that the whole party were unprovided with 
anything but the clothes they wore, and he was going to the 
King's banker to provide funds to enable him to come to town, 
€uid said that the Song begged him to apologise for his not having 
at once written to your Majesty to thank your Majesty for the 
great interest which your Majesty has taken in his safety, and 
for the assistance which he has received for his escape, but that 
he would do so this evening. 

General Dumas said that the King's present intention is to 
remain in England in the strictest incognito, and that he and the 
Queen will assume the title of Count and Countess of Neuilly. 

Viscount Palmerston explained to General Dumas that your 
Majesty has made arrangements for the King's reception at 
Claremont, and that your Majesty intended to send down an 
ofl&cer of your Majesty's Household to communicate with the 

General Dumas said that the King would most gratefully 
avail himself of the curangement as to Claremont, but that 
under all circumstances, and as the King wished to remain in 
entire privacy, he thought it would be better that no person 
from your Majesty's Household should go down to the King at 
Newhaven, and that he was sure the King would rather find his 
own way from the railway station at London Bridge to Clare- 
mont than attract attention by being met at the station by 
any of your Majesty's carriages. 

The King would remain to-night at Newhaven, and would 
come up to-morrow morning. General Dimcias said that the 
King and the Queen had gone through much personal fatigue 
and mental anxiety, but are both well in health. The General 
was going to Count Jarnac before he returned to Newhaven. 

TJie King of the French to Qv^een Victoria, 

Newhaven, Sussex, Zeme Mart 1848. 
Madame, — ^Apres avoir rendu graces h, Dieu, mon premier 
devoir est d'offrir k votre Majesty I'hommage de ma reconnais- 
sance pour la g^n^reuse assistance qu'elle nous a donn^, k moi 


et k toos lea miens et que la Providence vient de couvrir d'un 
sooodB complet, pmsque j'apprends qu'ils sont tous k present 
Bar 1& terre hospitali^re de TAngleterre. 

Ge n'eBt plus, Madame, que le ConUe de Neuilly qui, se rappe- 
lant V08 anciennes bont^, vient chercher sous ses auspices, un 
asyle et une retraite paisible et aussi 61oign6e de tout rapport 
politique que oelle dont il y a joui dans d'autres temps, et dont 
il a toujours pr6cieusement conserve le souvenir. 

On me presse tellement pour ne pas manquer le train qui 
emportera ma lettre que j*ai & peine le temps de prier votre 
Majesty d'dtre mon interpr^te aupr^ du Prince votre auguste 

Ma f emme, accabl6e de fatigue pcur la vie que nous venons de 
mener depuis dix jours ! 6crira un peu plus tard k votre Majesty. 
Tout ce qu'elle a pu faire, est de tracer quelques mots pour 
notre bien aim6e Louise que je recommande k votre bont^. 
On me presse encore, Madame, je ne puis que me souscrire avec 
mon vieil attachement pour vous, de votre Majesty, tres 
affectionn^y Loxtis Philipfe. 

The Queen of the French to QtLeen Victoria. 

Nbwhaybn, Zime Mars 1848. 

Madame, — ^A peine arriv6e dans oette contr6e hospitalidre 
i^r^ 9 jours d'une cruelle agonie, mon premier sentiment, 
aprds avoir b6ni la Divine Providence, c'est de remercier, du 
fond de mon coeiir, votre Majesty, po\ir les fcKsDit^ qu'elle a 
bien voulu nous donner poiu* venir dans ce pays terminer nos 
vieux jours dans la tranquillity et I'oubli. Une vive inquietude 
me tourmente, c*est d'apprendre le sort de mes enfants ch^ris 
desquels nous avons du nous s^parer ; j'ai la confiance qu'ils 
auront trouv6 aussi un appui dans le coeur g6n6re\ix de votre 
Majesty, et qu'ils auront 6t6 6galement sauv^ comme leur 
admirable Pdre, mon premier trisor. Que Dieu vous b6nisse» 
llfadanie, ainsi que le Prince Albert et vos enfants, et vous 
preserve de malheurs pareils aux notres, c'est le voeu le plus 
sincere de celle qui se dit, Madame, de votre Majesty, la toute 
d6vou6e, Marie Amblie. 

Lord John Busaell to Queen Victoria. 

HOUSB or OOMMONS, 3rd March 1848. 

Lord John Russell presents his humble duty to your Majesty : 
he has read with deep interest the affecting letter of the fallen 

veil, n 6 

162 ARRIVAL OF GUIZOT [chap, xvn 

After the vicissitudes of a long life, it may be no irremediable 
calamity if a Prince of great powers of mind and warm domestic 
affections is permitted by Ptovidence to end his days in peace 
and tranquillity. 

Of course all enmity to his projects as a King ceases with his 

M. Guizot came to London from Dover at half -past six. 

Queen Victoria to the King of the French, 

PALAIS DB BUCKllifQHAM, Zhne Mart 1848. 

Stele et mon oher Frere, — C'^tait ime consolation bien 
vive pour moi de recevoir la bonne lettre de votre Majesty qui 
m*a bien touch6e. Nous avons tous 6t6 dans de vives inquie- 
tudes pour vous, pour la Reine et toute la famille, et nous re- 
mercions la Providence po\ir que vous soyez curiv^ en surety 
sur le sol d'Angleterre, et nous sommes bien heureux de savoir 
que vous etes ici loin de tous ces dangers qui vous ont r6cem- 
ment menac^. Votre Majesty croira combien ces demiers 
affreux 6v6nements si inattendus nous ont p^niblement agit^. 
II nous tarde de savoir que vos sant6s n'ont pas 6t6 alt6r6es 
par ces demiers jours d'inqui^tude et de fatigue. Albert me 
charge d'offrir les hommages k votre Majesty, et je vous prie 
de d^poser les notres aux pieds de la Reine, k qui je compte 
r^pondre demain. Je me dis, Sire et mon bon Frere, de votre 
Majesty, la bien afEectionn^e Soeur, Victoria R. 

Queen Victoria to the Queen of the French. 


Madame, — ^Votre Majesty aura excuse que je ne vous ai pas 
de suite remerci6 de votre bonne et aimable lettre de hier. C'est 
des fonds de mon coeur que je me r^jouis de vous savoir en 
surety k Claremont avec le Roi. Mes pens6es 6taient aupres 
de votre Majesty pendant tous ces afifreux jours, et je fr^mis 
en pensant k tout ce que vous avez soiiffert de corps et 

Albert sera le Porteur de ces lignes ; j*aurais 6t6 si heureuse 
de Taccompagner pour vous voir, msds je n'ose plus quitter 

Avec Texpression de I'affection et de Testime, je me dis 
toujours, Madame, de votre Majesty, la bien affectionn^e 
SoBur, Victoria R. 


VtscoufU Palmerston to Queen Victoria, 

Cablion Gardens, 6th March 1848. 

Viscount Palinerston presents his humble duty to your 
Majesty, and cannot see that there could be any objection to the 
King and Queen of the French coming to town to visit your 
Majesty, and indeed, on the contrary, it would seem under 
all the circumstances of the case natural that they should be 
anxious to see your Majesty, and that your Majesty should 
be desirous of receiving them. 

Viscount Palmerston was sure that yo\ir Majesty would read 
with interest Mr Featherstonhaugh's account of the manner in 
which he managed the escape of the King and Queen of the 
French. It is Uke one of Walter Scott's best tales, and the 
arrangements and the execution of them do great credit to 
Mr Featherstonhaugh, who will be highly gratified to learn, 
as Viscount Palmerston proposes to inform him, that your 
Majesty has approved his conduct. Mr Featherstonhaugh 
has also probably rendered a good service to the Provisional 
Grovemment, who would have been much embarrassed if their 
Cammissioner had arrested the King and Queen. 

Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians. 

Buohnqham Palaob, Ith March 1848. 

My deabest UNCiiE, — ^Albert has written to you so con- 
stantly that I have little to add ; he just tells me this is not 
quite true. However, there is nothing very new except that 
we have seen the Eling and Queen ; Albert went down to 
Olaremont to see them on Saturday, and yesterday they came 
here with Montpensier. They both look very abattus, and the 
poor Queen cried much in thinking of what she had gone 
through — and what dangers the King had incurred ; in short, 
hiixnbled poor people they looked. Dearest Vic I saw on 
Sunday ; she has also gone through much, and is so dear and 
good and gentle. She looked wonderfully well considering. 
They are still very much in want of means, and live on a very 
reduced scale. 

Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians, 


My deabest Uncxe, — I profit by the departure of Andrews 
to write to you a few lines, and to wish you joy of the continued 


satisfcKstory behaviour of my friends, the good Belgians ; 
fervently do I hope and really trust aU will go on well ; but 
what an extraordinary state of things everywhere ! ^^ Je ne 
saia phis oti je suis,^^ and I fancy really that we have gone back 
into the old century. But I also feel one must not be nervous 
or alarmed at these moments, but be of good cheer, and muster 
up courage to meet all the difficulties. 

Our little riots are mere nothing, and the feeling here is 
good. . . . What is your opinion as to the late events at Pcuris ? 
Do you not think the King ought to have retired to Vinoennes 
or somewhere else a day or two before, and put himself at the 
head of the army 7 Ought not Montpensier at least to have 
gone to Vincennes ? I know C16m even thinks this — as also 
that one ought to have foreseen, and ought to have managed 
things better. Certainly at the very last, if they had not gone, 
they would all have been massacr^ ; and / think they were 
quite right, and in short could not avoid going as quickly as 
they could ; but there is an impression they fled too quickly. 
StiU the recollection of Louis XVT. ... is enough to justify 
all, and everybody will admit that ; but the I^inces, they 
think, ought to have remained. What do you think of all 
this ? I think the blunders were all on the last three or four 
days — and on the last day, but were no longer to be avoided 
at last ; there seemed a fatality, and aU weus lost. Poor 
Nemours did his best till he could no longer get to the troops. 
People here also abuse him for lotting Victoire go alone — ^but 
he remained to do his duty ; a little more empresaemerU on her 
arrival here I would have wished. Albert told you all about 
the Montpensiers* journey. It would do the King irreparable 
mischief if they went now to Spain ; the feeling of anger would 
all return. Poor people ! they are all in a sad state of want 
at present. 

I must conclude. Hoping to hear from you, and to have 
your opinion. Ever your devoted Niece, Victobia R. 

Queen Victoria to Viscount Melbourne, 

BX7CKINGHAM PALACE, 16th March 1848. 

The Queen cannot let this day pass without offering Lord 
Melbourne hers and the Prince's best wishes for many happy 
returns of it in health and strength. 

Lord Melbourne will agree with the Queen that the last three 
weeks have brought bcu^k the times of the last century, and we 
are in the midst of troubles abroad. The Revolution in France 


is a sad and alarming thing. . . . The poor King and his 
Govermnent made many mistakes within the last two years, 
and were obstinate and totally blind at the last till flight was 
inevitable. But for sixteen years he did a great deal to main- 
tain peace, and made France prosperous, which should not be 
forgotten. . . . Lord Melbourne's kind heart will grieve to 
think of the real want the poor King and Queen are in, their 
dinner-table containing barely enough to eat. And the poor 
Nemours hardly know which way to turn. If the private 
property be not restored God only knows what is to become 
of these distinguished yoimg Princes and their little children. 
What will be their avenir f It breaks one's heart to think of 
it, and the Queen, being so nearly related to them and knowing 
them all, feels it very much. Surely the poor old King is 
sufficiently punished for his faiilts. Lord Beauvale will surely 
be shocked at the complete ruin of the family. Has he seen 
or heard from his old friend Madame de Montjoye, who is here 
with the Queen of the French ? The poor dear Queen of the 
Bdgians is quite broken-hearted, but, thank God, Belgimn 
goes on admirably. In Germany also there are everywhere 
disturbances, but the good Germans are at bottom very 
k^ral. . . . 

The state of Paris is very gloomy ; the rabble armed — 
keeping the Government in awe-^failiu*es in all directions, and 
nothing but ruin and misery. This is too gloomy a letter for 
a birthday, and the Queen must apologise for it. The Prince 
wishes to be kindly remembered to Lord Melbourne. 

The Emperor of Busaia to Queen Victoria. 

« ^ ,22 Mars ,^^^ 

BtPBTBBSBURG,^-— — - 1848. 
8 Avnl 

Madame ma Sceub, — Veuillez me permettre, Madame, 
d'ofifrir k votre Majesty mes sincdres felicitations de son 
heureuse d^livrance.^ Puisse le bon Dieu conserver votre 
Majesty et toute son auguste famille, c'est mon voeu de tous 
les jours. Plus que jcmnais, Madame, au milieu des d^sastres 
qui renversent I'ordre social. Ton 6prouve le besoin de relier les 
liens d'amitie que Ton a 6t6 heureux de former dans de meilleurs 
temps ; ceux-Uk au moins nous restent, car ils sont hors de la 
port^e des hommes, et je suis fier et heiu:eux de ce que votre 
noble coBur me comprendra. En jettant les yeiix sur ce qui se 

1 OliePriiiceeBLoaiBe was born on 18th March. 

166 THE CZAR'S VIEW [chap, xvn 

passe, peat-etre votre Majesty accordera-t-elle nn sonveiiir k 
ce que j'eus rhonneur de lui pr^dire, assis k table pres d'elle : 
d^uis, 4 ann^es k peine se sont ecool^es, et que reste-t-il 
encore deboat en Europe 7 La Grande-Bretagne et la Russie ! 

Ne 8erait-il pas naturel d'en conclure que notre union intime 
est appel6e peut-etre k sauver le monde 7 Excuses, Madame, 
cet ^anchement d'un ccbut qui vous est devou6 et qui a pris 
Thabitude de souvenir k vous. 

<rose avec une entidre confiance compter sur Tamiti^ de 
votre Majesty, et la prie de recevoir Tassurance de I'inviolable 
attachement avec lequel je suis, Madame, de votre Majesty, le 
tout d6vou6 et fiddle bon Frdre et Ami, NicouiB. 

Veuillez, Madame, me rappeler au souvenir de son Altesse 
Royale Monsieur le Prince Albert. 

Tlie King of the Belgians to Queen Victoria. 

BRDSSKL8, 9Slh Mardk 1848. 

My deabest Victobia, — . . . England seems quiet, and 
even the attempt in Ireland seems to have passed over. But 
Oermany is in an awful state, beyond what I ever should have 
thought possible in that country, and with such a good nation. 
For years, however, all sorts of people had been stirring them 
up, and half measures, seeming dishonest, of the Sovereigns 
lukve done harm. Curious enough that I, who in fact was 
desirous of retiring from politics, should be on the Continent 
the only Sovereign who stood the storm, though I am at ten 
hours' distance from Paris. I trust we shall be able to go on 
with our money matters to enable us to keep up ; our working 
classes are at this moment what occupies us most, and much 
h€W9 been done, and our Banks, which were much threatened, 
are now safe. 

We work hard, and with these few days I suffered a little, 
but I am better to-day. Louise is tolerably well ; the poor 
children are attentive and amiable. Poor things ! iheif 
existence is a good deal on the cards, and fortunes, private 
and public, are in equal danger. 

Now I will leave you that you should not be tired. Ever, 
my beloved child, your devoted Uncle, Leopold R. 

Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians, 

Buckingham puace, Hh AprU 1848. 
My dearest Uncle, — ^I have to thank you for three most 
kind letters, of the 18th and 26th March, and of the 1st. Thank 


God, I am particularly strong and weU in every possible respect, 
which is a blessing in these awfiU, sad, heart-breaking times. 
From the first I heard all that passed, and my only thoughts 
and talk were — Politics ; but I never was calmer and 
quieter or less nervous. Great events make me quiet and 
calm, and little trifles fidget me and irritate my nerves. 
But I feel grown old and serious, and the future is very 
dark. God, however, will come to help and protect us, 
and we must keep up our spirits. Germany makes me 
80 sad ; on the other hand, Belgiimi is a real pride and 

We saw your poor father and mother-in-law with the 
Nemours, Joinville, and Aumale yesterday. Still a dream 
to see them thus, here / They are well in health, and 
the young people's conduct most praiseworthy ; really the 
three Princesses are astonishing, and a beautiful lesson 
to every one. They are so much admired and respected 
for it. My beloved Vic, with her lovely face, is perfection, 
and so cheerful. She often comes to see me, and this is 
a great pleasure to me, if only it was not caused by such 
misfortunes ! 

Now good-bye. With fervent prayers for the continuation 
of your present most flourishing position, ever your devoted 
Niece, Victoria R. 

Lord John Russell to the Prince Albert, 

Ghbsham Place, 9th AprU 1848. 

Snt, — ^The Cabinet have had the assistance of the Duke of 
Wellington in framing their plans for to-morrow. 

Colonel Rowan 1 advised that the procession should be 
formed, and allowed to come as far as the bridge they may 
choose to pass, and should there be stopped. He thinks this 
is the only way to avoid a fight. If, however, the Chartists 
fire and draw their swords and use their daggers, the Military 
are to be called out. 

I have no doubt of their easy triumph over a London 

But any loss of life will cause a deep and rankling resentment. 
I trust, for this and every reason, that all may pass off quietly. 
I have the honour to be, your Royal Highness' s most obedient 
Servant, J. Russell. 

1 Chief Oomxniflsioner of Police, afterwards Sir 0. Bowan, K.O.B. The Chartist 
meeting had been fixed for the 10th. 

168 THE UNEMPLOYED [chap, xvn 

The Prince Albert to Lord John RusseU, 

OSBOBNB, 10th AprU 1848. 

My deab Lord John, — ^To-day the strength of the Chairtists 
and all evil-disposed people in the country will be brought to 
the test against the force of the law, the Government, and the 
good sense of the country. I don't feel doubtfiil for a moment 
who will be found the stronger, but should be exceedingly 
mortified if anything like a commotion was to take place, as it 
would shake that confidence which the whole of Europe reposes 
in our stability at tliis moment, and upon which will depend 
the prosperity of the coimtry. I have enquired a good deal 
into the state of employment about London, and I find, to my 
great regret, that the number of workmen of all trades out of 
employment is very large, and that it has been increased by the 
reduction of all the works under Government, owing to the 
clamour for economy in the House of Commons. Several 
himdred workmen have been discharged at Westminster 
Palace ; at Buckingham Palace much fewer hands are em- 
ployed than are really wanted ; the formation of Battersea 
Park has been suspended, etc., etc. Surely this is not the 
moment for the tax-payers to economise upon the working 
classes ! And though I don't wish our Government to follow 
Louis Blanc in his system of organisation du travail,^ I think 
the Government is bound to do what it can to help the working 
classes over the present moment of distress. It may do this 
consistently with real economy in its own works, whilst the 
reductions on the part of the Government are followed by all 
private individuals as a sign of the times. I have before this 
spoken to Lord Morpeth ^ upon this subject, but I wish to bring 
it specially under your consideration at the present moment. 
Ever yours truly, Albebt. 

Lord John RuaaeU to Queen Victoria. 

BOWSUSIQ SIREET, 10th AptH 1848. 
(2 P.M.) 

Lord John Russell presents his humble duty to yoiu' Majesty, 
and has the honour to state that the Kennington Conmion 
Meeting has proved a complete failiu*e. 

About 12,000 or 16,000 persons met in good order. Feargus 

1 Alluding to the Atdien NaHonaux, to be established onder the guidance of a Coondl 
of Administration. 

2 Chief Oommissioner of Woods and Forests. 

" THE corsixs " 

From the picture by F. Winterhalter at Buckingham Palace 

To fan' p, IGS, Vol, IL 


O'Connor, upon arriving upon the ground in a car, was ordered 
by Mr Mayne ^ to come and speak to him. He inmiediately 
Mt ihe car and came, looking pale and frightened, to ]k& 
Mayne. Upon being told that the meeting would not be 
prevented, but that no procession would be allowed to pass the 
bridges, he expressed ihe utmost thanks, and begged to shake 
Mr Mayne by the hand. He then addressed the crowd, ad- 
vising them to disperse, and after rebuking them for their folly 
he went off in a cab to the Home Office, where he repeated to 
Sir Geofge Grey his thwiks, his fears, and his assurances that 
the CTOwd should disperse quietly. Sir George Grey said he 
had done very rightly, but that the force at the bridges should 
not be diminished. 

Mr F. O'Connor — " Not a man should be taken away. The 
€k>v6mment have been quite right. I told the Convention 
that if they had been the Government they never would have 
allowed such a meeting." 

The last account gave the numbers as about 6,000 rapidly 

The mob weus in good humour, and any mischief that now 
takes place will be the act of individuals ; but it is to be hoped 
the preparations made will daunt those wicked but not brave 

The accounts from the country are good. Scotland is quiet. 
At Manchester, however, the Chartists are armed, and have 
bad designs. 

A quiet termination of the present ferment will greatly raise 
us in foreign countries. 

Lord John Bussell trusts your Majesty has profited by the 
sea air. 

Lord John BusseU to Queen Victoria. 

OHBSHAM Flaob, I6th April 1848. 

Lord John Bussell has a letter from Lord Clarendon to-day 
in better spirits, but somewhat fearing an outbreak in Dublin 
to-night« He speaks confidently of the disposition of the 

Lord John Bussell cannot wonder that your Majesty has felt 
deeply the events of the last six weeks. The King of the 
French has brought upon his own family, upon France, and 
upon Europe a great calamity. A moderate and constitutional 
Gfovemment at home, coupled with an abstinence from am- 

1 Mr Bidiard liajne, OomislMloD«r 61 Police, cnated a E.O.B. In 1861. 

VOL. n 6* 


bitious projects for his family abroad, might have laid the 
foundation of permanent peace, order, and freedom in Europe. 
Selfishness and cunning have destroyed that which honesty 
and wisdom might have maintained. It is impossible not to 
pity the innocent victims of the misconduct of Louis Philippe. 
Still less can one refrain from regarding with dread the feaiful 
state of Germany, of her princes, her nobles, and her tempest- 
tossed people. 

The example of Great Britain, may, however, secure an 
interval of reflection for Europe. The next six months will be 
very trying, but they may end with better prospects than we 
can now behold. It was impossible that the exclusion of free 
speaking and writing which formed the essence of Prince 
Metternich*s system could continue. It might have been 
reformed quietly ; it has fallen with a crash which spreads ruin 
and death around. 

Lady John is deeply grateful for the congratulations of your 
Majesty and the Prince.^ She is going on well to-day. 

Queen Victoria to Lord John RtisaeU, 

OSBORNB, 16th AprU 1848. 

The Queen has received Lord John Russell's letter. Th& 
«tate of Ireland is most alarming and most anxious ; altogether, 
there is so much inflammable matter all aroimd us that it 
-makes one tremble. Still, the events of Monday must have lu 
calming and salutary effect. Lord John Russell's remarks 
about E\u*ope, and the unfortunate and calamitous policy 
of the Government of the poor King of the French are most 
true. But is he not even most to be pitied for being the caus& 
of such misery ? (Though perhaps he does not attribute it to 
himself), for, to see all his hopes thus destroyed, his prido 
humbled, his children — ^whom he loves dearly — ^ruined — ^is not 
this enough to make a man wretched ? and indeed much to bo 
pitied ; for he cannot feel he could not have prevented all this. 
Still Guizot is more to blame ; he was the responsible adviser 
of all this policy : he is no Bourbon, and he ought to hav& 
behaved differently. Had the poor King died in 1844 after 
he came here, and before that most unfortunate Spanish 
marriages question was started, he would have deservedly- 
gone down to posterity as a great monarch. Now, what will 
be his name in history ? His fate is a great moral / 

With regard to Germany, Prince Metternich is the cause of 

1 On the birth of a second son. 


half the misfortune. His advice was taken by almost all the 
sovereigns of that comitry, and it has kept them from doing 
in time what has now been torn from them with the loss of 
many rights which they need not have ssrcrificed. We heard 
yesterday that the Archduke John ^ had arrived at Frankfort. 
This is a wise measure, and may do much good and pre- 
vent much evil, as he is a popular and most distinguished 
prince. • • • 

Queen Victoria to Viscount Palmereton, 

OSBOBNB, 17th AprU 1848. 

The Queen not having heard anything from Lord Falmerston 
respecting foreign affairs for so long a time, and as he must be 
in constant communication with the Foreign Ministers in these 
most eventful and anxious times, writes to urge Lord Falmer- 
ston to keep her informed of what he hears, and of the views of 
the Government on the importajit questions before us. 

She now only gets the Drafts when they are gone. 

The acceptance of the mediation between Denmark and 
Holstein is too important an event not to have been first 
submitted to the Queen. 

Viscount Palmerston to Queen Victoria, 

Oablion Gardens, ISth AprU 1848. 

T^lscount Palmerston presents his humble duty to your 
Majesty, and regrets much that he has not lately had an 
opportunity of giving yo\ir Majesty verbally such explanations 
as your Majesty might wish to receive with respect to the 
progress of foreign affairs, but Viscount Falmerston hopes to 
be able to get down to Broadlands for a few days on Saturday 
next, and he could easily from thence wait upon your Majesty 
on any morning and at any hour your Majesty might be 
pleased to appoint. 

Although events of the greatest importance have been 
passing in rapid succession in almost every part of Europe, the 
position of your Majesty's Government has been one rather of 
observation than of action, it being desirable that England 
should keep herself as free as possible from unnecessary 
engagements and entanglements, in order that your Majesty 
may be at liberty to take such decisions as the state of things 
may from time to time appear to render most advisable. 

1 Uncle of the Emperor (Ferdinand I.) of Aostiia, bom 1782. 

172 LOYALTY OF BELGIUM [chap, xvn 

Queen Victoria to the King of the Bdgiana. 

BAXtOV, ISth AprU 1848. 

Deasest Uncle, — ^Detained her© by a heavy shower of 
rain, I begin my letter to you and thcmk you warmly for 
yovff dear and kind letter of the 15th, which I received 

Truly proud and delighted are we at the conduct of the 
Belgians,^ and at their loyalty and affection for you and yours, 
which I am sure must be a reward for all that you have done 
these seventeen years. I must beg to say that you are wrong 
in supposing that no mention is made of what took place on 
the 9th in our papers ; on the contrary, it has been most 
gratifyingly mentioned in the Ti/mes^ Chronicle, John Bull, etc 
You are held up as a pattern to the G^erman Sovereigns, and the 
Belgians as a pattern to the Grerman people. 

In France, really things go on dreadfully. . . . One does not 
like to attfiM^k those who are fallen, but the poor Eang, Louis 
Philippe, has brought much of this on by that ill-fated return 
to a Bourbon Policy, I always think he ou^ht not to have 
abdicated ; every one seems to think he migM have stemmed 
the torrent then still. On the other hand, Joinville sayB it was 
sure to happen, for that the French want constant change, 
and were quite tired of the present Government. Qu^en dites- 
VOU8 ? How is poor, dear Louise ? I hope her spirits are 

Our weather is terribly rainy, though very fine between. 
We have got nightingales in the pleasure ground, and in the 
wood down near the sea. We are all extremely well, and 
expect the Prince of Prussia here to-day for two nights. Ever 
your devoted and attcM^hed Niece, Victoria R. 

Queen Victoria to Viscount Palmerston, 

Osborne, Ut May 1848. 

The Queen has this morning received Lord Palmerston'8 
letter." She cannot see any reason for deviating from the 
established rules, and inviting to Court Frenchmen who are 
not recognised in their official capacity, and have no natural 

1 A party of French RepabllcaDs entered Belginm with the Intention of exciting an 
insnirection ; the attempt signally failed. 

3 If. de Tallenay bad^arrlyed in London with a letter from M. Lamartine, accrediting 
him as provisional eharge d^affairet of the French Government, and Lord Palmerston had 
■oggested to the Qneen that etiquette would not be violated by inviting him to a Coort 


representatives to present them as private individuals. As an 
invitation cannot be claimed by them, the omission of it ought 
not to lead to any misrepresentation ; whilst the contrary, 
under the fiction of their being private individuals, might lead 
to misconstruction and to most inconvenient precedents. 

QtLcen Victoria to the King of the Belgians. 

BUCKINGSAIC PALIGE, 9th Jfojf 1848. 

Mt deabest UKOLEy — ^Many thanks for your very kind letter 
of the 6th. How delightful it is to hear such good accounts of 
Belgium ! If only dear Grermany gets right and if all our 
interests (those of the smaller Sovereigns) are not sacrified ! I 
cannot say Itow it distresses and vexes me, and comme je Vai d 
coBur. My good and dear Albert is much worried and works 
very hard. ... ^ 

I had a curious account of the opening of the AaaeniibUe from 
Lady Normanby.* No real enthusiasm, dreadful confusion, 
and the Blouses taking part in everything, emd stopping the 
Speakers if they did not please them. The opinion is that it 
cannot last. 

I enclose another letter from Lady Normanby, with an 
account of the poor Tuileries, which is very curious and sad ; 
but the respect shown for poor Chartres is very touching, and 
might interest poor dear Louise, if you think fit to show it her. 
But why show such hatred to poor Nemours and to the Queen ? 
Montpensier*s marriage may cause hia unpopularity, possibly. 
I shall beg to have the letter back. 

I must conclude, as we are going to pay a visit at Claremont 
this afternoon. Ever your truly devoted Child and Niece, 


Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians, 


Mt deabest Ukcle, — ^I have just heard the news of the 
extraordinary confusion at Paris, which must end in a BliUbad* 
Lamartine has quite lost all influence by yielding to and sup- 
porting Ledru RoUin ! > It seems inexplicable ! In Germany^ 

1 The National Anembly commenoed its sitttngs on 4th May, when the Oath of AlUgi- 
•noe was aboliehed, and the Bepublic proclaimed in the preeenoe of 200,000 dtizena. 

s TAWiartlTie and Ledru BoUin were membens of the Provisional Govemment, and sab- 
•eqaently of the Bxecatire Gommittee. The mob, holding that the promises of general 
cmployinent had been broken, inyaded the ABsembly en mauet and attempted a coonter- 


174 AUSTRIA AND ITALY [chap, xvn 

too, ever3rthing looks most anxious, and I tremble for the result 
of the Parliament at Frankf ort.^ I am so anxious for the fate 
of the poor smaller Sovereigns, which it would be infamous to 
sacrifice. I feel it much more than Albert, as it would break 
my heart to see Coburg reduced. 

Many thanks for your kind and dear letter of the 13th. 
Thank God ! that with you everything goes on so well. I will 
take care and let Lord Normanby know your kind expressions. 
The visit to old Claremont was a touching one, and it seemed 
an incomprehensible dream to see them all there. They bear 
up wonderfully. Nothing can be kinder than the Queen- 
Dowager's behaviour towards them all. The poor Duchess of 
Gloster is again in one of her nervous states, and gave us a 
dreadful fright at the Christening by quite forgetting where 
she was, and coming and kneeling at my feet in the midst of 
the service. Imagine our horror ! 

I must now conclude. The weather is beautiful, but too hot 
for me. Ever your devoted Niece, Victoria R. 

Qtieen Victoria to Viscount Palm^rston, 

(No date,-) 

The Queen has carefully perused the enclosed papers, and 
wishes to have a copy of Baron Hummelauer's ' note sent to 
her to keep. 

The basis Icdd down in it is quite inadmissible, emd the Queen 
was struck by the light way in which the claims of the Dukes 
of Parma and Modena are spoken of {aa disposed of by the 
events), whilst their position and that of Austria are in every 
respect identical.^ The Queen thinks Lord Palmerston's 
proposition the one which is the most equitable, still likely 
to be attained, but it does not go far enough ; the position 
which Austria means to take in Italy with her Italian province 
ought to be explained, and a declaration be made that Austria 
will, with this province, join any Italian league which the other 
states of Italy may wish to establish. This will be useful to 
Italy, and much facilitate the acceptance of the Austrian 
proposal, as the Queen feels convinced that as soon as the 
war shall be terminated, the question of the political con- 

1 Out of the revolutionary morement in Germany had grown tiieir National Assembly, 
which aftw a preliminary session as a Vor-Parkunentt was to reassemble on 18th May. 

3 Hie Ausman Goyemment, in its efforts to maintain its ascendency in Lombardy, had 
sent Baron Hummelaaer to negotiate with Lord PalmerRton. 

3 The Dokes had both been driven from their dominions, while the King (Charles 
Albert) of Sardinia threw in his lot with the cause of United Italy as aga^wt Austria, 
which then raled Lombardy. 


stitution of Italy (as a whole) will have to be decided. 
Why Charles Albert ought to get any additional territory 
the Queen cannot in the le€ist see. She thinks it will 
be better to proceed at once upon the revised Austrian, 
proposal, than to wait for Italian propositions, which are 
sure to be ridiculously extravagant. 

Queen Victoria to Viscount PcUmerston. 

Osborne, 23rd May 1848. 

The Queen has received Lord Palmerston's letter respecting: 
Spain and Italy this morning. The sending away of Sir H, 
Bulwer* is a serious affair, which will add to our many em- 
barrassments ; the Queen is, however, not svirprised at it,, 
from the tenor of the last accounts from Madrid, and from the* 
fact that Sir H. Bulwer has for the last three years almost been 
sporting with political intrigues. He invariably boasted of at- 
least being in the confidence of every conspiracy, " though het 
was tckking care not to be personally mixed up in them,'* and,, 
after their various failures, generally harboured the chief actora 
in his house under the plea of humanity. At every crisis he 
gave us to imderstand that he had to choose between a "re- 
volution and a palace intrigue," and not long ago only he wrote 
to Lord Palmerston, that if the Monarchy with the Montpensier 
succession was inconvenient to us, he could get up a Republic. 
Such principles are sure to be known in Spain, the more so 
when one considers the extreme vanity of Sir H. Bulwer, and 
his probable imprudence in the not very creditable company 
which he is said to keep. Lord Palmerston will remember 
that the Queen has often addressed herself to him and Lord 
John, in fear of Sir H. getting us into some scrape ; and if our 
diplomatists are not kept in better order, the Queen may 
at any moment be exposed oo similar insults as she ha.s 
received now in the person of Sir H. Bulwer ; for in what- 
ever way one may wish to look at it. Sir Henry still is her 

The Queen wishes Lord Palmerston to show this letter 
to Lord John Russell, and to let her know what the Govern- 
ment mean to propose with respect to this unfortunate 

1 Lord Palmerston had written a letter to Bnlwer (which the latter showed to the 
Spanish Pronier), lecturing the Spanish Queen on her choice of Minister. This " assump- 
tion of superiority," as Sir R. Peel called it, led to a peremptory order to Bulwer to leay& 
Spain in twenty-four hours. His own account of the affair appears in his Life of Palmer-' 
iton, Tol. iii. chap. viL 

176 THE PRINCE OF PRUSSIA [chap, xvn 

TTie Prince of Prussia to Queen Victoria. 

BBI78SSIA, 30th May 1848. 

Most gbacious Cousin, — ^I obey the impulse of my heart 
in seizing my pen, without any delay, in order to express to 
you my warmest and most heartfelt thanks for the infinitely 
gracious and affectionate way with which you and the Prince 
have treated me during my stay in London.* It was a melan- 
choly time, that of my arrival. By the sympathetic view 
which you took of my situation, most gracious Cousin, it 
became not only bearable, but even transformed into one 
that became proportionately honourable and dignified. This 
graciousness of yours has undoubtedly contributed towards 
the change of opinion which has resulted in my favour, and so 
I owe to you, to the Prince, and to your Grovemment, a fortu- 
nate issue out of my calamities. So it is with a heavy heart 
that I have now left England, not knowing what future lies 
before me to meet — and only knowing that I shall need the 
strengthening rest and tranquillity which my stay in England 
and an insight into her institutions have afforded me in full 

Offering my most cordial remembrances to the Prince, to 
whom I shall write as soon as possible, I remain, most gracious 
Cousin, your faithful and most gratefully devoted Cousin, 

Pbinob of Pbussia. 

Queen Victoria to Lord John Eusadl, 

BUGKINGHAU PALIOB, lit Jvne 1848. 

The Queen had not time the other day to talk to Lord John 
Russell on the subject of the French Royal Family, and there- 
fore writes to him now. As it seems now most probable that 
they, or at losist some of them, will take up their residence for 
a lengthened period in this country, and as their position is 
now a defined one, viz. that of exUea, their treatment should 
be defined and established. 

At first everything seemed temporcury, and the public were 
much occupied with them, inclined to criticise all that was done 
or was omitted by the Court ; all their movements were re- 
corded in the papers, etc. The lapse of three months has a 

1 The Prince of Pnusla, afterwards the Emperor William L, haring become intensely 
anpopalar at Berlin, had been obliged in March to fly for his life, in disguise, viS Hambnig, 
to England. 


good deal altered this. They have lived in complete retire- 
ment, and are comparatively forgotten ; and their poverty and 
their resignation to their misfortunes have met with much 
sympathy ! The Queen is consequently anxious to take the 
right line ; particularly desirous to do nothing which could 
hurt the interests of the country, and equally so to do every- 
thing kind towards a distinguished Boyal Family in severe 
affliction, with whom she has long been on terms of intimacy, 
and to whom she is very necurly related. She accordingly 
wishes to know if Lord John sees any objection to the follow- 
ing : She has asked her Cousin, the Duchess of Nemours, to 
come for two or three nights to see her at Osborne when she 
goes there, qydte privately ; the Duchess of Kent would bring 
her with her. The Duke will not come with the Duchess, as he 
says he feels (very properly) it would be unbecoming in him 
till their fate (as to fortune, for banisJied they already are) is 
decided, to be even for a day at Osborne. The Duchess herself 
wishes not to appear in the evening, but to remain alone with 
the Queen and the Prince. 

The Queen considers that when she is staying in the country 
during the summer and autumn, and any of the branches of 
the French Boyai Family should wish to visit her and the 
Prince, as they occasionaUy do here, she might lodge them for 
one or two nights, as the distance might be too great for their 
returning the same day. They are exiles, and not Pretenders, 
as the Due de Bordeaux and Count de Montemolin are (and 
who are for that reason only not received at Court), In all 
countries where illustrious exiles related to the Sovereign have 
been they have always been received at Court, as the Due de 
Bordeaux, the Duchesse d*Angouleme, etc., etc., invariably 
have been at Vienna (even on public occasions), there being a 
French Ambassador there, and the best understanding existing 
between France and Austria. The Duke of Orleans (King 
Louis Philippe) in former times was constantly received by the 
Royal Family, and was the intimate friend of the Duke of 
Kent. Probably, if their fortunes are restored to them, the 
French Boyal Family will go out into society in the course of 
time, and if the state of France becomes consolidated there 
may no longer exist that wish and that necessity for extreme 
privacy, which is so obvious now. What the Queen has just 
mentioned. Lord John must well understand, is not what is 
likely to take place (except in the case of her cousin, the 
Duchess of Nemours) immediately, but only what might 
occasionally occur when we are permemently settled in the 
country. Of course events might arise which would change 
this, and which would render it inadvisable, and then the Queen 

178 AFFAIRS IN LOMBARDY [chap, xvn 

would communicate with Lord John, and a&k his advice agaii^ 
upon the subject. All she has suggested refers to the present 
state of affairs, and, of course, merely to strictly private visits, 
and on no state occasion. This is a long letter about such a 
subject, but the Queen wishes to be quite safe in what she does, 
and therefore could not have stated the case and her opinion 
in a smaller space. 

Queen Victoria to Viscount Palmerston. 

BuoKmaHAic Palace, 4th June 1848. 

The Queen returns the enclosed draft. She has written 
upon it, in pencil, a passage which she thinks ought to be added, 
if the draft — though civil — is not to be a mere refusal to do 
anything for Austria, and a recommendation that whatever 
the Itahans ask for ought to be given, for which a mediation 
is hardly necessary.^ The Queen thinks it most important 
that we should try to mediate and put a stop to the war, and 
equally important that the boundary which is to be settled 
should be such a one as to make a recurrence of hostilities 
unlikely. The Queen has only further to remark that Lord 
Palmerston speaks in the beginning of the letter only of the 
Cabinet, and adverts nowhere to the proposition having been 
submitted to her. 

Lord John Russell to Queen Victoria, 

CUBSHAM PLACE, lith June 1848. 

Lord John Russell presents his hvimble duty, and themks 
your Majesty for the perusal of this interesting letter. 

An Emperor with a rational Constitution might be a fair 
termination of the French follies ; but Louis Napoleon, with 
the Communists, will probably destroy the last chcuice of 
order and tranquillity. A despotism must be the end. 

May Heaven preserve us in peace ! 

Queen Victoria to Viscount Palmerston. 

BUCKINQHAM PALACE, 15th June 1848. 

The Queen has received Lord Palmerston*s letter explaining 
his views as to the reparation we may be entitled to receive 

1 War was now raging in Lombardj between the Austrians tinder Marshal Hadetaskj 
and the Piedmontese under the King of Sardinia. 


from the Spanish Government. . She considers them as quite 
fair, but does not wish to have Sir H. Bulwer again as her 
Mimster at Madrid, even if it should be necessary that he 
should repair there in order to be received by the Queen of Spain. 
It would not be consulting the permanent interests of this 
country to entrust that mission again to Sir H. Bulwer, after 
all that has parsed. When the Queen considers the position 
we had in Spain, and what it ought to have been after the 
constitution of the French RepubUc when we had no rival to 
fight and ought to have enjoyed the entire confidence and 
friendship of Spain, and compares this to the state into which 
our relations with that country have been brought, she cannot 
help being struck how much matters must have been mis- 

Queen Victoria to Lord John Russell, 


The Queen sends the enclosed draft,^ and asks whether this 
note is what Lord John directed Lord Palmerston to send to 
Lisbon as a caution to Sir H. Seymour not to mix himself up 
with party intrigues to upset a particular Ministry ? * . . . 

Viscount Palmerston to Lord John Russell, 

Cabliok Gardens, 17th June 1848. 
My deab John Ritsseix, — ^The draft to Seymour was written 
in consequence of what you said to me, and what the Queen 
wrote to you ; but my own opinion certainly is that it would 
be best to leave the things with him as they are. It must, 
however, be remembered that the Portuguese Government 
have not in reality fulfilled the engagements taken by the 
Queen in the Protocol of last year. . . . Palmebstok. 

Queen Victoria to Lord John RusseU. 

Buckingham Palace, 17th June 1848. 
The Queen returns Lord Palmerston's letter. The country- 
is at this moment suffering, particularly with regard to Spain» 

1 The draft ran : — *' As it is evident that the Queen and the Goyemment of Portagal 
will listen to no advice except such that agrees with their own wishes, I have to instruct 
yoa to abstain in future from giving any longer any advice to tiiem on political matters, 
taking care to explain both to the Queen and the Government your reasons for doing bo. 
You will, however, at the sane time positively declare to the Portuguese Government 
that if by t^e course of policy they are pursuing they should run into any difficulty, they 
must clearly understand that tiiey will not have to expect any assistance from England.*^* 

2 Lord John Russell replied that he would write immediately to Lord Palmerston re-^ 
q)ectiQg Portogoeee afEaixs. He added that he did not approve of the proposed draft. 


under the evil consequence of that system of diplomacy, which 
makes the taking up of party politics in foreign countries its 
principal object. This system is condemned alike by the 
Queen, Lord John, the Cabinet, and, the Queen fully beUeves, 
public opinion in and out of Parliament. Lord Palmerston's 
objection to caution our Minister in Portugal against falling 
into this fault brings it to an issue, whether that erroneous 
policy is to be maintained to the detriment of the real interests 
of the country, or a wiser course to be followed in future. 
Does Lord John consider this so light a matter as to be sur- 
rendered merely because Lord Palmerston is not to add to such 
a caution a gratuitous attcM^k upon the Queen and Government 
of Portugal ? The Queen thiiU^ it of the utmost importance 
that in these perilous times this question with regard to the 
basis of our foreign policy should be settled, cuid has no objec- 
tion to Lord John showing this letter to Lord Palmerston. 

Lord John BusseU to Queen Victoria, 

Pembroke Lodge, 18th June 1848. 

Lord John Russell presents his humble duty to your Majesty ; 
he begs to assure your Majesty that if he was disposed to rest 
on the known discretion and temper of Sir Hamilton Seymour 
without specific instruction, it was not from regarding the 
matter lightly, but from a sense of the inconvenience which 
might arise to your Majesty's service from raising a question 
with Lord Palmerston in the present critical state of Europe 
which might induce a belief that he had not conducted foreign 
affairs to the satisfaction of his colleagues or of his Sovereign. 

Lord John Russell feeling, however, that on the peurticular 
point at issue your Majesty has just reason to expect that 
precautions should be taken against the chance of intrigue 
with foreign parties against a foreign government, with which 
this country is on terms of friendship, is ready to insist on an 
instruction to Sir Hamilton Seymour similar to that which 
was given to Sir Henry Bulwer to take no part in the struggle 
of parties, and to refrain from any interference with respect 
to which he has not specific directions from your Majesty's 

But in this case he must take upon himself the whole 
responsibihty of requiring such a note from Lord Palmerston. 
It would not be conducive to your Majesty's service, nor 
agreeable to the wholesome maxims of the Constitution to 
mix your Majesty's name with a proceeding which may lead 
to the most serious consequences. 


It is just to Lord Palmerston to say that his general course 
of poUcy has met with the warm approval of the Cabinet, and 
that the cases of difference of judgment have been rare ex- 

Lord John Russell submits to your Majesty the letter he 
pK^poees to write before sending it to Lord Palmerston. He 
would wish to have it returned as soon as your Majesty can 
do so. 

Queen Victoria to Lord John BuaaeU. 

BuCKDrGSAX PAL40B, IBth June 1848. 

The Queen returns to Lord John Russell his letter to Lord 
Palmerston,^ which is excellent* and shows that the Queen's 
and Lord John's views upon the importemt question of our 
foreign policy entirely coincide. The Queen is sorry that the 
trouble of such an altercation should be added to the many 
anxieties which already press upon Lord John, but she feels 
sure that his insisting upon a sound line of policy will save him 
and the country from far greater troubles. . . . 

Viscount Palmerston to Queen Victoria. 

OAHUroN GABDEM8, 26th June 1848. 

Viscount Palmerston presents his humble duty to your 
Majesty, and is sorry he is not able to submit to your Majesty 
the proposed draft to Sir Hamilton Seymour to go by to- 
night's mail, as he has not succeeded in settling the wording 
of it with Lord John Russell, and is therefore obliged to defer 
it till the next mail. 

Queen Victoria to Lord John BusseU. 

BUOEINQEAIC PALACE, i6th June 1848. 

The Queen sends this letter, which she has just received 
from Lord Palmerston. No remonstrance has any effect with 
Lord Palmerston. Lord John Russell should ask the Duke of 
Bedford to tell him of the conversation the Que^i had with 
the Duke the other night about Lord Palmerston. 

1 The letter was to the effect that Sir H. BemDoar was to take no part in the straggle 
Q< parties in Portugal, and to refrain from confldential commnnicatioos with members of 
the OppodtioD. 

182 ENGLAND AND ITALY [chap, rvn 

Queen Victoria to Viscount Palmerston. 


The Queen haa not yet answered Lord Pcdmerston's letter 
of the 29th. She cannot conceal from him that she is ashamed 
of the policy which we are pursuing in this Italian controversy 
in abetting wrong, and this for the object of gaining in/2iienoe 
in Italy.^ The Queen does not consider influence so gained as 
€ui advantage, and though this influence is to be acquired in 
order to do good, she is afraid that the fear of losing it again 
will always stand in the way of this. At least in the countries 
where the greatest stress has been laid on that influence, and 
the greatest exertions made for it, the least good has been done 
— the Queen means in Spain, Portugal, and Greece. Neither 
is there any kind of consistency in the line we take about Italy 
and that we follow with regard to Schleswig ; both cases are 
perfectly alike (with the difference perhaps that there is a 
question of right mixed up in that of Schleswig) ; whilst we 
upbraid Prussia, caution her, etc., etc., we say nothing to 
Charles Albert except that if he did not wish to take aU the 
Empferor of Austria's Italian Dominions, we would not lay 
any obstacles in the way of his moderation. The Queen finds 
in Lord Palmerston's last despatch to Chevalier Bunsen the 
following passage': "' And it is manifest and indisputable that 
no territory or state, which is not now according to the Treaty 
of 1816 included in the German Confederation, can be added 
to that territory without ttie consent of the Sovereign of that 
territory or state.'* How does this agree with our position 
relative to the incorporation of Lombardy into the states of 
the King of Sardinia ? 

Qiteen Victoria to Viscount Palmerston. 

BUOKINQHAM PALACE, 6th Jtdy 1848. 

The Queen has to acknowledge Lord Palmerston's long 
Memorandvim respecting our relations with Italy, the length 
of which, however, was fully justified by the importance of 
the subject. 

The mission of Lord Minto has had the Queen's approval at 
the time, and the policy pursued by him has never been called 

1 Lord Palmerston's sympaihy had been with the anti- Austrian moyement in Northern 
Italy. For some time after Badetzky's evacuation of Milan, the operations of the King 
of Sardinia in support of the Lombards were successful, and he had assistance from 
Tuscany, Naples, and Rome. The Austrians suffered reverses at Feschiera and Gdto, 
and the independence of N(N:them Italy seemed to toe accomplished. But the tide had 
began to turn. 


in question ; but it certainly was prejudicial to the Austrians, 
and imposes upon us additional care not to appear now as the 
abettors of the anti- Austrian movement, emd nothing in Lord 
Minto's mission can prevent our endeavouring to facilitate sknd 
forward a speedy settlement of the present Italian difference.^ 
If, therefore, the Italians should be inclined to be moderate, 
tibere can be no dereliction of principle in encouraging them to 
be so. The deuiger of French interference increases with the 
delay and is equally great, whether the Austrians maintain 
dieinselves in the Venetian 'territory or whether Charles Albert 
unite it to his proposed kingdom of Northern Italy ; indeed, the 
French seem to be anxious for a cause of interference from the 
lino they pursue even with regard to Naples. 

Lord Falmerston seeks to establish a difference between the 
case of Schleswig and of Lombardy, on the fact that Schleswig 
is to be incorporated into a confederation of States ; but this 
makes the case of Lombardy only the strongs, as this is to be 
incorporated into the dominions of another Sovereign. With 
regard to the " Revue Retrospective," the perusal of it haa 
left a different impression upon the Queen from that which 
it seems to have made upon Lord Falmerston. It proved to 
her, that while the retiring attitude which the late Govem- 
mexit took with regard to the Spanish memriages, left the 
French Grovemment to try their different schemes and intrigues 
ami to fail with every one of them, the attempt of Lord 
Paknerston to re-organise the Frogressista Faxty and regain 
the so-called English influence, brought Queen Christina and 
King Louis Fhilippe (who had before seriously quarrelled) 
immediately together, and induced them to rush into this 
unfortunate combination, which c£mjiot but be considered as 
the origin of all the present convulsions in Europe. 

Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians. 

BUOKINGHAIC PALACE, \lth July 1848. 

My dearest Uncle, — ^For another kind and dear letter of 
the 8th, I have much to thank you. The prosperity of dear 
little Belgium is a bright star in the stormy night all around. 
May God bless and prosper you all, for ever and ever ! 

Since the 24th February I feel an imcertainty in everything 
existing, which (uncertain as all himian affairs must be) one 

1 Lord Minto, the Lord Privy Seal, and father-in-law of the Prime Minister, had been 
aoit to enooorage in the path of reform Pope Pius IX., who was halting between progress 
and reaction : on the saiigainary risings taking place in Lombardy and Venetia, his miasion 
oatorally appeared hostile to Austria. 

184 AN ANXIOUS PERIOD [chap, xvn 

never felt before. When one thinks of one's children, their 
education, their future — and prays for them — ^I always think 
and say to myself, " Let them grow up fit for whcOever station 
they may be placed ior—high or low.^* This one never thought 
of before, but I do always now. Altogether one's whole dis- 
position is so changed — bores and trifles which one would have 
complained of bitterly a few months ago, one looks upon as 
good things and quite a blessing — ^provided one can keep one*a 
position in quiet I 

I own I have not much confidence in Cavaignac,^ as they fear 
his mother's and brother's influence, the former being a widow 
of a regicide, and as stem and severe as can be imagined. 

I saw the Eong and Queen on Saturday ; he is wonderfully 
merry still and quite himself, but she feels it deeply — and for 
her there is here the greatest S3nnpathy and admiration. 

Albert is going to York to-morrow till Friday ; how I wish 
you and Louise could be with me, as in '44 and '46 ! I have» 
however, got dear Victoire to come and spend a night with 
me ; it does her always good, and we are just like sisters, and 
feel as we did in 1839, when you know how very fond we 
were of ea<$h other. She is a dear, noble, and still heauHfuL 

I venture to send you a snuff-box with poor Aunt Charlotte's 
picture as a child, which also belonged to poor Aunt Sophia. 
Ever your devoted Niece, Victobia R. 

Queen Victoria to Lord John RusseU. 


The Queen was glad to hear of the majorities the other night. 
She concludes Lord John Russell cannot at all say when the 
Session is likely to end ? Is it not much to be regretted that 
the measure relative to the Navigation Laws is given up, and 
was it unavoidable ? The Queen sends Lord John Col. Phipps's 
report of the Prince's reception at York, which she thinks will 
interest him. Does Lord J. Russell think, if we should not 
go to Ireland, that we could go to Balmoral for ten days or a 
fortnight, without shocking the Irish very much ? It strikes 
the Queen that to go to see our own place makes a difference, 
and is in fact a natural thing ; it is, however, impossible to 
say if we can get away even for so short a time. 

The Queen concludes that there can be no possible objection 

1 G«neral OaTalgsao, Minister for War, had been glyen ^uofi-dictatorial powers daring 
the insorrection. Tliese powers, on the sappreasion of the revolt, he resl^ied, and wa4 
thereopoQ almost onanimoiisly made President of the C3oanoil. 


to the Due de Nemours bringing or fetching the Duchess to and 
from Osborne ? He is the Queen's Cousin, and consequently 
in a different position to any of the others ; moreover, he does 
not wish €U present to spend one nigTU there even, but merely to 
pay a morning visit. 

Lastly, the Queen wishes to know if the King and Queen and 
the other Princes and Princesses should themadves ask to come 
and pay the Queen a morning visit at Osborne, and return 
again the same day (as they do here), there would be any 
objection to it ? The Queen merely wishes to know, in case 
they should ask leave to do so, what she can answer. 

Queen Victoria to Sir George Grey. 


The Queen has received Sir Greorge Grey's letter of yesterday, 
and has considered the proposed alteration in the mode of 
preparing Commissions for Officers in the Army. The Queen 
does not at all object to the amount of trouble which the 
signature of so many Commissions has hitherto entailed upon 
her, as she feels amply compensated by the advantage of keep- 
ing up a personal connection between the Sovereign and the 
Amy, and she very much doubts whether the Officers gener- 
ally would not feel it as a slight if, instead of their Commissions 
bearing the Queen's sign-manual, they were in future only to 
receive a certificate from the Secretary at War that they have 
been commissioned. 

She therefore prefers matters to remain on their old footing. 

The Secretary at War speaks in his Memorandum of his 
responsibiUty to Parliament with respect to allowing Appoint- 
ments to go on ; the Queen apprehends that his responsibility 
does not extend beyond the appropriation of the money voted 
by Parliament for the use of her Army. 

The Princess Charlotte of Belgium to Queen Victoria. 

Laekbn, lUh Jvly 1848. 

My deabest Cousin, — ^I have received the beautiful dolls' 
house you have been so kind as to send me, cmd I thank you 
very much for it. I am delighted with it ; every morning I 
dress my doll and give her a good breakfast ; cmd the day 
after her arrival she gave a great rout at which all my doUs 
were invited. Sometimes she plays at drafts on her pretty 

186 ITALY AND FRANCE [chap, xvn 

little draft-board, and every evening I undress her and put 
her to bed. 

Be so good, my dearest Cousin, as to give my love to my 
dear little Cousins, and believe me always, your most affec- 
tionate Cousin, Chablotte. 

Queen Victoria to Viscount Palmerston. 

OSBORNE, 24th July 1848. 

The Queen haa received Lord Palmerston's letter ^ reporting 
his conversation with M. de Tallenay. She can only repeat her 
opinion that a negotiation with France in order to agree with 
her upon a conmion line of policy to be followed with regard 
to the Italian question can lead to no good ; it will make us 
the ally of a Government which is not even legally constituted, 
and which can accordingly not guarantee the fulfilment of any 
engagement it may enter into, and it will call upon the very 
power to judge the Italian dispute which it is the interest of 
Europe to keep out of it. M. de Tallenay seems to have ad- 
mitted that the French Republic, if called upon to act, will 
neither allow Austria to keep the Venetian territory nor 
Sardinia to acquire it, but that she will strive to set up a 
Venetian Republic. It can really not be an object for us to 
assist in such a scheme, or even to treat upon it. 

Lord Cowley the Queen means to invite to dinner to-day, 
and she wishes Lord Palmerston to let her know the day on 
which he is to leave for Frankfort in order that she may prepare 
her letter for the Archduke accordingly. 

Queen Victoria to Lord John RusaeU, 

OSBORNE, 26th July 1848. 

The Queen sends Lord John Russell the enclosed Despatch 
from Lord Normanby, with a draft in answer to it which was 
sent for her approval, but which she really cannot approve. 
The Queen must tell Lord John what she has repeatedly told 
Lord Palmerston, but without apparent effect, that the estab- 
lishment of an enterUe cordiale with the French Republic, for the 
piu*pose of driving the Austrians out of their dominions in Italy, 
would be a disgrace to this country. That the French would 
attach the greatest importance to it and gain the greatest 

1 Lcnrd Palmerston had reported an interview with De Tallenay, who sought the co- 
operation of England with France in Northern Italy ; the Austrian force in Italy to be 
withdrawn or reduced, the union of Lombardy and Piedmont to be accepted as a fait 
accompli, and Venetian territory erected into a separate republic. 


advantage by it there can be no doubt of ; but how will 
England appear before the world at the moment when she is 
struggling to maintain her supremacy in Ireland, and boasts 
to st£tnd by treaties with regard to her European relations, 
having declined all this time to interfere in Italy or to address 
one word of caution to the Sardinian Government on a^ccount 
of its attack on Austria, and having refused to mediate when 
called upon to do so by Austria, because the terms were not 
good enough for Sardinia, if she should now ally herself with 
the axch-enemy of Austria to interfere against her at the 
moment when she has recovered in some degree her position in 
the Venetiem territory ? 

The notion of establishing a Venetiem State under French 
guarantee is too absurd. Lord Palmerston in his draft says 
that we believe that the French plan would be agreed to by 
Austria. Now this is completely at varieuice with every 
account, report, or despatch we have received from Verona, 
Innspruck, or Vienna ; however. Lord Palmerston hints that 
the King of Sardinia might expect still better terms. The 
French Republic seems not to be anxious for war, not able to 
conduct it, and the country appears to be decidedly against it ; 
all M. Bastide says is : ** There were two extremes which it 
would be very difficult for them to admit without opposition, 
viz. the restoration of Lombardy to the Dominion of Austria 
on the one side, and the union under one powerful state under 
Charles Albert of all the principalities into which the north of 
Italy has hitherto been cQvided." With this explicit declara- 
tion, it would surely be best for the interests of Europe that 
we should name this to Charles Albert, and call upon him to 
rest satisfied with his conquest, and to conclude a peace with 
Austria, leaving her what he cannot take from her, and thus 
avoid calling in France as an arbiter. Why this has not been 
done long ago, or should not be done now, the Queen cannot 

Queen Victoria to Lord John RtisseU, 

OSBOBNB, 27th JtHy 1848. 

The Queen has to acknowledge Lord John Russell's two 
letters with respect to Italy. The alterations in the draft meet 
many of the Queen's objections, giving to the whole step 
another appearance. The Queen • . . must a^cknowledge the 
advantage of our trying to bind [the French] to good conduct ; 
only this must be done in a way not to appear as a league with 
them against a friendly Power, struggling to preserve to herself 

188 MINOR GERMAN STATES [chap, xvn 

a territory greuited to her by a Treaty to which we were a 

As the amended draft secures us against these appearances, 
and leaves us free for the future, the Queen approves it. 

Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians. 

Osborne, 1st Augttst 1848. 

My deabest Uncxe, — ^I had yesterday the happiness of re- 
ceiving your kind letter of the 29th, for which I return my best 

There are ample meeins of crushing the Rebellion in Ireland,^ 
and I think it now is very likely to go ofif without any contest. 
. . . Lord Hardinge is going over there to serve on the Staff, 
which is very praiseworthy of him. 

I do not think the fate of the Minor Princes in Germany is so 
completely decided as Charles ^ . . . is 5o anxious to make one 
believe. There is only a question of taking certain powers and 
rights away, and not at all of getting rid of them ; and I think 
you will see that the Auafuhrung of the Unity will be an impos- 
sibility, at least in the sense they propose at Frankfort. The 
Archduke John Yisa spoken very reassuringly both to Ernest 
and the Duke of Meiningen, and the attachment in many of 
those smaller principalities is still extremely great, coid I am 
sure they will never consent to being auagewiacht, Coburg, for 
instance, on the occasion of the suppression of a very small riot, 
showed the greatest attachment and devotion to Ernest ; at 
Gotha the feeling of independence is very great, and at Strelitz, 
on the occasion of Augusta's confinement with a son, the en- 
thusiasm and rejoicing was universaL All this cannot be 
entirely despised. 

We are as happy as possible here, and would be perfectly so, 
if it was not for the sorrow and misfortunes of so many dear 
to us, and for the state of the world in general. 

I have always forgotten to tell you that we bought a fine 
marble bust of you quite by accident in London the other day. 
It is in armour euid with moustaches, but quite different to the 
one the Gardners have at Melbourne ; Albert saw it at the 
window of a shop, and he£u*d it had been bought in a sale of a 
General Somebody. Now, with Albert's best love, ever your 
devoted Niece, Victobia R. 

1 i9«e Introdnctocy Note for the year, ante^ p. 141. 

3 The Frankfort Aasembly, in porsoanoe of the policy of Qerman consolidation, had 
placed the cenlaral execntiye power in the hands of a Bdchsverweser, or Vicar of tiie 
Bmpire. The Archduke John, uncle of the Empenv of Austria, was elected to this posi- 
tion, and the Queen's half-brother Charles, Prince of Tiefningen, was entrusted with tiie 
Department of Foreign AfEairs. 


We have just heard that there has been an action in Ireland 
in which some of the insurgents have been killed ; fifty Police 
dispersed four thousand people. Smith O'Brien is, however, 
not yet taken. 

Queen Victoria to Viscount Palmerston, 

OSBOBNE, 8<ft August 1848. 

. • . The Queen has attentively perused the statement of 
Lord Palmerston in favour of accrediting an Ambassador at 
Paris. As the proposed arrangement for the present is to be 
only a provisional one, the Queen thinks that the appointment 
of a Minister now will leave it quite open to have an Ambas- 
sador hereafter, if it should be found necessary or advan> 
tageous, whilst it would set that matter at rest for the moment. 
Withdrawing an Ambassador and substituting a Minister here- 
after, would be much more difficult. The French Republic 
would no doubt like to have an Ambassador here, and perhaps 
take immediate steps to secure that object if Lord Normanby 
were accredited Ambassador at Paris, against which we would 
be secured in having only a Minister there. . . . Lord Nor- 
manby's acquaintance with the public men at Paris is as much 
an inconvenience as it may be a convenience in some respects ^ 
his having been the great admirer and friend of M. Lamartine, 
for instance, etc., etc. The possibility of mixing freely with 
persons of various kinds, which Lord Palmerston adduces as an 
important consideration will, in the Queen's opinion, be more 
easy for a Minister than for a person of the high rank of Am- 
bassador. All things considered therefore, the Queen will 
prefer to have temporarily a Minister accredited at Paris. 

M. de Tallenay the Queen would receive in London on 
Tuesday next at six o'clock, when the Queen will be in Town. 

Queen Victoria to Viscount Palmerston, 

OSBORNE, llfA August 1848. 

The Queen has to acknowledge Lord Palmerston's letter of 
yesterday. The Queen was quite surprised to hear from Lord 
Palmerston in his last communication that he had written to 
Lord Normanby to offer him to stay as Minister at Paris, after 
his having before stated to the Queen that this would never do 
and could not be expected from Lord Normanby ; Lord Nor- 
manby's answer declining this offer therefore does in no way 
alter the matter, and must have been foreseen by Lord Palmer- 


ston. By the delay and Lord Normanby*s various conversa- 
tions with M. Bastide^ and General Cavaignac it has now 
become difficult to depeurt from the precedent of the Belgian 
and Sardinian Missions without giving offence at Paris. The 
Queen must, however, insist upon this precedent being fully 
adhered to. She accordingly sanctions Lord Normanby's 
appointment as Ambassador Extraordinary, on the distinct 
understanding that there is to be no Ambetssador sent in return 
to London now, and that a Minister is to be appointed to Peuris 
when the diplomatic intercourse is permanently to be settled. 
The Queen wishes Lord Palmerston to bear this in mind, coid 
to submit to her the arrangement which he thinks will be best 
calculated to carry this into effect. 

Queen Victoria to Lord John Russell. 

OSBOBNB, 11th August 1848. 

The Queen has to acknowledge Lord John Russell's letter of 
to-day. The Queen is highly indignant at Lord Palmerston's 
behaviour now again with respect to Lord Normanby's ap- 
pointment ; he knew perfectly well that Lord Normanby could 
not accept the post of Minister, and had written to the Queen 
before that such an offer could not be made, and has now mcule 
it after all, knowing that, by wasting time and getting the 
matter entangled at Paris, he would carry his point. If the 
French are so anxious to keep Lord Normanby as to make any 
sacrifice for that object, it ought to make us cautious, as it can 
only be on account of the ease with which they can make him 
serve their purposes. They, of course, like an entente cordiaU 
with us at the expense of Austria ; . . . but this can be no 
consideration for us. . . . 

Threatening the Austrians with war, or making war upon 
them in case they should not be inclined to surrender their 
provinces at his bidding [Lord Palmerston] knows to be im- 
possible ; therefore the erUente with the Republic is of the 
greatest value to him, enabling him to threaten the Austrians 
at any time with the French intervention which he can have 
at command if he agrees to it.^ The Queen has recwi the le€uling 
articles of the Times of yesterday and to-day on this subject 
with the greatest satisfaction as they express almost entirely 

1 Minister of Foreign AfEaiis. 

3 The saccesB of the Piedmontese in Northern Italy had not continaed throogfa the 
flummer, and the States whose assistance they had hitherto receiyed began to fall away 
trom them. The King of Naples, successful within his own dominions, had withdrawn 
his troops ; the Pope hesitated to attack Austria ; even undivided suppinrt from Venetia 
could no longer be counted upon. After seyeralreTeraeSyOharles Albert, now left TtrtoaUy 


the same views and feelings which she entertains. The QueejQ 
herpes that Lord John KusseU will read them ; indeed, the 
whole of the Press seem to be unanimous on this subject, and 
she can hardly understand how there can be two opinions 
iq>on it. .- . . 

Queen Victoria to Viscount Palmerston. 

OaBOBNB, 30th August 18i8. 

The Queen has received an autograph letter from the Arch- 
duke John (in cuiswer to the private letter she hcwi written to 
him through Lord Cowley), which has been cut open at the 
Foreign Office. The Queen wishes Lord Palmerston to take 
care that this does not happen again. The opening of official 
letters even, addressed to the Queen, which she has of late 
observed, is really not becoming, and ought to be discontinued, 
as it used never to be the case formerly. 

Queen Victoria to Lord John RiMsell. 

OSBOBNa, 21«l AuffUit 1848. 

The Queen has received Lord John BusselFs letter of yester- 
day, but cannot say that she has been satisfied by the reasons 
given by Lord Palmerston. The union of Lombardy and 
Piodxnont cannot be considered as a concession to France for 
the maintenance of peace, because we know that it is the very 
thing the French object to. The Queen quite agrees that the 
pnnoipal consideration always to be kept in sight is the pre- 
servation of the peace of Europe ; but it is precisely on that 
account that she regrets that the terms proposed by Lord 
Pahnerston (whilst they are not in a<;cordance with the views 
of France) are almost the only ones which must be most 
offensive to Austria. Lord Palmerston wiU have his kingdom 
of Upper Italy under Charles Albert, to which every other con- 
sideration is to be sacrificed, and Lord Normanby's alteration 
of the terms certainly serve that purpose well ; but it is quite 
independent of the question of mediation, and the only thing in 
the whole proceeding which is indefensible in principle. 

Alone in the contest, was dedsiyely defeated by Badetsky, at Costozza, and retreated 
•aoBB the Mincio. With what was left of his troops he entered Milan, which he was 
«Tcntaall7 forced to sorrender, being unable to maintain liimself there. Italy now turned 
to Praooe for assistance, bnt Oavaignac, Tirtually Dictator in Paris, would not go further 
ttan combining with England to effect a peaceful mediation. Austria was not in a frame 
of aind to relinqcdah any park of the proTiooes she had Ixad so serere a struggle to retain. 


194 AUSTRIA AND ITALY [chap, xvn 

Lord Palmerston ha^t 9a usued pretended not to have had time 
to submit the draft to the Queen before he had sent it off. 
What the Queen has long suspected and often warned against 
is on the point of happening, viz. Lord Faknerston's using the 
new entente cordicde for the purpose of wresting from Austria 
her Italian provinces by French arms. This would be a most 
iniquitous proceeding. It is another question whether it is 
good policy for Austria to try to retain Lombardy, but that is 
for her and not for us to decide. Many people might think 
that we would be happier without Irelauad or Canada. Lord 
John will not fail to observe how very intemperate the whole 
tone of Lord Falmerston's langua*ge is. 

Qv>een Victoria to the King of the Belgians, 

BALMORAL Castle, IZth September 1848. 

My deabest Uncle, — ^I yesterday received your dear and 
kind letter of the 9th (it having arrived in London only the 
day before), which is very quick, and I thank you much for it. 
The Schleswig affair at Frankfort is very unfortunate, and 
there seems a lamentable want of aU practical sense, foresight, 
or even common prudence.* 

The poor Austrians seem now to a<;cept the (to me very 
doubtfiil) mediation. It reminds me of the wolf in the lamb's 
skin. Notes verrons, how matters will be arranged. . . . 

My letter to Louise will have informed you of our voyage 
and owe arrival here. This house is smaU but pretty, and 
though the hills seen from the windows are not so fine, the 
scenery all around is the finest almost I have seen anywhere. 
It is very wild and solitary, and yet cheerful and heautifvUy 
wooded, with the river Dee running between the two sides of 
the hills. Loch Nagar is the highest hill in the immediate 
vicinity, and belongs to us. 

Then the soil is the driest and best known almost anywhere, 
and all the hills are as sound and hard as the road. The 
climate is also dry, and in general not very cold, though we 
had one or two very cold days. There is a deer forest — ^many 
roe deer, and on the opposite hill (which does not belong to us) 
grouse. There is also black cock and ptarmigan. Albert has, 
however, no luck this year, and has in vain been after the deer, 
though they are continually seen, and often quite close by the 

1 The incorporation of Schleswig had been forcibly resisted, and Sweden determined 
on armed intervention ; but a temporary armistice was arranged in Aogost. This the 
National Assembly attempted to disayow, but a few days after this letter was written it 
was ratified. 


house. The children are very well, and enjoying themselves 
much. The boys always wear their Highland dress. 

I must now wish you good-bye, and repeat how much de- 
listed we are that everything goes on so well in Belgiiun. 
Ever your devoted Niece, Victoria R. 

Memorandum by Queen Victoria, 

Balmoral, 19th September 1848. 

I said to Lord John Russell, that I must mention to him a 
subject, which was a serious one, one which I had delayed 
mentioning for some time, but which I felt I must speak quite 
openly to him upon now, namely about Lord Palmerston ; 
that I felt really I could hardly go on with him, that I had no 
confidence in hun, and that it made me seriously ajixious and 
uneasy for the welfare of the country and for the peace of 
Europe in general, and that I felt very uneasy from one day 
to another £U3 to what might happen. Lord John repUed that 
he was aware of it ; that he had considered the matter already, 
having he£U*d from his brother (the Duke of Bedford) how 
strongly I felt about it ; that he felt the truth of all that I had 
said, but that, on the other hand, Lord Palmerston was a very 
able man, entirely master of his office and affairs, and a very 
good colleague, never making any difficulties about other 
questions, but (certainly tmreaaonably) complaining of other 
people mixing with and interfering in the affairs of his office. 
I said that ... I fully beUeved that that Spanish marriage 
question, which had been the original cause of so many present * 
misfortunes, would never have become so embrouilU had it not 
been for Lord Palmerston. This led Lord John to say, that 
though he disapproved the length of Lord Palmerston's corre- 
spondence, still that we could not have done otherwise than 
object to the marriage. This is true enough. I repeated that 
all that had been done in Italy last winter had also done harm, 
as it was done by Lord Palmerston, who was distrusted every- 
where abroad, which Lord John regretted. I said that I 
thought that he often endangered the honour of England by 
taking a very prejudiced and one-sided view of a question ; . . . 
that his writings were always as bitter £U3 gall and did great 
harm, which Lord John entirely assented to, and that I often 
felt quite ill from anxiety ; that I wished Lord Clarendon 
(who, I had hecurd, was tired of Lreland) could come over and 
be Secretary of State for Fcwreign Affairs, and Lord Palmerston 
go to Ireleuid £U3 Lord-Lieutenant. Lord John said nothing 
would be better, for that he was sure that Lord Palmerston 

196 AFFAIRS IN THE PUNJAB [chap, xvn 

would make an admirable Lord-Lieutenant, but that cuaother 
thing to be considered was the danger of making Lord Palmer- 
ston an enemy by displacing him, that Lord Minto (who was 
formerly a great friend and admirer of Lord Palmerston's) had 
told Lady John when she spoke to him on the subject of 
placing Lord Palmerston in another office, that he (Lord Pal- 
merston) would certainly turn against the Government if 
displaced. I said that might be, but that sometimes there 
were great interests at stake which exceeded the dsmger of 
offenc^ng one man, and that this was here the case ; Lord John 
Sfidd it w£U3 very true, but that at moments like these one of 
course was cmxious not to do anything which could cause 
internal trouble. I admitted this, but repeated my anxiety, 
which Lord John quite understood, though he thought I a 
little overrated it, and said I was afraid that some day I should 
have to tell Lord John that I could not put up with Lord 
Palmerston any longer, which might be very disagreeable and 

It ended by Lord John's promising to bear the subject in 
mind, and I must say that he took it all just as I could wish. 


MiniUe by the Oovemor-OenercU of India. 

mh September 1848. 

. . . The course of events, as they have developed them- 
selves, and long and anxious considerations of this important 
subject, have finally and immovably confirmed in my mind 
the conviction which the eaxUer events of the insurrection at 
Mooltem long since had founded, that there will be no peace 
for India, nor any stabiUty of Government in the Punjab, nor 
any release from anxiety and costly defensive preparations on 
our frontier, unless the British Government, justly indigneuit 
at the unprovoked and treacherous aggression once again com- 
mitted against them by the Sikhs, shall now effectually provide 
against future demgers by subverting for ever the Dynasty of 
the Sings, by converting the Punjab into a British province, 
and by adopting the only measure which will secure the ob- 
servance of peeuse by the Sikhs, namely, depriving them utterly 
of all the means of making war. I continue as fully convinced 
as ever that the establishment of a strong, friendly, Hindoo 
Government in the Punjab would be the best settlement that 
could be made for the interests of British India, if it could be 
formed. But I am convinced that such a Government cannot 
be formed.^ 

1 See Introductory Note for 1849, post^ p. 208. 


The Chiefs of the Punjab are utterly powerless and worth- 
less. The great body of the nation is adverse to all control, 
and in no degree submissive to the authority of those who are 
professedly their rulers. 

Even admitting, which I am by no means prepared to do, 
that the Sirdars cure not trea^cherously or hostilely disposed to 
the British Government, of what advantage, what defence to 
us is the fidelity of the Chiefs, if they are confessedly unable 
to control the army which is as avowedly hostile to us ? That 
which we desire to secure is a peaceful and well-governed 
neighbour, and a frontier free from alarms, nor demanding a 
permanent garrison of 50,000 men. If their army are able to 
disturb and eager to disturb on every occasion the peace we 
seek to render permanent, of what profit to us is the assumed 
fidelity of the Chiefs, who cannot repress their soldiers' tur- 
bulence, or command their obedience ? 

I discredit altogether the assurances of the fidehty of the 
Chiefs on the evidence of the iacts before us. . . . 

To all these reconunendations my colleagues in the Council 
have yielded their ready assent. 

I have to the last sought to avert, or to avoid, the necessity, 
if it could prudently or fitly be avoided. 

The Sikh nation have forced the necessity upon us. Having 
resolved at once, and fully, to meet it, I shall proceed with all 
speed to the frontier, and shall endeavour by every exertion, 
and by all the means in my power, to carry into effect vig- 
orously the measures on which the Government of India has 
resolved, and which, in my conscience I beUeve, are impera- 
tively cabled for by regard to the peace of India, to the security 
of our Empire there, and to the happiness of the people over 
whom we rule. Dalhousie. 

Queen Victoria to Lord John RiMseU, 

OSBORNE, 7th October 1848. 

The Qiieen sends Lord Palmerston's answer to her last letter, 
of which the Queen has sent a copy to Lord John Russell, and 
encloses likewise a copy of her present answer. The partiality 
of Lord PaJmerston in this ItaUem question really surpasses aU 
conception, and makes the Queen very uneasy on account of 
the character and honour of England, and on account of the 
danger to which the peace of Europe will be exposed. It is 
now clearly proved by Baron Wessenberg that upon the con- 
clusion of the Armistice with Sardinia, negotiations for peace 
would have speedily been entered into, had our mediation not 
been offered to the King, to whom the offer of Lombardy was 


too tempting not to accept, and now that promise is by fair or 
unfair means to be made good. The Queen cannot see any 
principle in this, £U3 the principle upon which Lord Palmerston 
goes is Italian Nationality and Independence from a foreign 
Yoke and Tyranny. How can the Venetian territory then be 
secured to Austria ? and if this is done, on what ground ceui 
Lombardy be wrung from her ? It is really not safe to settle 
such importfitnt matters without principle euid by personal 
passion alone. When the French Government say they cannot 
control pubUc feeling. Lord Palmerston takes this cus an un- 
alterable fact, and as a sufficient reason to make the Austrians 
give up Lombardy ; when, however, the Avstrian Government 
say they cannot give up Lombardy on account of the feeling of 
the Army which had just reconquered it with their blood and 
under severe privations and sufferings, Lord PcJmerston flip- 
pantly tells the Austrian Government, " if that were so, the 
Emperor had better abdicate and make General Radetzky 
Emperor." When Charles Albert burned the whole of the 
suburbs of Milan to keep up the delusion that he meant to 
defend the town, Lord Palmerston said nothing ; and now 
that the Austrian Governor has prohibited revolutionary 
pla<;ards on the walls, and prolonged the period at which arms 
are to be surrendered, at the end of which persons concealing 
arms cure to be tried by court-martial, he writes to Vienna;: 
" that this savage proclamation, which savours more of the 
barbarous usages of centuries long gone by theui of the spirit 
of the present times, must strike everybody as a proof of 
the fear by which the Austrian Commander is inspired,'* etc., 
etc., etc. 

Venice was to have been made over to Austria by the Armis- 
tice, £uid now that this has not been done, Austria is not even 
to retake it, in order (as Lord Normanby says) to keep some- 
thing in hand against which Austria is to make further conces- 
sions. Is all this fair ? In the meantime, from the account 
of our Consul at Venice, the French agents are actively em- 
ployed in intrigues against Austria in that town, and have 
asked him to assist, which he refused. Lord Palmerston 
merely approved his conduct, and did not write a line to Paris 
about it. Now the question at issue is not even to be sub- 
mitted to a Conference of European powers, but to be settled 
by the French RepubUc and Lord Palmerston alone. Lord 
Normanby being the instrument who h€U3 pledged himself over 
and over again for Italian independence (so called). If Austria 
makes peckce with Sardinia, and gives her Italian provinces 
separate National Institutions with a liberal constitutional 
Government, who can forc^ upon her another arrangement ? 

1848] GBEECE 199 

Queen Victoria to Viscount Palmerston, 

OSBORNE, Sth October 1848. 

The Queen cannot refrain from telling Lord Palmerston 
what a painful impression the perusal of a draft of his to Lord 
Normanby referring to the affairs of Greece has made upon her, 
being so little in accordance with the calm dignity which she 
likeB to see in all the proceedings of the British Government ; 
she was particularly struck by the language in which Lord 
Fahnerston speaks of King Otho, a Sovereign with whom she 
stands in friendly relations, and the asperity agcdnst the 
Govemnient of the King of the French, who is really sufficiently 
lowered and suffering for the mistakes he may have committed, 
and that of all this a copy is to be plcM^ in the hands of the 
Foreign Minister of the French Republic^ the Queen can only 
see with much regret.^ 

Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians, 

WINDSOR 048ILB, Idth October 1848. 

My deabest Uncle, — Our voyage yesterday was much 
saddened by a terrible accident at Spithead, which delayed us 
heJf an hour, and which still fills us with horror. The sea was 
running very high, and we were just outside what is called The 
Spity when we saw a man in the water, sitting on the keel of a 
boat, and we stopped, and at that moment Albert discerned 
many heads above the sea, including a poor woman. The tide 
was running so strong that we could only stop an instant and 
let a boat down, but you may imagine our horror. We waited 
at Grosport to he£u* if the people had been saved, and we learnt 
that three had, two of whom by our Fairyfs boat, and that 
four were drowned. Very horrid indeed. 

The state of Germany is dreadful, and one does feel quite 
ashamed about that once really so peaceful and happy people. 
That there are still good people there I am sure, but they allow 
themselves to be worked upon in a frightful and shameful 
way. ... In France a crisis seems at hand. What a very bad 
figure we cut in this mediation ! Really it is quite immoral, 
with Ireland quivering in our grasp, and ready to throw off 
her allegiance at any moment, for us to force Austria to give 
up her lawful possessions. What shall we say if Canada, Malta, 
etc., begin to trouble us ? It hurts me terribly. This ought 
to be the principle in aXX actions, private as well as public : 

1 Lord Palmerston replied that his obaeryationfl on the two Kings lay at the very root 
of his argoment, and were necessary to conciliate the present Goyemxnent of France. 

200 THE BOERS [chap, xvn 

'* Was du nicht willst, dass dir geschieht, das thu' auch einem 
andem nicht.'* . . . 

I must now conclude. With every good wish, ever your 
devoted Niece, Victobia R. 

Earl Orey to Queen Victoria, 

Colonial Offigb, 25<A October 1848. 

Earl Grey presents his humble duty to your Majesty, and 
begs to inform your Majesty that no official accounts have been 
received of the engagement on the Cape Frontier between your 
Majesty's forces under Sir H. Smith and the insurgent Dutch 
farmers, of which an account is published in the newspapers.^ 
Lord Grey has, however, seen a private letter, which mentions, 
in addition to what is stated in the Government notice in the 
Cape newspapers, that Sir Harry Smith exposed himself very 
much, and was slightly wounded ; most fortunately, he was 
merely grazed in the leg ; his horse was also struck by a bullet 
in the nose. A very large proportion of those who were hit by 
the fire of the rebels were officers, who appear to have been 
particularly aimed at. 

Queen, Victoria to Earl Orey. 

Windsor Castlb, 26fA October 1848. 

The Queen has received Lord Grey's letter, and is glad to 
hear that Sir H. Smith's wound was not of a serious nature. 
The loss of so many officers, the Queen is certain, proceeds from 
their wearing a blue coat whilst the men are in scarlet ; the 
Austrians lost a great proportion of officers in Italy from a 
similar difference of dr^. 

As to the Medal for Major Edwardes, the Queen did not 
approve but disapprove the step, and wished the Bath to be 
given instead, which has been done. The medals for troops 
in general (given by the East Lidia Company) are a new and 
doubtful thmg, and now it is proposed to reward even a special 
case of personal distinction by the Cow/pany^s conferring a 
mark of honour. Lord Grey will agree with the Queen that it 
will be better not to establish two fountains of honour in the 
Realm. If the East India Company wish to mark their 
approbation, perhaps they might send Major Edweurdes a fine 
sword or something of that kind. 

1 In July, PretQrius, the Boer leader, had in consequence of the British annexation of 
territory, expelled the British Resident from Bloemfontein. See Introductory Note, 
ante, p. 142. Sir Harry Smith dedsiyely defeated the Boers on the 29th of August. 


Earl Orey to Queen Victoria, 

Colonial Ofbicb, 26th October 1848. 

Earl Grey presents his humble duty to your Majesty, and 
has just had the honour of receiving your Majesty's letter. 
Lord Fitzroy Somerset happened to be here when it arrived, 
and Lord Grey read to him that part of it which relates to the 
danger occasioned to officers in action from wearing a dress of 
a different colour from that of the men. Lord Fitzroy observed 
that although there can be no doubt of the objection to the 
blue coats worn by officers, in this instance their having 
suffered so much cannot be attributed to that cause, as it 
appears that all the officers who were wounded but one, be- 
longed to regiments (the Rifle Battalion or the Cape Mounted 
Rifles) in wMch the officers are dressed in the same colour as 
the men. ... 

Lord Grey begs to submit to your Majesty that the usual 
time for reheving the present Governor of Gibraltar is now 
come, and that he thinks it very desirable to appoint a successor 
to Sir Robert Wilson, who now fills that situation. It appears 
to Lord Grey that, considering the nature of the appointment 
and also the great advantage which would result from afford- 
ing greater encouragement to the officers serving under the 
Ordnance, it would be very proper to confer this government 
upon a Genered Officer belonging to the Royal Artillery or 
Engineers. There is some difficulty in making a selection from 
the officers of these Corps, because, from their retiring only by 
seniority, they seldom attain the rank of General Officer while 
they are still in possession of sufficient strength and activity 
for employment. Lord Grey, however, beheves from the in- 
formation he h£U3 been able to obtain, that Sir Robert Gardiner 
might, with advantage, be appointed to this command, which 
he therefore begs leave to recommend to your Majesty to confer 
upon him. Lord Grey h€U3 had no communication with Sir R. 
Gcurdiner, emd is entirely ignoreuit whether he would accept 
this employment.^ 

Queen Victoria to Lord John Russell, 

Windsor Castlb, 21th October 1848. 

The Queen h£U3 not yet eu^knowledged the receipt of Lord 
John Russell's communication of the views of the Cabinet on 

1 Sir Robert Qurdiner, K.O.B.. was appointed Governor and Oonimander-in-Ghie£ of 
Gibraltar on the 21st of November, and held that post till 1855. 

VOL. u 7* 

202 ITALY AND AUSTRIA [chap, xvn 

the Italian affairs.^ She is very glad that the Cabinet should 
have considered this important question, and that she should 
have received an a.ssurance " that she will not be advised to 
have recourse to forcible intervention." The Queen under- 
stands this principle to apply to Lombcurdy as well as to Sicily, 
and that, of course, " forcible intervention " will not only be 
avoided as to British means, but likewise as to French means, 
with British consent and concurrence. Though Lord John 
Russell does not enter so much into particulars with r^ard to 
the opinions of the Members of the Cabinet as the Queen might 
have wished, she infers from the proposition that Lombardy 
should be constituted separately imder an Archduke, that 
the idea of making it over to the King of Sardinia is finally 

Lord John RusseU to Queen Victoria. 

Lodge, 19^;^ November 1848. 

Lord John Russell presents his humble duty to your Majesty. 

It will probably be necessfury to send troops to India, who 
will then be no longer chargeable to this coimtry. But Lord 
John Russell thinks it his duty to state that however unwilling 
he may be to di m inish the Military and Naval force, it is still 
more essential to keep our income within our expenditure. 

The whole matter will be under the consideration of ihe 
Cabinet next week. 

The approa^shing election of a President in France must 
decide the question of the future Government of France. Louis 
Bonaparte may probably play the part of Richcurd Cromwell. 

Qtieen Victoria to the Kin/g of the Belgians, 

WINDSOB Oastlb, 2l4t November 1848. 

My dearest Uncle, — ^I write to thcmk you for your kind 
letter of the 18th on yoin* god-daughter's eighth birthday ! 
It does seem like an incredible dream that Vicky should alrectdy 
be so old ! She is very happy with all her gifts. 

In Vienna things are much better. Louis Napoleon's elec- 
tion seems certain, and I own I wish for it as I think it will 
lead to something else. 

1 Lord John had written to the effect that, while no definite dedaon had been anlTed 
at with regard to Italy, it was thought by the Cabinet that every means sboald be need 
to indaoe Austria to give ap Lombardy to an Austrian Prince, as meet conformable to the 
interests of Austria herself. The question of Sicily (he added) was more difficult, but if 
no agreement could be arrived at by amicable negotiation, the Cabinet would not be 
di^osed to advise the Queen to have recourse to foixdble intervention. 


You will grieve to hear that our good, dear, old friend 
Melbourne is dying ; there is no hope, and I enclose a pretty 
letter of Lady Beauvale's,* which I think will interest you, and 
which I beg you to return. One cannot forget how good and 
kind and amiable he was, and it brings back so many recol- 
lections to my mind, though, God knows ! I never wish that 
time back again. 

We go to-morrow for foin* weeks to our dear, peaceful 

I will now take my leave. Begging you to believe me ever 
your devoted Niece, Victobia R. 

ViscaurU Palmerston to Queen Victoria. 

Brocket Hall, 23rd November 1«48. 

Viscount Palmerston is here engaged in the melancholy 
occupation of watching the gradual extinction of the lamp of 
life of one who was not more distinguished by his brilliant 
talents, his warm affections, and his first-rate understanding, 
than by those sentiments of attachment to your Majesty 
which rendered him the most devoted subject who ever had 
the honour to serve a Sovereign. 

Viscount Palmerston to Qu^en Victoria, 

Brocket Hall, 26th November 1848. 

Viscount Palmerston presents his humble duty to your 
Majesty, and has to state that Viscount Melbourne was re- 
leased from further suffering at about six o'clock yesterday 
afternoon. His bodily strength had been rapidly declining 
during the last few days, and it was only at intervals that 
he retained any degree of apparent consciousness. The last 
transition took place quietly and with almost imperceptible 

Lord John RusseU to Qusen Victoria. 

Pembroke Lodge, 26<ft November 1848. 

Lord John Russell presents his humble duty to your Majesty : 
he sees no political objection to a visit to Osborne on the part 
of the Duke and Duchess of Nemours. The election of a 

1 See Qreville's appreciatiye description of Lady Beaavale in bis Joarnal for the 30tb 
of Janoaiy 1853. 

204 LETTER FROM THE POPE [chap, xvn 

President in France is so completely absorbing attention that 
any mark of regard to the Duke of Nemours may weU pass 

Lord John Russell had the honour of seeing Louis Philippe 
in this house on Friday. He was in much better spirits, 
owing to the convalescence of the Queen ; but the illness has 
been a very serious one. 

Lord John Russell had understood that the affairs of pro- 
perty belonging to the Orleans f £unily were arranged, and that 
Louis Philippe would ultimately be possessed of more than a 
tnillion sterlmg. 

Louis Philippe expressed his opinion in favour of Louis 
Bonaparte as a ccmdidate for the Presidency. He feels con- 
fident that France cannot go to war on account of the state of 
her finances. 

Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians. 

06B0BNE, 27th November 1848. 

My dearest Uncle, — ^Thcmk God ! that the news from 
Berlin are better. It is to be hoped that this may have a good 
effect elsewhere. 

In France there ought really to be a Monarchy before long, 
qui que ce soit. 

Our poor old friend Melbourne died on the 24th. I sincerely 
regret him, for he was truly attached to me, and though not a 
firm Minister he was a noble, kind-hearted, generous being. 
Poor Lord Beauvale and Lady Palmerston feel it very much. 
I wish it might soften the caro sposo of the latter-named person. 

Victoria R 

Pope Pius IX, to Queen Victoria,^ 

To the Most Serene and Potent Sovereign Victoria, the Illus- 
trious Queen of England, Pius Papa Nonus. 
Most Serene and Most Potent Queen, Greeting ! Your 
Royal Majesty has already learned what a subversion of 
public affairs has taken place at Rome, and what utterly un- 
heard-of violence was, on the 16th of the late month of Novem- 
ber, offered to us in our very Palace of the Quirinal, in con- 
sequence of a nefarious conspiracy of abandoned and most 
turbulent men. Hence, in order to avoid more violent com- 
motions and more serious dangers, as likewise for the purpose 

i Official translatioQ. 


of freely performing the functions of our apostolic Ministry, 
we, not without the deepest and most heartfelt sorrow, have 
been constrained to depart for a time from our Holy City, and 
froni the whole state of our pontifical dominions ; and in the 
meanwhile we come as far as Gaeta, where, as soon as we had 
arrived, our first care was to declare to oinr subjects the senti- 
ments of our mind and will, by a public edict, a copy of which 
we transmit to yornr Royal Majesty, together with these our 
letters. Without doubt, through your own wisdom, you will 
perfectly understand. Most Serene and Potent Sovereign, that 
amongst the other most cruel difficulties by which we are 
pressed, we must be chiefly solicitous concerning those subject 
to our temporal rule and the rights and possessions of the 
Roman Church, which, moreover, your august Uncle and the 
other Princes of Einrope protected with so much zeal. But we 
do not in the least doubt that, in conformity with your exalted 
magnanimity, your justice, and yoinr known desire to maintain 
order in public affairs, you will by no means suffer this same to 
be wanting to us at this most lamentable time. Trusting in- 
deed in this hope, we do not cease, in the humility and afflic- 
tion of our heart, from earnestly beseeching God, the All Good 
and All Great, that He may heap upon yoinr Royal Majesty 
and your whole House all true and solid prosperity, and that 
He may unite you with us in perfect chaiity. 

Given at Gaeta, the 4th day of December 1848, in the third 
year of oinr Pontificate. 


Qiteen Victoria to the King of the Belgians. 

Osborne, IZth December 1848. 

My beloved Uncle, — Pray accept my warmest and beat 
wishes for many, many ha/ppy returns of your birthday — a day 
so dear to so many, and which will be hailed with such joy in 
Belgium. You have indeed reason to look with satisfaction 
on all around you, though it is a painful thing to think how 
many have been ruined and made miserable since this day 
twelvemonths. Let us hope that another year may bring 
mcmy things round again. 

The weather is beautiful, and I wish much we could fly over 
to pay our respects to you on your dear birthday. 

The papers cu'e just come, and I see there is no doubt of 
Louis Napoleon's election, which I am very glad of, as it is a 

1 This letter was saitably acknowledged in general terms. See p. 210. 


sign of better times. But that one should have to wish for him 
is recdly wonderful. 

Now good-bye, dearest Uncle. Ever your devoted Niece, 


Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians. 

Osborne, l%th December 1848. 

My dearest, kindest Uncle, — ^Your dear letter, full of 
interesting topics, which I received yesterday, gave me great 
pleasure, and I thank you much for it. The success of Louis 
Napoleon^ is an extraordin£uy event, but valuable as a uni- 
versal condemnation of the Republic since February. 

It will, however, perhaps be more difficult to get rid of him 
again than one at first may imagine. Nemours thinks it better 
that none of themselves should be caUed into action for some 
time to come. I fear that he feels now that they ought to have 
foreseen the dangers in February, and ought not to have yielded ; 
when I said to him that the Pope had declared that he would 
never quit Rome, and did so do the very next day, he said : 
" Ah ! mon Dieu, on se laisse entrainer dans ces moments.'* 
Louise said to me that her Father had so often declared he would 
never quit Paris alive, so that when she heard of his flight she 
always believed it was untrue and he must be dead. . . 

Queen Victoria to Lord John Ru^sseU, 

Windsor Oastle, 22nd December 1848. 

The Queen has been waiting to receive an answer from Lord 
John Russell upon her last letter, and has therefore delayed 
sending the enclosed letter from Lord Palmerston.^ But lest 
any further delay might cause future inconvenience, she sends 
it now without having received Lord John's cuiswer. The 
Queen is sure Lord John will feel that neither Lord Palmerston 

1 He was elected President on the 10th of December, by an immense majcnity. 

2 Lord Palmerston had written to say that Lord Normanby's credentials wtfe pro- 
Tisional, and regular credentials would become necessary. The new French Gk>vamment 
were sending Ambassadors to Vienna, Home, and other capitals, which in return would 
send Ambassadors to Paris, so that it would be injurious for this country's representatire 
to be of infericv diplomatic rank. *' It would," he wrote subsequently, " be derogatory 
to the dignity of your Majesty, and to the character of your Majesty's Goyemment if, 
in the present state of thi^ between the British and Spanish Governments the Spanish 
Ambassador should,by a dilatooriness on the part of your Majesty's Goyemmoit, be allowed 
to raise a question about precedence with your Majesty's representative at Paris ; it 
would be very inconvenient if that question were decided unfavourably to your Majesty's 
representative, and very undesirable that he should appear to be under obligation to the 
French Government for a decision in his favour." 


nor Lord Normanby have shown a proper regard for the 
Queen's wishes and opinion in this matter. Lord Normanby's 
Despatch shows that the step to be taken with reference to an 
Ambassador to be sent here is avowedly for the purpose of 
controlling the future action of the Queen's Government, and 
to oblige her to keep a permanent Ambassador at Paris in the 
person of Lord Normanby. It is not very delicate in Lord 
Normanby to convey such a message, nor in Lord Palmerston 
to urge it so eagerly. M. de Beaumont's departinre from this 
country without taking leave of the Queen was neither very 

The Queen has already, on Lord Palmerston' s account, 
received two public a&onts: the one by her Minister in Spain 
having been sent out of that country,^ the other now, by the 
new Emperor of Austria not announcing to her by special 
mission his accession to the Throne, which he did to all other 
Sovereigns, avowedly, as it appears, to mark the indignation 
of Austria at the inimical proceedings of the British Foreign 
Secretary. The Queen does not think that, in the face of such 
slurs, the dignity of England will be vindicated by a race be- 
tween her representative £uid that of Spain, who is to present 
his credentials first to the new President of the French Re- 
public, which Lord Palmerston considers of such importance 
as to render an immediate decision indispensable. 

Should Lord John think that we cannot do less now for 
Louis Napoleon than has been done in the case of General 
Cavaignac, the Queen will not object to renewing Lord Nor- 
manby's credentials as Ambassador-Extraordinary on a special 

1 See ante, p. 175. 


The opening of Parliament (1840) was noteworthy for the 
appearance of Mr Disraeli as leader of the Opposition in the House of 
Commons, in place of Lord George Bentinck, who had died suddenly 
in the recess ; the Peelites, though influential, were numerically few, 
and they continued by their support to maintain the Whigs in office, 
the principal measure of the session being the Act for the repeal of 
the Navigation Laws, a natural coroUcury to Peel's free trade policy. 
A "Royal visit was paid to Ireland in August, and at Cork, Waterf ord. 
Dublm, and Belfast, the Queen and Prmce were received with great 
enthusietsm. > 

Abroad, the cause of United Italy sufiered a severe check. The 
Sicilian revolt came to an end, and Austrian ascendency was re- 
established in Northern ItaXy. King Charles Albert was defeated at 
Novara, and abdicated in favour of his son, Victor EmmcmueL 
The Pope, who had fled from Rome in disguise, in November 1848, 
and was living at Gaeta, wets now under the protection of Austria 
and France, and General Oudinot occupied the Papal city on his 
behalf in June. Austrian influence restored Tuscany, Parma, and 
Modena to their rulers, and in Central Europe operated to prevent the 
acceptance by the King of Prussia of the Imperial Crown of Ger- 
many. Hungeury, in consequence of the help rendered to the 
Viennese insurrectionists in 1848, was reduced to submission, but 
only with Russian co-operation. Heavy retribution vraa inflicted on 
the Hungarians ; Kossuth and other revolutionaries fled to Turkey, 
the Russian and Austrian Governments unsuccessfully demanding 
their extradition. 

The British operations against the Sikhs were brought to a suc- 
cessful termination ; the Commander-in-Chief, Lord Gough, with 
inferior numbers, had engaged the enemy at Chillianwalla, with 
indecisive and virtuaHy unfavourable results, and Sir Chjurles Napier 
was sent out to supersede him. Mooltan, where the outrage of the 
previous year had taken place, had been besieged, and fell on the 
22nd of January. Dalhousie had established himself at Ferozepore. 
A week or two later the Sikhs and Afghans were overwhelmingly 
defeated at Gujerat, and on the 29th of March the Punjab was in- 
corporated in the British Empire ; the '* Koh-i-noor " wcus, in token 
of submission, presented by the Maharajah to the Queen. Lord 
Dfidhousie received a Marquisate, and the thanks of both Houses of 
Parliament were voted to all concerned. 




Memorandum on Matters connected with the Form of addressing 
the Pope in Ansvoer to his Letter to Her Majesty of Wh 
December 1848. 

FOREIGN Office, 6th January 1849. 

The accompanying draft of answer to the letter which the 
Pope addressed to Her Majesty from Ga^ta on the 4th of 
December is in the same form as letters which were written to 
Pope Pius VII. by George the Fourth while Prince Regent, and 
after he came to the Throne. They address the Pope as 
" Most Eminent Sir," style him " Your Holiness," and finish 
with the mere signature after the date or the conclusion of the 
letter. Copies of those letters are annexed. 
Other forms of writing Royal letters are : — 
let. Commencing " Sir my Brother " (or " Sir my Cousin," 
etc.y as the case may be), and ending thus : 
" Sir my Brother, 

Your Majesty* s 

Good Sister:' 
This is the form used between Sovereign and Sovereign. 

2nd. Commencing with the Queen's titles. In these letters 
the plural " we " and " our " are employed instead of " I " and 
" my," and the letters terminate thus : — 

" Your Good Friend, 


This form is now used almost exclusively for Royal letters to 

In the State Paper Office there is, with only one exception, 
no record of any letter from a Sovereign of England to the Pope 
from the time of Henry VIII., when the State Paper Office 
records commence. The single exception is an original letter 
from Queen Mary in 1555 to Pope Paul IV. It seems that 
when the time of her expected confinement drew nigh, she 
caused letters to be prepared announcing the birth of a son, 


210 REPLY TO THE POPE [chap, xvra 

and signed them in anticipation of the event. When no birth 
took place, the letters were of course not sent off ; but they 
have been preserved to the present day, and among them is 
the letter to the Pope. The accompanying paper contains a 
copy of the beginning and conclusion of it. 

There is no trace in the State Paper Office of any letter of 
credence having been given by James II. to Lord Castlemaine 
in 1685. The correspondence of the reign of Jeunes II. is, 
however, very defective, and much of it must either have been 
suppressed or have got into private hands. 

Draft] Queen Victoria to Pope Pitis IX> 

Most Eminent Sib, — I have received the letter which your 
Holiness addressed to me from Gaeta on the 4th of December 
last, and in which you acquaint me that in consequence of the 
violent proceedings of certain of your subjects, you had felt 
yourself obliged to depart from Rome, and for a time to quit 
your dominions. I assure your Holiness that I have been 
deeply pained at the inteUigence of the events to which your 
letter refers, and that I do the fullest justice to the motives 
which induced your Holiness to withdraw for a time from your 
capital. Your Holiness has given so many proofs of being 
animated by a sincere desire to improve the condition of the 
people whom, under Divine Providence, you have been chosen 
to govern, £uid the clemency of your heart and the rectitude of 
your intentions are so well Imown and so truly appreciated, that 
I cannot but hope that the trials which you have experienced 
in consequence of popular commotion will speedily come to an 
end, and will be succeeded by a cordial, good understanding 
between your Holiness and the Roman people. I request your 
Holiness to believe that it would afford me real pleasure to be 
able in any degree to contribute to a result so much to be 
desired ; and I am happy in having this opportunity of assur- 
ing you of my sincere friendship, and of the unfeigned respect 
and esteem which I entertain for your person and chara<5ter. 

Given at Windsor Castle the [ ] day of Janucuy 1849. 

The President of the French Repvblic to Qtteen Victoria, 

Eltsee National, le 22 Janvier 1849. 

Tres chere et GRANDE Amie, — ^Une de mes premidres 
pens^es lorsque le voeu de'la nation Frangaise m'appela au 

t Seep, 204. 


poGvoir fut de faire part & votre Majesty de mon avenement et 
des sentiments que j'apportcus dcuis ma nouvelle position. 

Des circonstances particulidres ont retard^ le depart de 
raznbaasadeur qui devait porter ma lettre ; mais aujourd'hui 
que FAmiral Cicile se rend & Londres je d^ire exprimer k 
votre Majesty la respectueuse sympathie que j'ai toujours 
6prouv^ pom* sa personne ; je d^ire surtout lui dire combien 
je suis reconnaissant de la g6n6reuse hospitality qu'elle m'a 
donn^ dans ses 6tats lorsque j'^tais fugitif ou proscrit et 
combien je serais heureux si ce souvenir pouvait servir k res- 
serrer les liens qui imissent les gouvemements et les peuples 
de nos deux pays. 

Je prie votre Majesty de croire k mes sentiments. Votre 
ami, Louis Napoleon Bonaparte. 

Lord John RitsseU to Queen Victoria, 

Chesham Place, 22nd January 1849. 

Lord John Russell presents his humble duty to your Majesty, 
and would now wish to consult Lord Lansdowne on the pro- 
I»iety of offering to Lord Palmerston to exchange the Foreign 
Office for the Lord-Lieutenancy of Ireland.^ 

As Lord John Russell has always approved in the main of 
the foreign policy of Lord Palmerston, he could only make this 
offering in a mode honourable to Lord Palmerston — that is to 
say, for instance, by offering him at the same time an English 
£<arldom, or an English Barony with the Garter. Nor could 
he proceed in the matter without Lord Lansdowne's con- 

Queen Victoria to Lord John RussdL 

WINDSOR CASTLE, 22nd January 1849. 

The Queen has just received Lord John Russell's letter and 
enclosures, the contents of which have deeply grieved her, as 
the honour of her Government has always been nearest to her 
heart. She feels deeply the humiliation to have to make an 
apology to the Government of Naples, which stands so very 

1 Hostilities were in progress between the Sicilian insorgents and their Sovereign. An 
agent foe the former came to England to purchase arms, but was informed by the con- 
tractor to whom he appUed that the whole of his stock had been pledged to the Ordnance 
Office. Lord Palmerston, without consulting the Cabinet, allowed this stock to be txans- 
tered to the insui^rents. The matter became public property, and the Premier brought 
it before the Cabinet on the 23rd of January, when, somewhat unexpectedly, the Foreign 
Secretary consented to make an apology to the Neapolitan Government ; so that the 
crisis terminated for the time. 


low in public estimation, and she naturally dreads the effect 
this disclosure about the guns will have in the world, when she 
considers how many accusations have been brought against 
the good faith of this country latterly by many different 
Governments. Of course they will all consider their sus- 
picions and accusations, however absurd they may have been, 
as justified and proved. 

The Queen supposes that the proposition Lord John makes 
to her about moving Lord Palmerston to Ireland is the result 
of his conviction that after this disclosure it will be no longer 
to the advantage of the public service to leave the direction 
of the Foreign Affairs in these critical times in Lord Palmer- 
ston's hands. The Queen will be anxious to see Lord John 
upon this subject. All she wishes for is, that matters may be 
so managed as to reflect the least possible discredit upon the 
Government cmd Lord Palmerston himself. 

Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians. 

WINDSOR CASTLE, ^h Ft^bfWKTy 1849. 

My deabbst Uncle, — We are well. All went off extremely 
well on Thursday, but the Government must expect difficulties 
upon their (very doubtful) Foreign Policy. I own I do met 
feel reassured about pea<;e. lixdy and the Pope, etc., are very 
ticklish subjects. 

Everybody says Louis Napoleon has behaved extremely 
well in the last crisis — ^full of courage and energy, and they 
say that he is decidedly straightforward, which is not to be 
despised. I will not a.dimt that the Oemuthlichkeit ist fiir immer 
begraben in Germajiy ; it will surely return when this madness 
is over, but how soon no one can tell. Ever yoin* devoted 
Niece, Victoria R. 

Queen Victoria to the Earl of Dalhousie, 

Windsor Castle, ^h February 1SA9. 

The Queen has not yet thanked Lord Dalhousie for his long 
and interesting letter which she received in the summer. 
Since that period many important events have taken plaice in 
India, and the last news have naturally made the Queen feel 
very anxious. She deeply laments the loss of General Cureton 
and Colonel Havelock, officers who will not be easily replcM^. 
The Queen thinks that Lord Dalhousie has throughout acted 
most judiciously £uid has thwarted more mischief being done. 

1849] STATE OF EUROPE 213 

She will abstain from remarking upon the conduct of the Com- 
mander-in-Chief, as she knows that the Duke of Wellington has 
written fully to Lord Dalhousie on this painful subjects The 
Queen concludes with expressing her hopes that Lord an,d 
Lady Dcdhousie are ia good health, and with the Prince's 
kindest remembrances to Lord Dalhousie. 

The King of the Belgians to Qvsen Victoria, 

lAEKBN, lOtA February 1849. 

My deabest Victoria, — ^I have to offer my most affection- 
ate thanks for your dear letter of the 6th. The state of the 
Queen seems better, though I fear not so solidly as to be beyond 
mischief ; but the improvement is real, and will act as a moral 
support. They have been severely tried, those poor exiles, 
and Heaven knows what is still in store for them. I don't 
think that in Italy there will be war. The French cannot 
think of it for some months, probably not before June or 
July, €uid the Italians cannot make it alone without being 
licked ; the better informed know that. The Pope ought to be 
replaced on his seat for the sake of every one ; and his ultra- 
Liberal policy entitles him to be supported by all Governments 
and by all right-minded people. 

Louis Bonaparte has not ill-behaved, it seems ; negatively 
he might have done much harm. The position continues to be 
abominable. There is for every one an absence (Tavenir which 
ruins everything and everybody — that is the real difficulty. 

Die OemiUhlichkeit in Germtuiy was the consequence of its 
political existence these last thousand years ; that is now all 
going to ruin, and the OemiUhlichkeit will be as little found 
again que Vurbanite Fran^ise so much talked of formerly and 
now unknown. 

This part of February puts me always in mind of my dear 
little sijour with you in 1841. How far that period is now, 
though but eight years from us ; the very features of every- 
thing changed, I fear for ever, and not for the better. . . . 
Now I must conclude, and remain ever, my dearest Victoria, 
your truly devoted Uncle, Leopold R. 

Memorandum by Queen Victoria. 

BuOKlNaHAM PALACE, 19th February 1849. 

Admiral C^ile, who dined here for the first time after the 
presentation of his credentials as Ambassador from the French 

1 See Introdoctory Kote for the year, ante, p. 208. 

214 LOUIS NAPOLEON. [chap xvm 

Republic, with whom I spoke for some time after dimier, said : 
** Nous en avons fait de tristes experiences en France," but 
that he hoped *' que les choses s'eun61ioraient " ; that the 
Government was very firm and decided, and determined not 
to allow order to be disturbed ; " Paris a maintenant fait 
quatre Revolutions que la France a subies ; votre Majest6 
sait qui a proclam6 la R6publique au mois de F6vrier ? Une 
centaine de coquins ! Personne s'en doutait, et cependant la 
France s'y est soumise ! " That the Government was how- 
ever determined, and so were all the Departments, that this 
should never happen again ; no doubt the danger from the 
Socialists was great, all over the world ; that that was the real 
danger, and that they would readily make another attempt 
like the fearful one in June {the resiidt of which for three days 
was uncertain), but that they had not the power ; that he was 
continually impressing upon all his friends in Frcmce the 
necessity of supporting whatever form of Government there was 
whose object was the maintenance of order, and to unite " contre 
cet ennemi conmiun." The President, he continued, had risen 
amazingly in the opinion of every one by his firmness, courage, 
and determination — ^which he had shown in those critical days 
a fortnight or three weeks ago — ^and that in these two monlJis 
he had acquired " une grande aptitude pour les affaires ; tout 
le monde est 6tonn6, parce que personne ne s'y attendait." He 
spoke with great delight of Belgium — and how it had stood the 
shock of the events in France — and also of England. Italy, 
he considered, was by far the greatest object of danger. 

Victoria R. 

Queen Victoria to the Marquis of Lansdoivne, 

OSBORNE, 3rd March 1849. 

The Queen sends Lord Lansdowne the book * she mentioned 
to him. It is an extraordinary production for people of the 
working classes, and there are a great many sound and good 
observations in it on education ; the observations on the 
deficiency in the religious instruction and in the preaching 
the Queen thinks are particularly true. It likewise shows 
a lofty and enlarged view of education which is often 

The Queen takes this occasion of repeating her hope that 
Gaelic will be taught in future in the Highland schools, as well 
as English, as it is really a great mistake that the people should 

i This book was probably Popular Education, as regards Juvenile Ddinquency, by Hus. 
BuUock, 1849. » ^ •« -vy, J 


be constantly talking a language which they often cannot read 
and generally not write. Being very partial to her loyal and 
good Highlanders, the Queen takes much interest in what 
Bhe thinks will tend more than an3^hing to keep up their 
simplicity of character, which she considers a great merit in 
these days. 

The Queen thinks equally that WekAi should be taught in 
Wales as well as English.^ 

Qtieen Victoria to the King of the Belgians, 

OSBORNE, eth March 1849. 

My deasest Uncle, — ^Your dear letter reached me yester- 
day, and I thcmk you warmly for it. I wish you could be here, 
for I never remember finer weather than we have had since we 
came here ; perfect summer, ajid so sweet, so enjoyable, and 
then with all the pleasures and beauties of Spring you have 
that beautiful sea — so blue and smooth as it has been these 
three days. If we have no mountains to boast of, we have 
the sea, which is ever enjoyable. We have camelias which 
have stood out two winters covered with red flowers, and 
scarlet rhododendrons in brilliant bloom. Does this not 
sound tempting ? It seems almost wrong to be at home, and 
Albert really hardly is. 

I wish you joy of your twenty-four foxes. If there was a 
black one eunongst them I should beg for one, as the skin you 
sent me last year was not a black one. 

The news from India are very distressing, and make one very 
anxious, but Sir Charles Napier is instantly to be sent out to 
supersede Lord Gough, and he is so well versed in Indian 
tactics that we may look with safety to the future after his 

The Italian Question remains v(3ry complicated, and the 
German one a very perplexing, sad one. Prussia must protect 
the poor Princes £uid put herself at the head, else there is no 
hope. Austria should behave better, and not oppose the con- 
solidation of a central Power, else I know not what is to become 
of poor Germany. 

Pray use your influence to prevent more fatal mischief. 

Now adieu, dearest Uncle. Ever your devoted Niece, 

Victoria R. 

1 Lord Lansdawne, in his reply, undertook " to combine Instraction in the Gkielic with 
the Wnglirti language in the Highland as well as the Welsh schools, and to have a view 
t« it in the choice of Inspectors." 

216 END OF THE SIKH WAR [chap, xvra 

Lord John Russell to Queen Victoria, 

Gheshah PlAOB, 16th March 1849. 

Lord John Russell presents his humble duty to your Majesty, 
and has the honour to state that the debate last night was 
brought to a close.^ 

Mr Cobden ajid Mr Disraeli made very able speeches at the 
end of the debate. 

The debate has been a remarkable one, and the division 
shows tolerably well the strength of parties. The Protection- 
ists, animated by the cry of agricultural distress, are disposed 
to use their power to the utmost. Mr Disraeli shows himself 
a much abler and less passionate leader than Lord George 

On the other hand, the friends of Sir Robert Peel and the 
party of Mr Cobden unite with the Government in resisting 
the Protectionist party. The House of Commons thus gives 
a majority, which, though not compact, is decided at once 
against the extreme Tory and the extreme Radical party. 
With such a House of Commons the great interests of the 
Throne and the Constitution are safe. An abrupt dissolution 
would put everything to hcbzard. 

The Earl of Dalhousie to Queen Victoria. 

Oamp, Ferozepore, 24£h March 1849. 

The Grovernor-Gteneral presents hia most humble duty to 
your Majesty, and has the honour of acknowledging the receipt 
of the letter which your Majesty most graciously addressed 
to him on the 5th of February. 

He is deeply sensible of your Majesty's goodness, and most 
grateful for the expression of approbation which it has con- 

The Governor-General is not without fear that he may have 
intruded too often of late upon your Majesty's time. But he 
is so satisfied of the extreme pleasure which your Majesty 
would experience on learning that the prisoners who were in 
the hands of the Sikhs, and especially the ladies and children, 
were once again safe in the British camp, that he would have 
ventured to convey to your Majesty that intelligence, even 
though he had not been able to add to it — ^as happily he can— 
the announcement of the surrender of the whole Khalsa €urmy, 
and the end of the war with the Sikhs. 

1 On Mr Disraeli's motion for payment of the half of local rates by the Treasury, whidi 
was defeated by 280 to 189. 


Major-GenereJ Gilbert pushed on rapidly in pursuit of the 
Sikhs, who were a few marches in front of him, carrying off our 
prisoners with them. 

At Rawul Pindee, half-way between the Jhelum and Attock, 
the Sikh troops, as we have since he€u*d, would go no further. 
They received no pay, they were starving, they had been beaten 
and were disheartened ; and so they surrendered. 

All the prisoners were brought safe into our ccunp. Forty- 
one pieces of artillery were given up. Chuttur Singh and 
Shore Singh, with all the Sirdars, delivered their swords to 
General Gilbert in the presence of his officers ; and the remains 
of the Sikh army, 16,000 strong, were marched into camp, by 
1000 at a time, and laid down their arms as they pa.ssed 
between the lines of the British troops. 

Your Majesty may well imagine the pride with which British 
Officers looked on such a scene, and witnessed this absolute 
subjection and humiliation of so powerful an enemy. 

How deeply the humiliation was felt by the Sikhs themselves 
may be jiidged by the report which the officers who were 
present have made, that many of them, cmd especially the grim 
old Elhalsas of Runjeet's time, exclaimed as they threw their 
arms down upon the heap : " This day Runjeet Singh has 

Upwards of 20,000 stands of arms were taken in the hills. 
Vast quantities were gathered after the ffight of the Sikhs from 
Grujerat. As a further precaution, the Governor-General has 
ordered a disarming of the Sikhs throughout the Ea.stem 
Doabs, while they are yet down and afraid of punishment. 
He trusts that these measures may all tend to ensure the 
continuance of peace. 

The Sirdars will arrive at Lahore to-day, where they will 
await the determination of their future plaices of residence. 
The officers who were prisoners have also reached Lahore, 
together with Mrs George Lawrence and her children. 

It is impossible to speak too highly of the admirable spirit 
which this lady has (Ssplayed during many months of very 
arduous trial. 

By the kindness of others, the Governor-General has had 
the opportunity of seeing constantly the little notes which 
were secretly despatched by her from her prison. The gallant 
heart she kept up under it all, the cheerful face she put upon 
it, and the unrepining patience with which she bore the p«iva- 
tions of captivity and the dangers which it threatened to her 
children, her husband, €«id herself, must command the highest 
respect and make one proud of one's countrywomen. 

General Gilbert, by the latest intelligence, had seized the 

218 THE KING OF SARDINIA [chap, xvra 

fort of Attock, had crossed the Indus, and was advancing on 
Peehawur, whither the Afghcuis had retired. 

By next mail the Govemor-GrenereJ trusts that he will be 
able to announce that every enemy has been swept away by 
your Majesty's Armies, and that the Afghcms have either been 
crushed like the Sikhs or have fled to Cabul again. 

He has the honour to subscribe himself, your Majesty's most 
obedient, most humble and very faithful Subject and Servant^ 


T?ie King of Sardinia {Victor Emantiel) to Qtteen Victoria. 

Turin, le 30 Mars 1849. 

Ma tres chebe Sobub, — La participation officielle que je 
m'empresse de vous donner de mon avdnement au trone m'ofire 
une occasion que je suis heureux de saisir pour vous exprimer 
dans une lettre de ma main les sentiments de ma vive gratitude 
pour Faffection dont ma maison a re^u des preuves marquantes 
et r6it6r6es de votre petrt, comme pour le bienveillant int6ret 
que votre Grouvemement a t6moign6 k ce pays peurticulidrement 
dans les graves 6v6nements qui ont eu lieu pendant cette 
demidre ann6e. 

Je vous prie d'etre persuad6e que rien n'est plus sincere que 
la reconnaissance que j'en conserve, et de me laisser nourrir 
la confiance que je puis compter sur la continuation de ces 
dispositions si aimables. 

En vous renouvelant les sentiments d'amiti6 la plus parfaite, 
je suis, votre tr^ cher Fr^re, Victor Emanuel. 

Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians, 

WINDSOR CASTLE, 10th April 1849. 

My dearest Uncle, — You will, I am sure, share our joy at 
Ernest's wonderful success at Eckerforde.^ It is a marvellous 
piece of good fortune pour son baptime de feu, but it alarmed 
and agitated us all to think that he might have been wounded, 
to say the least, for he had his horse killed under him. At all 
events, he has done honour to the poor race to which he 
belongs, and it makes us both very happy. I think it will tend 
decidedly to shorten the war. Poor dear Alexandrine ! in 
what anxiety she will have been. 

The victory of Novara 2 seems to have been one of the hardest 

1 In this engagement with the Danes, arising out of the Schleswig-Holstein dispute* 
Prince Ernest greatly distinguished himself. 

2 In which Marshal Radetzky defeated the Piedmontese. 


fought and most brilliant battles known for years and years, 
and old Kadetzky says that he must neune every individual 
if he was to do justice to officers and men. But the loss 
was very severe. The regiment of Kinsky lost twenty-four 
officers ! The Archduke Albert distinguished himself exceed- 
ingly, which is worthy of his noble father. I could work 
myself up to a great excitement about these exploits, for 
there is nothing I admire more than great military exploits 
and daring. 

Qiieen Victoria to the Duke of Wellington, 

Ut May 1849. 

The Queen cannot let this day pckss without offering to the 
Duke of Wellington her warmest and sincerest wishes for 
many happy returns of this day. She hopes the Duke will 
place the accompanying trifle on his table, and that it wiU 
recall to his mind one who ever reflects with gratitude on 
the services he has rendered and always does render to his 
Sovereign and his country. 

Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians, 


My deabest Uncle, — ^Alas ! poor Germany, I am wretched 
about her ; those news from Dresden are very distressing.^ 
Really with such an excellent man as the poor King, it is too 
wicked to do what they have done. If only some sort of 
arrangement could be made ; then afterwards there might be 
modifications, both in the Constitution, etc., for that Constitu- 
tion never will work well. 

Our Navigation Laws debate in the House of Lords began 
last night, and is to be concluded to-night. There seems to be 
almost a certainty that there will be a majority, though a very 
small one, and the danger of course exists that any 6U3cident 
may turn it the other way. 

Knowing your esteem for our worthy friend. Sir Robert Peel, 
you will, I €un sure, be glad to hear that his second son, Freder- 
ick,2 ni£Mie such a beautiful speech — ^his maiden speech — in the 

1 The T^i" e of Prussia, finding Saxony, Bavaria, WUrtemberg, and Hanover opposed 
to the ascendency of Prussia in the Confederation, declined the Imperial Grown of Ger- 
many ; fresh disturbances thereupon ensued, and at Dresden, the King of Saxony had to 
take refuge in a fortress. 

2 Afterwards the Bight Hon. Sir Frederick Feel, who died in 1906. 


House of Commons last night ; he waa complimented by every 
one, euid Sir Robert was delighted. I am so glad for hun, and 
also rejoice to see that there is a young man who promises to 
be of use hereafter to his country. 

Albert is again gone to lay a first stone. It is a delight to 
heair people speak of the good he does by always saying and 
doing the right thing. . . . 

Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians. 

BUCKINGHAM FALACB, 22nd May 1849. 

My dearest Uncle, — I could not write to you yesterday, 
my time having been so entirely taken up by kind visitors, etc., 
fiuid I trust you will forgive these hurried lines written just 
before our departure for Osborne.^ I hope that you will not 
have been alarmed by the account of the occurrence which 
took place on Saturday, and which I can assure you did not 
alarm me at all. This time it is quite clear that it was a 
wanton and wicked wish merely to frighten, which is very 
wrong, and will be tried and punished as a miademsanour. The 
account in the Times is quite correct. The indignation, 
loyalty, and affection this act has called forth is very gratifying 
and touching. 

Alice gives a very good account of it, and Lenchen * even 
says, ** Man shot, tried to shoot dear Mamma, must be pun- 
ished." They, Affie, and Miss Mckcdonald were with me. 
Albert was riding, and had just returned before me. Augustus 
and C16m had left us just two hours before. « . . 

Many thanks for yo\ir kind letter of the 19th. WTuU a state 
Germany is in ! — ^I mean Baden, but I hope that this violent 
crisis may lead to good. 

I must conclude. Ever your truly devoted Niece, 

Victoria R. 

Queen Victoria to Lord John ItusseU, 

OSBORNE, 2Qth May 1849. 

The Queen has to say, in answer to Lord John Russell's 
communication respecting India, that she quite approves the 
annexation of the Punjab, and is pleased to find that the 

1 The Queen, while driving down Constitution Hill, was fired at by one William Hamil- 
ton, the pistol being ebarged only with powder. He was tried under the Act of 1843, 
and sentenced to seven years' transportation. 

a Princess Helena (now Princess Christian), bom 25th May 1846. 


Government concur in this view. The elevation of Lord Dal- 
housie to a Marquisate is well deserved, and almost the only 
thing that can be offered him as a reward for his services ; but 
considering his want of fortune, the Queen thinks that it 
should be ascertained in the first instance whether the increase 
of rank will be convenient to him. Lord Gough's elevation to 
the dignity of Viscount has the Queen's sanction. 

Lord John RuaaeU to the Prince Albert. 

Ohbsham place, 19<A June 1849. 

Sib, — ^I have spoken to Lord Palmerston respecting the draft 
to Mr Buchanan.1 

It appears that he converted it into a private letter, as I 
suggested, but he thought fit to place it on record, as it con- 
tained information derived from authentic sources, and of 

It appears the drafts are still sent to the Queen at the same 
time as to me, so that my remarks or corrections, or even the 
ceuQcelling of a despatch, as not infrequently happens, may 
take effect after the Queen's pleasure has been taken. 

This appears to me an inconvenient course. 

Lord Palmerston alleges that as 28,000 despatches were 
received and sent last year, much expedition is required ; but 
he professes himself ready to send the despatches to me in the 
first instance, if the Queen should desire it. 

It appecurs to me that all oxa despatches ought to be tho- 
roughly considered, but that Her Majesty should give every 
facility to the transaction of business by attending to the 
drafts as soon a.s possible after their arrival. 

I would suggest therefore that the drafts should have my 
concurrence before they are submitted to the Queen, and in 
case of any material change, that I should write to apprise 
Her Majesty of my views, €«id, if necessary, submit my reasons. 
I have the honour to be, your Royal Highiaess's most obedient 
Servant, J. Russell. 

The Prince Albert to Lord John Russell, 

20th June 1849. 

My dear Lobd John, — Yo\ur proposal with respect to the 
mode of taking the Queen's pleasure about the drafts is per- 

i Mr (afterwards Sir) Andrew Buchanan (1807-1882), Secretary of Legation at St 


fectly agreeable to the Queen. She would only require that 
she would not be pressed for an cuiswer within a few minutes, 
as is now done sometimes. 

Lord Palmerston could alwa3rs manage so that there are 
twelve or twenty-four h#urs left for reference to you, and 
consideration, and there are few instances in which business 
would suffer from so short a delay. As Lord Palmerston 
knows when the Mails go, he has only to write in time for 
them, and he must recollect that the 28,000 despatches in the 
year come to you cmd to the Queen as well as to himself. 

Should the Queen in future have to make any remark, she 
will make it to you, if that will suit you. Ever yours truly, 


Lord John Russell to Viscount Palmerston. 

My deab Palmbbston, — I wrote the substance of what you 
wrote to me to the Prince, and proposed that the drafts should, 
in the first instance, be sent to me. You will see by the en- 
closed letter from the Prince that the Queen approves of this 

It may somewhat abridge the circuit if, when I have no 
remark to make, I forward the drafts with the Foreign Office 
direction to the Queen at once. 

I cannot pretend to say that I paid the same attention to 
the 28,000 despatches of 1848 that you are obliged to do. 
Still I agree in the Prince's remark that directions to Foreign 
Ministers ought to be very maturely weighed, for the Queen 
and the Government speak to foreign nations in this and no 
other manner. Yours truly, J. Khsseix. 

Queen Victoria to Viscount Palmerston. 

BucElNaHAM PALACE, 2lH June 1849. 

The Queen returns the enclosed drafts, which she will not 
further object to, but she feels it necessary to say a few words 
in answer to Lord Palmerston's letter. The imion of Schleswig 
and Holstein ^ is not an ideal one, but complete as to Constitu- 
tion, Finance, Customs, Jurisdiction, Cliurch, Universities, 
Poor Law, Settlement, Debts, etc., etc., etc. It is not estab- 
lished by the Kings-Dukes, but has existed for centuries. To 

1 Schleswig had been claimed by Gennany as an integral part of her territory, and a war 
betwe«i Germany and Denmark was in progress. 


defend Holstein against the atta<^ made by Denmark upon 
this union, Germany joined the war. It is true that it is now 
proposed an the new Constitution for Germany to consent to 
the separation of Schleswig and Holstein, although last year 
the Frankfort Parliament had desired the incorporation of 
Schleswig into Germany with Holstein ; but the question for 
Germany is now not to begin a wax, but to close one by a 
lasting peace. In this she ha^s, in the Queen's opinion, a right 
and a duty to see that the independence of Schleswig is secured 
before she abandons that country. The comparison with 
Saxony does not hold good for a moment, for the Schleswig 
Revolution was not directed against the Duke, but against 
the King of Denmark, who invaded the rights of the Duke of 
Schleswig-Holstein ; the assistance of Prussia could therefore 
not be given to Denmark, but to Schleswig-Holstein. The 
case of Hungary has neither any similitude. Hungary is not 
to be torn from its connection with the German States by the 
Austrian Government, but just the reverse. 

Lord PeJmerston cannot be more cuixious for a speedy 
t^nomiation of the Danish wax than the Queen is, but she 
thinks that the mediation will not effect this as long as the 
mediating power merely watches which of the two parties is 
in the greatest difficulties for the moment, and urges it to give 
way ; but by a careful and anxious discovery of the rights of 
the question and a steady adherence to the recommendation 
f^at what is right and fair ought to be done. The cause of the 
war having been the imlawfiU attempt to incorporate Schles- 
wig into Denmark, the peace cemnot be lasting imless it contedns 
sufficient guarantees against the resumption of that scheme.^ 

Lord John Russell to the Earl of Clarendon, 

2Zrd June 1849. 

I have the satisfaction to inform your Excellency that I 
have received the Queen's commands to acquaint you that Her 
Majesty hopes to be able in the course of thp present summer 
to fuffil the intention, which you axe aware she has long enter- 
tained, of a visit to Ireland. The general distress imf ortunately 
still prevalent in Ireland precludes the Queen from visiting 
Dublin in state, and thereby causing ill-timed expenditure and 
inconvenience to her subjects ; yet Her Majesty does not wish 
to let another ye€U' pass without visiting a paxt of her domin- 
ions which she has for so long a time been anxious personally 

1 In reply, liord Paknerston es^ressed entire concarrenoe in the justice of the principles 
wfaidi the Qoeen indicated as being those which on^t to guide a mediating Power. 


to become acquainted with. She accordingly will, at some 
sacrifice of personal convenience, take a longer sea voyage, 
for the purpose of visiting in the first instance the Cove of 
Cork, and from thence proceed along the Irish coast to Dublin. 
After remaining there a few days, during which time Her 
Majesty will be the guest of yo\ir Excellency, she would 
continue her cruise along the Irish coast northward and visit 
Belfast, €uid from thence cross to Scotland. Although the 
precise time of Her Majesty's visit cannot yet be fixed, it will 
probably take place as early in August as the termination of 
the session of Parliament will permit, and I feel assured that 
this early announcement of her intentions will be received 
with great satisfaction by Her Majesty's loyal and faithful 
subjects in Ireland. 

Queen Victoria to Lord John RtiaaelL 

OSBORNE, 19th Jtdf 1849. 

The Queen has received Lord John RusseU's letters. She 
returns Lord Clarendon's, and the very kind one of the Primate.^ 

With respect to Lord Clarendon's suggestion that the Prince 
of Wales should be created Duke, or rather, as Lord John says, 
Ea/rl of Dublin — the Queen thinks it is a matter for considera- 
tion whether such an act should follow the Queen's visit as a 
compliment to Ireland, but she is decidedly of opinion that it 
shovdd not precede it. 

We are sorry that Lord John does not intend going to Ire- 
land, but fully comprehend his wishes to remain quiet for 
three weeks. We shall be very glad to see him at Balmoral on 
the 20th or 22nd of August. 

We hope Lady John and the baby continue to go on well 

Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians, 

, Lodge, Ph(ENIX Fabk, %th August 1849. 

My dbabest Uncle, — Though this letter will only go to- 
morrow, I will begin it to-day and tell you that everything has 
gone off beautifully since we arrived in Ireland, and that our 
entrance into Dublin was really a magnificent thing. By my 
letter to Louise you will have heard of our arrival in the Cove 
of Cork. Our visit to Cork was very successful ; the Mayor 

1 Lord John Gkorge de la Foer Beresford (1773-1862) was Archbishop of Armagh from 
1822 until his death. 


was knighted on deck (on board the Fcnry)^ like in times of old. 
Votk is about seventeen miles up the River Lee, which is beau- 
tifully wooded and reminds us of Devonshire scenery. We had 
previously stepped on shore at Cove, a smaU place, to enable 
them to call it Qtteen*8 Town ; the enthusiasm is inmiense, 
and at Ck)rk there was more firing than I remember since the 

We left Cork with fair weather, but a head sea and contrary 
wind \^hich made it rough and me very sick. 

7<A. — ^I was imable to continue till now, cmd have since re- 
ceived your kind letter, for which I return my warmest thanks. 
We went into Waterford Harbour on Saturday afternoon, 
which is likewise a fine, large, safe harbour. Albert went up 
to Waterford in the Fairy , but I did not. The next morning 
we received much the same report of the weather which we had 
done at Cork, viz. that the weather was fair but the wind con- 
trary. However we went out, as it could not be helped, and 
we might have remained there some days for no use. The first 
three hours were very nasty, but afterwards it cleared and the 
evening was beautiful, llie entrance at seven o'clock into 
Kingston H^bour was splendid ; we came in with ten steamers, 
and the whole harbour, wharf, and every surrounding place 
was covered with ihouaanda and thousands of people, who 
received us with the greatest We disembarked 
yesterday morning at ten o'clock, and took two hours to come 
here, llie most perfect order was maintained in spite of the 
immense mass of people assembled, and a more good-humoured 
crowd I never saw, but noisy and excitable beyond belief, 
talking, jumping, and shrieking instead of cheering. There 
were numbers of troops out, and it really was a wonderful 
scene. This is a very pretty place, and the house reminds me 
of dear Claremont. The view of the Wicklow Mountcuns from 
the windows is very beautiful, and the whole park is very 
extensive and full of very fine trees. 

We drove out yesterday afternoon and were followed by 
jaunting-cars and riders and people nmning and screaming, 
which would have amused you. In the evening we had a 
dinner party, and so we have to-night. This morning we 
visited the Bank, the Model School (where the Protestant 6uid 
Catholic Archbishops received us), and the College, and this 
afternoon we went to the Military Hospital. To-morrow we 
have a Lev6e, where 1,700 are to be presented, and the next 
day a Review, and in the evening the Drawing-Room, when 
900 ladies are to be presented. 

George ^ is here, and has a command here. He rode on one 

1 The late Duke of Oambridge. 

voii. n 8 

226 THE IRISH VISIT [chap, xvm 

side of our carriage yesterday. You see more ragged and 
\vretched people here than I ever saw an3rwhere else. En 
revanche, the women are really very handsome— quite in the 
lowest class — as well at Cork as here ; such beautiful black 
eyes and hair and such fine colours and teeth. 

I must now take my leave. Ever your most affectionate 
Niece, Victobia. R. 

The Earl of Clarendon to Sir Oeorge Qrey. 

Yige-Bbqal lodge, lUh August 1849. 

My dear Gbby, — ^If I had known where to direct I should 
have thanked you sooner for your two welcome letters from 
Belf, where everything seems to have gone off to our hearts' 
desire, cmd the Queen's presence, as the Stipendiary Magis- 
trate writes word, has united all classes and parties in a manner 
incredible to those who know the distance at which they have 
hitherto been kept asunder. 

The enthusiasm here has not abated, and there is not an 
individual in Dublin that does not take as a personal com- 
pliment to himself the Queen's having gone upon the paddle- 
box and having ordered the RoyeJ Standcod to be lowered 
three times. 

Even the ex-Clubbists,^ who threatened broken heads and 
windows before the Queen came, are now among the nx)6t 
loyal of her subjects, and are ready, according to the police 
reports, to fight emy one who dare say a disrespectful word of 
Her Majesty. 

In short, the people are not only enchanted with the Queen 
and the gracious kindness of her manner and the confidence 
she has shown in them, but they axe pleased with themselves 
for their own good feelings and behaviour, which they con- 
sider have removed the barrier that hitherto existed between 
the Sovereign and themselves, and that they now occupy a 
higher position in the eyes of the world. Friend Bright was 
with me to-day, and said he would not for the world have 
missed seeing the embarkation at Kingston, for he had felt 
just the same enthusiasm as the rest of the crowd. ** Indeed," 
he added, " I'll defy any man to have felt otherwise when he 
saw the Queen come upon the platform and bow to the people 
in a manner that showed her heart was with them." He 
didn't disguise either that the Monarchical principle had made 
great way with him since Friday. Ever yours truly, 


1 SeditiooB dubs had been an important factor in the Irish distorbances of 1848. 


Qtteen Victoria to Lord John RusaeU, 

OSBORNB, Srd October 1849. 

The Queen has received Lord John Russell's explanation 
respecting the brevet promotions on the occasion of her visit 
to Ireland, but cannot say that his objections have convinced 
her of the impropriety of such a promotion (to a limited extent). 
To Lord John's fears of the dangerous consequences of the 
precedent, the Queen has only to answer, that there can be 
only one first visit to Ireland, and that the first visit to Scotland 
in 1842 was followed by a few promotions, without this entailing 
promotions on her subsequent visits to that part of the country ; 
that even the first visit to the Channel Islemds was followed by 
a few promotions, and this under Lord John's Government. 
All the precedents being in accordance with the proposition 
made by the Duke, an opposition on the part of the Govern- 
ment would imply a declaration against all brevets except in the 
field, which would deprive the Crown of a most valuable pre- 
rogative. If such a brevet as the one proposed were to lead to 
great additional expense, the Queen could understand the ob- 
jection on the ground of economy ; but the giving brevet rank 
to a few subaltern officers is too trifling a matter to alarm the 
Government. Perhaps the number might be reduced even, 
but to deviate from the established precedents for the first time 
altogeth^ in this case, and that after the excellent behaviour 
of the Army in Ireland under very trying circumstances, would 
be felt as a great injustice. 

The Queen th^efore wishes Lord John to ask the Duke to 
send him the former precedents and to consider with his 
colleagues whether a modified recommendation cannot be laid 
before her.* 

Lord John Russell to Queen Victoria, 

WOBURN ABBBT, Ath October 1849. 

Lord John Russell presents his humble duty to your Majesty, 
and will consider, in commimication with the Duke of Welling- 
ton, whether any modified list can be proposed by him to your 

The economy, a.s your Majesty truly observes, is not a matter 
of much consideration. But to reward Officers on the Staff, 
who are already favovired by being placed on the Staff in Ire- 

1 The Doke of Wellington had sabmitted a list of Officers for brevet promotion, which 
teoeiTod the Qoeen's sanction ; but the list was afterwards reduced. 


land, is a practice which tends but too much to encourage the 
opinion that promotions in the Army and Navy are given not 
to merit, but to anstocratical connection and official favour. 

In the midst of the degradation of Thrones which the last 
two years have seen in Europe, it will be well if the English 
Grown preserves aU its just prerogatives, and has only to re- 
linquish some customary abuses, which are not useful to the 
Sovereign, and are only an equivocal advantage to the Ministers 
of the day. 

Queen Victoria to Lord John RusaeU, 

WDn)SOB Oasilb, ZUt Oaober 1849. 

The Queen has just received Lord John Russell's letter, and 
was much rejoiced at everything having gone off so well yes- 
terday ; 1 she was very much annoyed at being unable to go 
herself, and that the untoward chicken-pox should have come 
at this moment ; she is, however, quite recovered, though still 
much m6urked. 

With respect to the proposition about the Thanksgiving, l^e 
Queen quite approves of it, and (if it is generally preferred) that 
it should be on a week-day. As to the Bishop of London's 
proposal,' the Queen thinks that Lord John may have mis- 
understood him ; she supposes that he meant that she should 
attend some place of pvblic worshipy and not in her domestic 
chapel, in order to join in the public demonstration. The 
Queen is quite ready to go with her Court to St George's Chapel 
here ; but she would like it to take place on an earlier day than 
the 27th of November, when she would probably be already in 
the Isle of Wight, where we think of going as usual on the 22nd 
or 23rd. 

Lord John Russell to Queen Victoria. 

EATON Square, 29th November 1849. 

Lord John Russell presents his humble duty to your Majesty. 
In answer to your Majesty's enquiry, he has to state that a very 
short conversation took place in the Cabinet on the chairs of 

1 The ceremony of opening the new Goal Bxchange, at which, besidee Prince Albert, 
the Prince of Wales and Princeae Royal were present. 

3 There had been a serere epidemic of cholera in the coontry. In twelye months 14,000 
deaths, in London alone, were due to this malady. The 15th of November was appointed 
for a general Day of Thanksgiving for its cessation, and the Bishop of Londm had sag- 
gested that the Queen should attend a public service at St Paul's. Lord John Boasell 
was in favour of Westminster Abbey. 


Germany upon an enquiry of Lord John Russell whether the 
Diet of Erfurt ^ might not be considered a violation of the 
Treaties of 1815. Lord Palmerston thought not, but had not 
examined the question. 

The affairs of Germany are in a critical position ; Austria 
will oppose anything which tends to aggrandise Prussia ; Prussia 
will oppose anything which tends to free Government ; and 
France will oppose anything which tends to strengthen Ger- 
many. Still, all these powers might be disregarded were 
Germany united, but it is obvious that Bavaria and Wiirtem- 
berg look to Austria and France for support, while Hanover and 
Saxony wiU give a very faint assistance to a Prussian League. 

The matter is very criticeJ, but probably will not lead to war. 

Viscount Palmerston to Qiteen Victoria. 

FOREIGN Office, ZOth November 1849. 

Viscount Palmerston presents his humble duty to your 
Majesty, and in reply to your Majesty's enquiry as to what the 
measures would be which Sir William Parker ^ would have 
to take in order to support Mr Wyse's ^ demands for redress 
for certain wrongs sustcuned by British and Ionian subjects, 
begs to say that the ordinary and accustomed method of 
enforcing such demands is by reprisals — that is to say, by 
seizing some vessels and property of the party which refuses 
redress,* and retaining possession thereof until redress is 

Another method is the blockading of the ports of the party 
by whom redress is refused, and by interrupting commercieJ 
intercourse to cause inconvenience and loss. Viscount Palmer- 
ston, however, does not apprehend that any active mea.sures of 
this kind will be required, but rather expects that when the 
Greek Government finds that the demand is made in earnest, 
and that meems are at hand to enforce it, satisfaction will at 
last be given. The refusal of the Greek Government to satisfy 
these claims, and the offensive neglect with which they have 
treated the applications of your Majesty's representative at 
Athens have, a.s Viscount Palmerston is convinced, been the 
result of a belief that the British Government never would take 
any real steps in order to press these matters to a settlement. 

1 In order to effect the consolidation of Oerznany, the King of Prussia had smnmoned 
a Federal Parliament to meet at Erfurt. 

2 Oommanding the Mediterranean Fleet. 

3 British Envoy at Athens. 

« See Introductory Note for 1860, poaty p. 231. 

230 DEATH OF QUEEN ADELAIDE [chap, xvin 

Queen Victoria to the King of ihe Belgians, 

OSBOBNB, 11th December 1849. 

My dearest Uncle, — ^Thank you much for your kind letter 
of the 6th ; you will have received mine of the 4th shortly after 
you wrote. I know how you would mourn with us over the 
death of our beloved Queen Adelaide. We have lost the kind- 
est and dearest of friends, and the universal feeling of sorrow, 
of regret, and of real appreciation of her character is very touch- 
ing and gratifying. All parties, all classes, join in doing her 
justice. Much was done to set Mamma against her, but the 
dear Queen ever forgave this, ever showed love and ejection, 
and for the last eight years their friendship was as great as 
ever. Ever yours affectionately, Victobia R 


The Ministry were still (1850) able, relying on the support of Sir 
Robert Peel, to resist the attacks of the Protectionists in the House 
of Commons, though their majority on a critical occasion fell t9 
twenty-one ; but they were rehabilitated by the discussions on 
foreign policy. One Don Pacifico, a Portuguese Jew, a native of 
Gibraltar and a British subject, had Yiad his house in Athens pillaged 
by a mob ; he, with Mr Finlay, the historian, who had a money claim 
against the Greek Government, instead of establishing their claims 
in the local courts, sought the intervention of the home Government ; 
Lord Palmerston, whose relations with the Court were even more 
strained than usual, resolved to make a hostile demonstration against 
Greece, and a fleet was sent to the Piraeus with a peremptory demand 
for settlement. The House of Lords condenmed this high-handed 
action, but a friendly motion of confidence was made in the Com- 
mons, and Lord PaUnerston had an extraordinary triumph, by a 
majority of forty-six, notwithstanding that the ablest men outside 
the Ministry spoke against him, and that his unsatisfactory relations 
with the Queen were about to culminate in a severe reprimand. 

Sir Robert Peel's speech in this debate proved to be his last public 
utterance, his premature death, resulting from a fall from his horse, 
taking place a few days later ; Louis Philippe, who had been living 
in retirement at Claremont, pctssed away about the same time. 
Another attcMik on the Queen, this time a blow with a cane, was made 
by one Robert Pate, an ex-officer and well-connected ; the plea of 
insanity was not established, and Pate was transported. 

Public attention was being drawn to the projected Exhibition in 
Hyde Park, Prince Albert making a memorable speech at the Mansion 
House in support of the scheme ; the popular voice had not been 
unanimous in approval, and subscriptions had hung fire, but hence- 
forward matters improved, and Mr Paxton's design for a glass and 
iron structure was accepted and proceeded with. 

The friction with Lord Palmerston was again increased by his 
action in respect to General Haynau, an Austricui whose cruelty had 
been notorious, and who was assaulted by some of the employes at a 
London brewery. The Foreign Office note to the Austrian Govern- 
ment nearly brought about Palmerston*s resignation, which was 
much desired by the Queen. 

At the close of the year the whole country was in a ferment at the 


issue of a Papal Brief, re-establishing the hierarchy of Bishops in 
England with local titles derived from their sees ; and Caxdinal 
Wiseman, thenceforward Archbishop of Westminster, by isBning a 
pastoral letter on the subject, mcule matters worse. The Protestant 
spirit was aroused, the two Universities presented petitions, and the 
^rime Minister, in a letter to the Bishop of Durham, helped to fan the 
** No Popery " flame. Just at a time when a coalition of Whigs and 
Peelites was beginning to be possible, an Ecclesiastical Titles Bill, 
almost fatal to mutual confidence, beccune necessary. 



Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians, 

WINDSOB Oasilb, 6th February 1850. 

My deab Uncle, — ^We had the house full for three days 
last week on account of our theatrical performances on Friday, 
which went off extremely well. The Grand Duchess Stephanie 
was here, tris aimable, and not altered. She spoke much of 
Germany and of poUtics, and of you in the highest terms — 
" Conmie le Roi Lipoid s*est bien tenu " — and that she had 
mentioned this at Claremont, and then felt shocked at it, but 
that the poor King had answered : *' II avait mon exemple 
devant lui, et il en a profit^ ! " She thought the whole family 
trie digne in their maUieur, but was struck with the melancholy 
effect of the whole thing. 

Our ckffairs have gone off extremely well in ParHament, and 
the Protectionists have received an effective check ; the ques- 
tion of the Com Laws seems indeed settled. This is of great 
importance, as it puts a stop to the excitement and expecta- 
tions of the farmers, which have been falsely kept up by the 
aristocracy. ... 

I must now conclude. Ever your devoted Niece, 

Victoria R. 

Viscount Palmerston to Lord John Ritssell, 

CARi/roN Gardens, Ibth Febnuxry 1850. 

My deab John Russell, — ^I have altered this draft so as I 
think to meet the views of the Queen and of yourself in regard 
to the continuance of the suspension.^ I should not like to 
put into a despatch an instruction to accept less than we have 
demanded, because that would imply what I don't think to be 
the fact, viz. that we have demanded more than is due. If the 
deman<^ were for the British Government, we might forego 

1 /.«. of hostilities against the Greek Goyemment, designed to extract compensation 
for the injuries inflicted on British subjects. See cmUj p. 231. 

VOL. n 233 8* 

234 THE DRAFT TO GREECE [chap, xix 

what portions we might like to give up, but we have no right 
to be easy and generous with the rights and claims of other 
people. Besides, if we get an3rthing, we shall get all. The 
whole amount is quite within the power of the Greek Govern- 
ment to pay. Yours sincerely, Pai<mebston. 

Qiieen Victoria to Viscount Palmerston, 

BUGDNaHAM Paiacb, 17th February 1850. 

The Queen sent the day before yesterday the proposed draft 
to Mr Wyse back to Lord Palmerston, enclosing a Memorandum 
from Lord John Russell, and telling Lord PaJmerston ** that 
she entirely concurred with Lord John, and wished the draft 
to be altered accordingly.'* She has not yet received an answer 
from Lord Palmerston, but just hears from Lord John, in answer 
to her enquiry about it, that Lord Palmerston has aerU the • 
draft off unaltered,^ The Queen must remark upon this sort of 
proceeding, of which this is not the first instance, and plainly 
tell Lord Palmerston that this must not happen again. Lord 
Palmerston has a perfect right to state to the Queen his receons 
for disagreeing with her views, and will always have found her 
ready to Usten to his reasons ; but she cannot allow a servant 
of the Crown and her Minister to act contrary to her orders, and 
this without her knowledge. 

Viscount Palmerston to Queen Victoria, 

Carlton Gardens, nth Fdmury 1850. 

Viscount Palmerston presents his humble duty to your 
Majesty, and in reply to your Majesty's communication of this 
day, he begs to state that upon receiving, the day before yester- 
day, your Majesty's Memorandum on the proposed draft to 
Mr Wyse, together with the accompanying Memorandum' 
from Lord John Russell, he altered the draft, and sent it 
to Lord John Russell, and received it back from Lord 
John Russell with the accompanying note in answer to that 
which he wrote to Lord John Russell. It was impiortant 
that the messenger should go off that evening, and the time 
occupied in these communications rendered it just, but barely^ 
possible to despatch the messenger by the mail train of that 
evening. The despatch thus altered coincided with the views 

1 See Ashley's Palmerston^ toI. i. chap. v. 

2 Lord John RusseU's opinion was that three weeks should be allowed to Mr Wyse and 
Sir W. Parker to accept terms as satisfactory as they could obtain, and that Sir W. Parker 
should not be obliged to resume coercive measures, if the concessions of the Greek GoTem- 
ment should appear to afford a prospect of a q)eedy settlement of the aflbdr. 


of your Majesty and Lord John Russell as to the question in 
regard to the length of time during which reprisals should be 
suspended to give scope for the French negotiation. The other 
question as to giving Mr W3rse a latitude of discretion to enter- 
tain any proposition which might be meule to him by the Greek 
Government was considered by the Cabinet at its meeting 
yesterday afternoon, and Viscount Palmerston gave Mr Wyse 
a latitude of that kind in regard to the claim of Mr Pacifico, 
the only one to which that question could apply, in a despatch 
which he sent by the overland Mediterranean mail which went 
off yesterday afternoon. That despatch also contained some 
instructions a.s to the manner in which Mr Wyse is to com> 
municate with Baron Gros,^ and those instructions were the 
result of a conversation which Viscount Palmerston had with 
the French Ambassador after the meeting of the Cabinet. 
Viscount Palmerston was only waiting for a copy of the des- 
patch of yesterday evening, which, owing to tins day being 
Sun<iay, he has not yet received, in order to send to your 
Majesty the altered draft of yesterday evening, with an 
explanation of the circimistances which rendered it impossible 
to submit them to yoiu* Majesty before they were sent off.* 

Memorandum by the Prince Albert. 

Windsor Castle, Zrd March 1850. 

Before leaving Town yesterday we saw Lord John Russell, 
who came to state what had passed with reference to Lord 
Palmerston. He premised that Lord Palmerston had at all 
times been a most agreeable and accommodating colleague ; 
that he had acted with Lord John ever since 1831, and had not 
only never made any difficulty, but acted most boldly and in 
the most spirited manner on all political questions ; besides, 
he was very popular with the Radical part of the House of 
Commons as well as with the Protectionist, so that both would 
be ready to receive him as their Leetder ; he (Lord John) was 
therefore most anxious to do nothing which could hurt Lord 
Palmerston's feelings, nor to bring about a disruption of the 
Whig Pcurty, which at this moment of Pcurty confusion was the 
only one which still held together. On the other hand, the 
fact that the Queen distrusted Lord Palmerston was a serious 
impediment to the carrying on of the Grovemment. Lord John 
was therefore anxious to adopt a plan by which Lord Palmer- 

1 Baron Qros was the Oommissioner despatched by the Frendi Gtovemment to Athens 
to assist in arranging the dispute. 

3 See subsequent correspondence between Lord John and Lord Pahnerston, Walpole's 
Bustdl, vol. ii. chap. ziz. 


Bton's services could be retained with his own goodwill, and 
the Foreign Affairs entrusted to other hands. The only plan 
he could think of was to give Lord PaJmerston the lead in the 
House of Conunons — the highest position a statesman could 
aspire to — and to go himself to the House of Lords. He had 
communicated his views to Lord Lcmsdowne, who agreed in 
them, and thought he could do nothing better than speak 
to Lord PaJmerston at once. Lord Palmerston said that he 
could not have helped to have become aware that he had 
forfeited the Queen's confidence, but he thought this had not 
been on personal grounds, but merely on account of his line 
of policy, with which the Queen disagreed. (The Que^ 
mterrupted Lord John by remarking that she distrusted 
him on personal grounds also, but I remarked that Lord 
Palmerston had so far at least seen rightly ; that he had 
become disagreeable to the Queen, not on account of His person, 
but of his political doings, to which the Queen assented.) 
Lord Palmerston appeared to Lord John willing to enter into 
this agreement. 
r On the question how the Foreign Office should be filled, 
/ Lord John S€ud that he thought his father-in-law. Lord Minto, 
ought to take the Foreign Office. ... As the Queen was some- 
what startled by this announcement, I said I thought that 
would not go down with the pubUc. After Lord Palmerston's 
removal (who was considered one of the ablest men in the 
coimtry) he ought not to be replaced but by an equally able 
statesman ; the Office was of enormous importance, and ought 
not to be entrusted to any one but Lord John himself or Lord 
Clarendon. On the Queen's enquiry why Lord Clarendon had 
not been proposed for it, Lord John said he was most anxious 
that the change of the Minister should not produce a chcuige 
in the general line of policy which he considered to have been 
quite right, and that Lord Clarendon did not approve of it; 
somehow or other he never could agree with Lord Clarendon 
on Foreign Affairs ; he thought Lord Clarendon very anti- 
French and for an alliance with Austria £md Russia. The 
Queen replied she knew Lord Clarendon's bad opinion of the 
mode in which the Foreign Affairs had been conducted, and 
thought that a merit in him, but did not think him Austrian 
fcor Russian, but merely disapproving of Lord Palmerston's 
•behaviour. I urged Lord John to take the Foreign Affairs 
"himself, which he said would have to be done if the Queen did 
not wish LoEdMizite>ta4iake them ; hejiimself would be able 
to do the busin€«§'^hen in"tfe«-JIo«geof Lords, although he 
j would imdertake it imwillingly ; with the business in the 
^ House of Commons it would have been impossible for him. 


The Queen insisted on his trying it with a seat in the House of 
Lords, etdding that, if he found it too much for him, he could 
at a later period perhaps make the Department over to Lord 

I could not help remarking that it was a serious risk to 
entrust Lord Palmerston with the lead in the House of 
Commons, that it might be that the Government were de- 
feated and, if once in opposition. Lord Palmerston might take 
a different line as leader of the Opposition from that which 
Lord John would like, and might so easily force himself back 
into of&ce as Prime Minister. Lord John, however, although 
admitting that danger, thought Lord Palmerston too old to 
do much in the future (having passed his sixty-fifth year) ; he 
admitted that Sir George Grey was the natural leader of the 
Commons, but expected that a little later the lead would still 
fall into his hands. 

The arremgements of the Ofl&ces as proposed would be that 
Lord Palmerston would take the Home Office, and Sir George 
Grey the Colonial Office, and Lord Grey vacate this office for 
the Privy Seal. If Lord Minto, however, was not to have 
the Foreign Office, the arrangement must be recast. Lord 
Clarendon would become Secretary of State for Ireland, after 
the abolition of the Lord-Lieutenancy. Possibly also Sir 
George Grey might take the office, and Lord Clarendon take 
the Ck>lonies, which Lord Grey would be glad to be rid of. On 
my observing that I had thought the Colonies would have done 
beiat for Lord Palmerston, leaving Sir George Grey at the Home 
Office, Lord John acknowledged that he would likewise prefer 
this arrangement, but considered it rendered impossible from 
its having been the very thing Lord Grey had proposed in 
1845, and upon which the attempt to form a Whig Government 
at that time had broken down. Lord Palmerston having refused 
to enter the Cabinet on those terms. Lord John ended by 
saying that Lord Palmerston having agreed to the change, it 
was intended that nothing should be done about it till after 
the close of the Session, in order to avoid debates and questions 
on the subject ; moreover. Lord Lansdowne had agreed to 
continue still this Session his labours as Leader in the House 
of Lords, and begged for the lUniost secrecy at present. 


Lord John Russell already last year had spoken to me of 
his wish to go to the House of Lords, finding the work in the 
House of Commons, together with his other business, too much 
for him, and Lord Lansdowne being desirous to be reheved 
from the le€id in the Upper House. 


238j s, THE QUEEN'S ULTIMATUM [cjhap. xnc 

Memorandum by Baron Stockmar.^ 

12th March 1850. 

The least the Queen has a right to require of her Minister 
is: — 

1. That he will distinctly state what he proposes in a given 
case, in order that the Queen may know as distinctly to what 
she has to give her royal sanction. 

2. Having given once her sanction to a measure, the Minister 
who, in the execution of such measure alters or modifies it 
arbitrarily, commits an act of dishonesty towards the Crown, 
which the Queen has an undoubted constitutional right to 
visit with the dismissal of that Minister. Stookmab. 

Queen Victoria to the Marquis of Lansdowne, 

BUOKINGHAM Paiaob, leth March 1860. 

The Queen wishes to remark to Lord Lansdowne, that his 
answer to Lord Stanley in the House of Lords last night mi^t 
possibly lead to the misapprehension that Lord Falmerston's 
delay in sending the despatch to Mr Wyse had been caused by 
the time it took to get the Queen's approval of it. She must 
protest against such an inference hieing drawn, as being 
contrary to the fact. Lord Palmerston indeed having sent out 
in the first instance a different despatch from that which she 
had approved. 

The King of the Belgians to Queen Victoria. 

LAEKBN, 26th MariA 18S0. 

My deabest Victoria, — . . . King Louis Philippe seems 
better, but still he is evidently breaking ; there is no wonder 
when one considers all he has gone through, and is still to suffer ! 
No one c€ui tell a day [ahead] what may happen in France, and 
if aU the family have, which is but * in France, may not be 
confiscated. The thirst for spoliation is great ; the people 
who lead have no other view, they are not fanatics, their £um 
is to rise and to enrich themselves ; the remainder is mere 
humbug, exactly as you have it very near home. Never was 
there a nation in a worse and a more helpless state, and the 
numerous parties who will not unite render all solutions im- 
possible, and the republic will be maintained for that very 
reason. It is but a name and no substance, but that ncrnie of 

1 Ck>mpare this with the Memorandum oltimatelv drawn up on the 12th of August 
a /^. ** only." 


republic encourages every extravagant or desperate proceeding, 
and turns people's heads in the old monarchies ; every doctor 
or magistrate sees himself president of some republic, and the 
ambitions of so many people who see all the impediments which 
existed formerly removed, and who, according to their own 
opinion^ are wonderful people, will be insatiable and much 
more dangerous than you imagine in England. On the Con- 
tinent every man thinks himself fit to be at the head of the 
Gk>vemnient ; there is no political measure or scale, and the 
sacoe€» of some bookseller or doctor or advocate, etc., turns 
the heads of cJl those in similar positions — on ne dovie de rien. 
When you consider that a hanqiieroiUier like Ledru Rollin* 
ruled over France for six months almost with ahsoliiie power, 
merely because he took it, you may imagine how mcmy thou- 
scmds, even of workmen, cooks, stage people, etc., look to be 
tc^en to rule over their fellow-citizens ; toujours convaincu 
de leur propre merite, I am happy to see that you escaped a 
ministerial crisis ; the peril was great, and it would have been 
dreadful for you at such a moment. 

Albert made a fine long speech, I see.^ Did he read it ? ex 
tempore, it would have been very trying. I trust we may come 
to that imity of mankind of which he speaks, and of universal 
peaoe which our friend Richard Cobden considers as very near 
at hand ; if, however, the red benefactors of mankind at Paris 
get the upper hand, universal war will be the order of the day. 
We are so strongly convinced of this that we are very seriously 
occupied with the means of defence which this country can 
afford, and we imagine that if we are not abandoned by our 
friends, it will be impossible to force our positions on the 

I must now quickly conclude. Remaining ever, my beloved 
Victoria, your devoted Uncle, Leopold R. 

Queen Victoria to Viscount Palmerston, 

BUGKINOHAM PAIAOE, 26th March 1850. 

The Qneen approves these drafts, but thinks that in the 
part alluding to M. Pacifico, should be added a direction to 
Mr Wyse to satisfy himself of the Pruth of M. Pacifico's state- 
ments of losses before he grounds his demands upon them.^ 

1 He was Presideiit in 1848. 

s At the Mansion House banqaet to the Commissioners for the Exhibition of 1851. 
See quotation from it in Sir T. Martin's Life^ vol. ii. p. 247. 

3 Don Pacifico claimed £31,500— £4,900 being for effects destroyed, and £26,600 in 
respect of certain claims against the Portuguese Government, the vouchers for which he 
stated had been destroyed by the mob which pillaged his house. His valuation of the 
tarious items was of the most extravagant description. 


The draft merely allows a sub-division of the claims, but takes 
their validity for gr£uited. 

Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgiane, 

Windsor Oasilb, 29th March ISM. 

My dearest Uncle, — ^Albert made a really beautiful speech 
the other day, and it has given the greatest satisfaction and 
done great good. He is indeed looked up to and beloved, as I 
could ivish he should be ; and the more his rcnre quaUHes of 
mind and heart are known, the more he will be understood and 
appreciated. People are much struck at his great powetrs and 
energy ; his great self-denial, and constcuit wish to woi^ for 
others, is so striking in his character ; but it is the happiest 
life ; pining for what one cemnot have, and trying to ran after 
what is pleasantest, invariably ends in disappointment. 

I must now conclude. Ever your devoted Niece, 


Queen Victoria to the King of the Bdgians. 

WINDSOR Oasxlb, 39th March 186a 

My dbabest Uncle, — I write only a few lines to-day, 
begging you to give the accompanying drawing of her littie 
namesake to dearest Louise on her birthday. 

I shall duly answer your dear letter of the 25th on Taeeday> 
but am anxious to correct the impression that Albert read lus 
fine speech. He never has done so with any of his fine speeoheB, 
but speaks them, having first prepared them and written them 
down, — and does so so well, that no one believes that he is ever 
nervous, which he is. This last he is said to have spoken in 
so particularly English a way. 

We have still sadly cold winds. Ever your devoted Nieoe, 


Qusen Victoria to Lord John Russell. 

Buckingham Palace, I4th AprU I86a 

The Queen has received Lord John Russell's letter with the 
drafts, which he mentioned last night to her, and she has sent 
his letter with them to Lord Falmerston. 

Lord Palmerston's conduct in this Spanish question * in not 
commimicating her letter to Lord Jolm, as she had directed, 
1 The question was the selection of a Minister for Madrid. 

From the portrait by Jobo Partridge at Backisgbam Palace 

^/acep. 240, Vol, II, 



1860] LORD HOWDEN 241 

is really too bad, and most disrespectful to the Queen ; she 
can resdly hardly communicate with him any more ; indeed it 
would be better she should not. 

Qtieen Victoria to Lord John RusseU. 

Buckingham Palagb, 27th AprU 1850. 
In order to save the Government embarrassments, the Queen 
has sanctioned the appointment of Lord Howden ^ to Madrid, 
although she does not consider him to be quite the stcunp of 
person in whom she could feel entire confidence that he will 
be proof against cJl spirit of intrigue, which at all times and 
now particularly is so much required in Spain. But she must 
once more ask Lord John to watch that the Queen may be 
quite openly and considerately dealt by. She knows that 
Lord Howden has long been made acquainted with his ap- 
pointment, and has been corresponding upon it with General 
Narvaez ; the correspondent of the Tinges has announced his 
appointment from Madrid already three weeks ago, and all 
that time Lord Palmerston remained silent upon the matter 
to the Queen, not even answering her upon her letter expressing 
her wish to see Lord Westmorland ^ appointed. Lord John 
must see the impropriety of this course, and if it were not for 
the Queen's anxiety to smooth all difficulties, the Grovemment 
might be exposed to most awkward embarra.ssments. She 
expects, however, and has the right to claim, equal considera- 
tion on the part of her Ministers. She addresses herself in 
this matter to Lord John as the head of the Government. 

Lord John Russell to Queen Victoria, 

Pembrokb Lodge, 2%th AprU 1850. 
. . . Lord John Russell cannot but assent to your Majesty's 
right to claim every consideration on the part of your Majesty's 
Ministers. He will take care to attend to this subject, and is 
much concerned to find that your Majesty has so frequently 
occasion to complain of Lord Palmerston's want of attention. 

The Marquis of Dalhousie to Queen Victoria, 

Simla, Ibih May 1850. 
. . . When the Governor-General had the honour of ad- 
dressing your Majesty from Bombay, the arrangements for 

1 Lord Howden had been recently Minister at Bio Janeiro. 

2 Minister at Berlin, 1841-51. 

242 THE KOH-I-NOOR [chap, xnc 

the transmission of the Koh-i-noor were inooinplete. He 
therefore did not then report to your Majesty, as he now 
humbly begs leave to do, that he conveyed the jewer himself 
from Lahore in his own charge, and deposited it in the Treasury 
at Bombay. One of your Majesty's ships had been ordered 
to Bombay to receive it, but had not then arrived, and did not 
arrive till two months afterwards, thus causing delay. The 
Medea, however, sailed on 6th April, and will, it is hoped, have 
a safe and speedy pctssage to England. 

By this mail the Grovemor-G^eneral transmits officially a 
record of all that he has been able to trace of the vicissitudes 
through which the Koh-i-noor has passed. The papers are 
accurate and curious. 

In one of them it is narrated, on the authority of Fugueer- 
ood-deen, who is now at Lahore, and who was himself the 
messenger, that Runjeet Singh sent a message to Wufa Begum, 
the wife of Shah Sooja, from whom he had taken the gem, to 
ask her its value. She repUed, " If a strong man were to throw 
four stones, one north, one south, one east, one west, and a 
fifth stone up into the air, and if the space between them were 
to be filled with gold, all would not equal the value of the 
Koh-i-noor.'* The Fugueer, thinking probably that this 
appraisement was somewhat imaginative, subsequently asked 
Shah Sooja the seune question. The Shah replied that its 
value was " good fortune ; for whoever possessed it had 
conquered their enemies." 

The Govemor-Greneral very respectfully and earnestly trusts 
that your Majesty, in your possession of the Koh-i-noor, may 
ever continue to reaUse its value as estimated by Shah Sooja. 

He has the honour to subscribe himself, with deep respect, 
your Majesty's most obedient, most himible, and most faithful 
Subject and Servant, DAiiHOiisiE. 

The Prince Albert to Lord John Russell. 

BnCEINOHAM FALACB, 18<A Mo^ 1850. 

My deab Lobd John, — I return you the enclosed letters 
which forbode a new storm, this time coming from Russia.^ I 
confess I do not underst£md that part of the quarrel, but one 

1 Bussia as well as France had been appealed to by Greece against the preasazse tooog^t 
to bear apon her. On the 18th of April a Convention was signed in T<oadop AspoBing of 
the whole dispute, and referring Don Facifico's claims against Fortogal to arbitration. 
Lord Palmerston was remiss in communicating the progress of those negotiatirais to 
Mr Wyse, who persisted in his coercive measures, disregarding the intelligence on the 
subject he received from Baron Gros, and Greece accordingly submitted to his terms. 
Fraooe and Buasia were incensed, the French Ambassador was recalled, and on the 18th 
of May Baron Brunnow intimated the imminence of similar action bj the Oiar, 


conviction grows stronger and stronger with the Que^i and 
myself (if it is possible), viz. that Lord Falmerston is bringing 
the "whole of the hatred which is borne to him — I don't mean 
here to investigate whether justly or unjustly — ^by all the 
Qovemments of Europe upon England, and that the country 
runs serious danger of having to pay for the consequences. 
We cannot reproach ourselves with having neglected warning 
and entreaties, but the Queen may feel that her duty demands 
her not to be content with mere warning without any ^ect, 
and that for the sake of one man the welfare of the country 
must not be exposed. . . . Albebt. 

Lord John RusseU to the Prince Albert. 

Pembroke lodge, I8th May 1850. 

Sib, — I feel very strongly that the Queen ought not to be 
exposed to the enmity of Austria, France, and Russia on ac- 
count of her Minister. I was therefore prepared to state on 
Monday that it is for Her Majesty to consider what course it 
win be best for her and for the country to pursue. 

1. I am quite ready to resign my office, but I could not 
make Lord Pahnerston the scapegoat for the sins which will 
be imputed to the Government in the late negotiations. 

2. I am ready, if it is thought best, to remain in office till 
questions pendhig in the two Houses are decided. If un- 
favourably, a solution is obtained ; if favourably. Lord John 
Russell will no longer remain in office with Lord Pahnerston 
as Foreign Secretary. 

These are hasty and crude thoughts, but may be matured 
by Monday. 

Memorandum by the Prince Albert, 

Buckingham palace, 20th May 18fiO. 

Lord John Russell came to-day to make his report to the 
Queen on his final determination with respect to the Greek 
question and Lord Pahnerston. He said it was quite impos- 
sible to abandon Lord Pahnerston upon this question, that the 
Cabinet was as much to blame (if there were cause for it) as 
Lord Pahnerston, and particularly he himself, who had given 
his consent to the measures taken, and was justly held re- 
i^nsible by the country for the Foreign PoUcy of the Govem- 
meat. Admitting, however, that Lord Pahnerston' s personal 
quarrels with ail i3ov«niments of foreign countries and the 
hostility with which they were looking upon him was doing 


serious injury to the country, and exposing the Crown to 
blows aimed at the Minister, he had consulted Lord Lans- 
downe. . . . Lord Lansdowne fuUy felt the strength of what 
I said respecting the power of the Leader of the House of 
Commons, and the right on the part of the Queen to object to 
its being conferred upon a person who had not her entire con- 
fidence. I said I hoped Lord Lansdowne would consider the 
communication of the letter as quite confidential, as, although 
I had no objection to telling Lord Palmerston anything that 
was said in it myself, I should not like that it should come 
to his ears by third persons or be otherwise talked of. Lord 
John assured me that Lord Lansdowne could be entirely 
relied upon, and that he himself had locked up the letter 
under key the moment he had received it, and would carefully 
guard it. 

The result of our conference was, that we agreed that Lord 
Clarendon was the only member of the Gk)vemment to whom 
the Foreign Affairs could be entrusted unless Lord John were 
to take them himself, which was much the best. Lord John 
objected to Lord Clarendon's intimate connection with the 
Times, and the violent Austrian line of that paper ; moreover, 
Lord Clarendon would be wanted to organise the new depart- 
ment of Secretary of State for Ireland. The Colonial Office 
was much the best for Lord Palmerston, and should Lord John 
go to the House of Lords, Sir George Grey was to lead in the 
Commons. Lord John would take an opportunity of com- 
municating with Lord Palmerston, but wished nothing should 
be said or done about the changes till after the close of the 
Session.^ Axbebt. 

Queen Victoria to Lord John RusaeU. 

OSBORNE, 9th June 1850. 

The Queen has received Lord John Russell's two letters. 
If the Cabinet think it impossible to do otherwise, of course the 
Queen consents — though most reluctantly — to a compliance 
with the vote respecting the Post Office." The Queen thinks 
it a very false notion of obeying God's will, to do what will be 
the cause of much annoyance and possibly of great distress to 

1 The question of the relations of L<»rd Palmerston with the Grown had to be post- 
poned owing to the debates in both Houses on Foreign Policy. In the Ixffds, Lord Stanly 
moved a rote of censure on the Government for enforcing by coercive measores varioos 
doubtful or exaggerated claims against the Greek Government. 

3 Lord Ashley carried a resolution forbidding the Sunday delivery of letters ; a Oom- 
mittee of Inquiry was appointed, and reported against tiie proposed change, ^i^ch was 

1860] SUNDAY POSTS 246 

private families. At any rate, she thinks decidedly that great 
caution should be used with respect to any alteration in the 
transmission of the mails, so that at least some means of com- 
munication may still be possible. 

Queen Victoria to the Duke of Cambridge, 

OSBOBNE, IQth June 1850. 

My dbab Uncle, — I have enquired into the precedents, and 
find that though there are none exactly similar to the case of 
George, there will be no difficulty to call him up to the House 
of Lords ; and I should propose that he should be called up 
by the name of Earl of Tipperary, which is one of your titles. 
Culloden, which is your other title, would be from recollections 
of former times obviously objectionable. There are several 
precedents of Princes being made Peers without having an 
establishment, consequently there can be no difficulty on this 

I feel confident that George will be very moderate in his 
politics, and support the Government whenever he can. 
Princes of the Royal Family should keep as much as possible 
aloof from Party Politics, as I think they else invariably be- 
come mixed up with Party violence, €uid frequently are made 
the tools of people who are utterly regardless of the mischief 
they cause to the Throne and Royal Ffiunily. Believe me, 
always, your affectionate Niece, Victoria R. 

The Duke of Cambridge to Queen Victoria, 

Cambridoe House, lOth June 1850. 

My deabest Victoria, — I seize the ecurliest opportunity of 
thanking you for your very kind letter, which I have this 
moment received, and to assure you at the same time that I do 
most fully agree with you in your observations concerning the 
line in politics which the members of the Royal Family ought 
to take. This has always been my principle since I entered 
the House of Lords, and I am fully convinced that Greorge will 
foUow my example. 

I must also add that I have felt the great advantage of sup- 
porting the Government, and I have by that always been well 
with all Parties, and have avoided many difficulties which 
other members of my family have had to encounter. 

I shall not fail to communicate your letter to George, who 
will, I trust, never prove himself unworthy of the kindness you 
have shown him. 


With the request that you will remember me most kindly to 
Albert, I remain, my dearest Victoria, your most affectionate 
Uncle, Adolphus. 

Prince George of Cambridge to Queen Victoria, 

St James's Paiagb, 16th June ISSO. 

My deab Cousin, — I have not as yet ventured to address 
you on a subject of much interest personally to myself, and 
upon which I am aware that you have been in correspondence 
with my father ; but as I believe that the question which was 
brought to your notice has been settled, I cannot any longer 
deprive myself of the pleasure of expressing to you my most 
sincere and grateful thanks for the kind manner in which you 
have at once acceded to the anxious request of my father 
and myself, by arranging with the Government that I should 
be called up to the House of Lords. This has been a point 
upon which I have long been most anxious, and I am truly and 
sincerely grateful that you have so considerately entered into 
my feelings and wishes. I understand that it is your inten- 
tion that I should be called up by my father's second title 
as Earl of Tipperary ; at the same time I hope that though I 
take a seat in the House as Earl of Tipperary, I may be per- 
mitted to retain and be called by my present name on all 
occasions not connected with the House of Lords. As regards 
the wish expressed by yourself, that I should not allow myself 
to be made a political partisan, I need not, I trust, assure you 
that it will be ever my endeavour to obey your desires upon 
this as on all other occasions ; but I trust I may be permitted 
to add, that even before this desire expressed by you, it had 
been my intention to follow this line of conduct. I conceive 
that whenever they conscientiously can do so, the members of 
the Royal Family should support the Queen's Government ; 
and if at times it should happen that they have a difficulty in 
so doing, it is at all events not desirable that they should place 
themselves prominently in opposition to it. This I believe to 
be your feelings on the subject, and if you will permit me to 
say so, they are also my own. 

Hoping to have the pleasure soon of expressing to you my 
gratitude in person, I remain, my dear Cousin, your most 
dutiful Cousin, George. 

Queen Victoria to Prince George of Cambridge, 

OSBOEINB, 17th June 1860. 

My deab Geoboe, — ^Many thanks for your kind letter re- 
ceived yesterday. I am glad to hear that you are so entirely 


of my opinion with respect to the political conduct of the 
Princes of the Royal Family who are peers, and I feel sure that 
your conduct will be quite in a.ccordance with this view. With 
respect to your wish to be caJled as you have hitherto been, I 
do not think that this will be possible. It has never been 
done, besides which I think the Irish (who will be much 
flattered at your being called up by the title of Tipperary) 
would feel it as a slight if you did not wish to be called by the 
title you bear. All the Royal Peers have always been called 
by their titles in this and in other countries, and I do not think 
it would be possible to avoid it. Ever, etc., Victobia R.^ 

Lord John Rttsaell to Queen Victoria. 

Ohbseam Place, 21st June 1850. 

Lord John Russell presents his humble duty to your Majesty, 
and has the honour to report that Mr Roebuck asked him yes- 
terday what course the Government intends to pursue after the 
late vote of the House of Lords.* 

The newspapers contain the report of Lord John Russell's 

Mr Roebuck has proposed to move on Monday a general 
approbation of the Foreign Policy of the Government. 

What may be the result of such a Motion it is not easy to 
say, but as Lord Stanley has prevailed on a majority in the 
House of Lords to censure the Foreign Policy of the Govern- 
ment, it is impossible to avoid a decision by the House of Com- 
mons on this subject. 

The misfortune is that on the one side every detail of nego- 
tiation is confounded with the general principles of our Foreign 
Policy, and on the other a censure upon a Foreign Policy, the 
tendency of which has been to leave despotism and democracy 
to fight out their own battles, will imply in the eyes of Europe 
a preference for the cause of despotism, and a willingness to 
interfere with Russia and Austria on behaJf of absolute govern- 
ment. The jealousy of the House of Commons would not long 
bear such a policy. 

Be that as it may. Lord Stanley has opened a beginning oi 
strife, which may last for many years to come. 

1 The patent was made out, but not signed, a memoraDdam of. Prince Albert 

Buckingham palace, ith July 1850. 

I kept this warrant back from the Qnerai's signature on account of the Doke of Gam- 
bridge's illness. The Duke died yesterday eveniog, without a struggle, after an attack of 
fever which had lasted four we^s. So the summons of Prince George has never been 
carried out. Albert. 

3 Lord Stanley's Motion of Oensore was carried by a majority of 37 in a House of 301. 

248 LORD STANLEY'S MOTION [chap, xix 

Queen Victoria to Lord John RvsseU. 

Buckingham palace, 2Ut June 1850. 

The Queen has received Lord John Russell's letter and read 
his speech in the House of Commons. She regrets exceedingly 
the position in which the Government has been placed by the 
Motion of Lord Stanley in the House of Lords. Whichever way 
the Debate in the House of Commons may terminate, the Queen 
foresees great troubles. A defeat of the Government would be 
most inconvenient. The Queen has always approved the genervi 
tendency of the policy of the Government to let despotism and 
democracy fight out their battles abroad, but must remind Lord 
John that in the execution of this policy Lord Falmerston has 
gone a long way in taking up the side of democracy in the fight, 
and this is the '* detail of negotiations " which Lord John is 
afraid may be confounded with the general principle of our 
Foreign Policy. Indeed it is already confounded by the whole 
of the foreign and the great majority of the British public, and 
it is to be feared that the discussion will pleice despotic and 
democratic principles in array against each other in this 
country, whilst the original question turns only upon the 
justice of Don Pacifico's claims. 

Lord John Russell to Queen Victoria, 

Chbshah Place, 22nd June 1850. 

Lord John Russell deeply regrets that your Majesty should 
be exposed to inconvenience in consequence of Lord Stanley's 
Motion. He has copied Mr Roebuck's Motion as it now stimds 
on the votes. The word " principles " includes the general 
policy, and excludes the peui^icular measures which from time 
to time have been adopted a& the objects of approbation. 

It is impossible to say at this moment what will be the result. 
Lord Stanley, Lord Aberdeen, Mr Gladstone, and Mr Disraeli 
appear to be in close concert. 

Lord Stanley can hardly now abandon Protection. Mr 
Gladstone, one should imagine, can hardly abandon Free Trade. 
The anger of the honest Protectionists and the honest Free- 
Traders will be very great at so unprincipled a coalition. 

Mr Roebuck's Motion : That the principles on which the 
Foreign Policy of Her Majesty's Government has been regu- 
lated have been such as were calculated to maintain the honour 
and dignity of this country, and in times of unexampled 
difficulty to preserve peace between England and the various 
nations of the world. 


Qtieen Victoria to Viscount Pcdmerston, 

BUCKINGHAM PALAOB, 22ful June 18G0. 

The Queen has received Lord Pahnerston's letter of yester- 
day, but cannot say that his arguments in support of his 
former opinion, that the Germanic Confederation should be 
omitted from amongst the Powers who are to be invited to 
sign a protocol, the object of which is to decide upon the fate 
of Holstein, have proved successful in convincing her of the 
propriety of this course. As Holstein belongs to the Germanic 
Coz&ederation and is only accidentally connected with Den- 
mark through its Sovereign, a Protocol to ensure the integrity 
of the Danish Monarchy is a direct attack upon Germany, if 
carried out without her knowledge and consent ; and it is an 
act repugnant to all feelings of justice and morality for third 
parties to dispose of other people's property, which no diplo- 
matic etiquette about the difficulty of finding a proper repre- 
sentative for Germany could justify. The mode of representa.- 
tion might safely be left to the Confederation itself. It is not 
surprising to the Queen that Austria and Prussia should com- 
pliun of Lord Pahnerston's agreeing with Sweden, Russia, 
Denmark, and France upon the Protocol before giving Prussia 
and Austria any notice of it. 

Viscount Pcdmerston to Lord John Russell, 

GAEi/roN Gardens, 2Zrd June 1850. 

My deab John Russeix, — The Queen has entirely mis- 
conceived the object and effect of the proposed Protocol. It 
does not " decide upon the fate of Holstein," nor is it "an 
attack upon Germany." In fact, the Protocol is to decide 
nothing ; it is to be merely a record of the wishes and opinions 
of the Power whose representatives are to sign it.^ . . . 

How does any part of this decide the fate of Holstein or 
attack Germany ? 

Is not the Queen requiring that I should be Minister, not 
indeed for Austria, Russia, or France, but for the Germanic Con- 
federation ? Why should we take up the cudgels for Germany, 
whenweare inviting Austria and Prussia, the two leadingpowers 
of Germany, and who would of course put in a claim for the 
Confederation if they thought it necessary, which, however, 
for the reasona above stated,* they surely would not ? . . . 

1 The Protocol was to record the desirabilil^ of the following points : — (1) that the 
several states which constituted the Danish Monarchy should remain anited, and that 
the Danish CXxmn should be settled in such manner that it should go with the Dnchy of 
Holstein ; (S) that the signatory Powers, when the peace should have been concluded, 
should concert measures for the purpose of giving to the results an additional pledge of 
stfl^ity, by a general European acknowledgment. 

260 THE PR0TCK:J0L [chap, xdc 

As to my having agreed with Sweden, Russia, Denmark, and 
France before communicating with Prussia and Austria, that 
is not the course which things have taken. Brunnow proposed 
the Protocol to me, and I have been in discussion with him 
about it. It is ^ who has communicated it to the French 
Ambassador, to Keventlow, and to Rehausen ; I sent it 
privately several weeks ago to Westmorland, that he might 
show it confidentially to Schleinitz, but telling Westmorland 
that it was not a thing settled, but only a proposal by Russia, 
and that, at all events, some part of the wording would be 
altered. I have no doubt that Brunnow has also shown it to 
Koller ; but I could not send it officially to Berlin or Vienna 
till Brunnow had agreed to such a wording as I could recom- 
mend the Government to adopt, nor until I received the Queen's 
sanction to do so. 

The only thing that occurs to me as practicable would be to 
say to Austria and Prussia that if, in signing the Protocol, 
they could add that they signed also in the name of the Con- 
federation, we should be glad to have the additional weight of 
that authority, but that could not be made a sine qud non, any 
more than the signature of Austria and Prussia themfielveB, 
for I think that the Protocol ought to be signed by as many of 
the proposed Powers as may choose to agree to it» bearing 
alwa}^ in mind that it is only a record of opinions and wishes, 
and does not decide or pretend to decide anything practiceJly. 
Yours sincerely, PAiiMEBSTON. 

Queen Victoria to Lord John RusaelL 

BUODNGH^U PALACE, 26th June 1850. 

The Queen has received Lord John Russell's letter enclosing 
those of Lord Palmerston and Lord Lemsdowne. The mia- 
conception on the Queen's part, which Lord Palmerston alleges 
to exist, consists in her taking the essence of the curangement 
for the mere words. Lord Palmerston pretends that the 
Protocol *' does not decide upon the fate of Holstein nor 
attctck Germany." However, the only object of the Protocol 
is the fate of Holstein, which is decided upon— 

(1.) By a declaration of the importance to the interests 
of Europe to uphold the integrity of the Danish 
Monarchy (which has no meaning, if it does not 
mean that Holstein is to remain with it). 

(2.) By an approval of the efforts of the King of Denmark 
to keep it with Denmark, by adapting the law of 
succession to that of Holstein. 


(3.) By an engagement on the part of the Powers to use 
their *' soina " to get the constitutional position of 
Holst^n settled in a peace according to the Malmoe 
preliniinaries, of which it was one of the conditions 
that the question of the succession was to be left 

(4.) To seal the whole arrcmgement by an act of European 

If the declarations of importance, the approval, the " aoina " 
and the acknowledgments of ail the great Powers of Europe 
are to decide nothing, then Lord Palmerston is quite right ; if 
they decide anything, it is the fate of Holst^n. 

Whether this will be an. attack upon Germany or not will be 
easily deduced from the fact that the attempt on the part of 
Denmaric to incorporate into her poHty the Duchy of Schleswig 
was declared by the Diet in 1846 to be a declaration of war 
against Germany merely on account of its intimate connection 
with the Duchy of Holstein. 

The Queen does not wish her Minister to be Minister for 
Germany, but m^ely to treat that country with the same con- 
sideration which is due to every country on whose interests we 
mean to decide. 

The Queen would wish her correspondence upon this subject 
to be brought before the Cabinet, and will abide by their 
deliberate ojHnion. 

Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgiana, 


My deasest Uncle, — Charles will have told you how kindly 
and amiably the Prince of Prussia has come here, travelling 
night and day from St Petersburg, in order to be in time for 
the christening of our Kttle Arthwr,^ I wish you could (and 
you will, for he int^ids stopping at Brussels) hear him speak, 
for he is so straightforward, conciliatory, and yet firm of pur- 
pose ; I have a great esteem and respect for him. The poor 
King of Prussia is recovered,' and has been received with great 
enthusiasm on the first occasion of his first reappearance in 

We are in a crisia, no one knowing how this debate upon this 
most unfc»rtunate Greek business will end. It is most unfor- 
tunate, for whatever way it ends, it must do great hcunn. 

I must now conclude, for I can quite overpowered by the 
heat. Ever your truly devoted Niece, Victoria R. 

1 The praaent Duke of Ocnmaught, bom on the 1st of May, the birthday of the Duke ai 
Wellingtoii, who was one of the apenseca, and after whom he was named, 
a From an attempt te assassinate him. 


Lord John RusseU to Queen Victoria, 

Ghesham Place, 26th June 1850. 

Lord John Russell presents his humble duty to your Majesty, 
and has the honour to report that in the debate of last night 
Viscount Palmerston defended the whole Foreign Policy of the 
Grovemment in a speech of four hours and three quarters.^ 
This speech wcis one of the most masterly ever delivered, going 
through the details of transactions in the various parts of the 
world, and appealing from time to time to great principles of 
justice and of freedom. 

The cheering was frequent and enthusiajstic. The debate 
was adjourned till Thursday, when it will probably close. 

The expectation is that Ministers will have a majority, but 
on the amount of that majority must depend their future 

Lord John RuaaeU to Queen Victoria. 

Ghesham Flags, 27th June 1850. 

Lord John Russell presents his humble duty to your Majesty, 
and has the honour to state that the prospects of the division 
are rather more favourable for Ministers than they were. 

Ministers ought to have a majority of forty to justify their 
remaining in office.^ 

Mr Gladstone makes no secret of his wish to join Lord 
Stanley in forming an Administration. 

Lord John Russell would desire to have the honour of an 
audience of your Majesty on Saturday at twelve or one o'clock. 

The division will not take place till to-morrow night. 

Qusen Victoria to the King of the Belgians. 

Buckingham palace, 2nd July 1850. 

My dbabest Uncle, — ^For two most kind and a^ectionate 
letters I offer my warmest and best thanks. The good report 
of my beloved Louise's improvement is a great happiness. 

1 It lasted from dusk till dawn, and the Minister asked for a verdict on the question 
whether, as the Boman in days of old held himself free from indignity ^en he coald say, 
Civis Romanus mm, so also a British subject, in whatever land he may be, shall fed 
confident that the watchful eye and the strong arm of England will protect him against 
injustice and wrong." Peel, who made his last appearance in the House, voted against 

2 In the result. Ministers succeeded by 310 to 264, although opposed to them in the 
debate were Mr Gladstone, Mr Oobden, Sir Robert Peel, Mr Disraeli, Sir James Graham, 
and Sir William Molesworth. Next to the speeches of Lord Palmerston and Lord Jdm 
Eussell, the most effective i^eech on the GK)vemment side was tb&t of Mr Alexander 
Oockbum, afterwards Lord Chief Justice of England. 

1850] PEEL'S ACCTOENT 253 

By my letter to Louise you will have learnt all the details of 
this certainly very disgraceful and very inconceivable attctck.^ 
I have not suffered except from my head, which is still very 
tender, the blow having been extremdly violent, and the brass 
end of the stick fell on my head so as to make a considerable 
noise. I own it makes me nervous out driving, and I steui) at 
any person coming near the carriage, which I am afraid is 
natural. We have, alas ! now another cause of much greater 
anxiety in the person of our excellent Sir Robert Peel,^ who, as 
you wUl see, has had a most serious fall, and though going on 
well at first, was very ill last night ; thank God ! he is better 
again this morning, but I fear still in great danger. I ccmnot 
bear even to think of losing him ; it would be the greatest loss 
for the whole country, and irreparable for us, for he is so trust- 
worthy, and so entirely to be depended on. All peui^ies are in 
great anxiety about him. I will leave my letter open to give 
you the latest news. 

Our good and amiable guest ^ likes being with us, and will 
remain with us till Saturday. We had a concert last night, 
and go to the opera very regularly. The ProphMe is quite 
beautiful, and I am sure would delight you. The music in the 
Sc^ne du CouronnemerU is, I think, finer than anything in either 
Eobert or the Hugiienots ; it is highly dramatic, and really 
very touching. M€uio sings and acts in it quite in perfection. 
His Baaul in the Huguenots is also most beautiful. He 
improves every year, and I really think his voice is the finest 
tenor I ever heard, and he sings and acts with such intense 

What do you say to the conclusion of our debate ? It leaves 
things just as they were. The House of Commons is becoming 
very unmanageable and troublesome. . • . 

I must now conclude. With Albert's love, ever your most 
affectionate Niece, Victobia R. 

I am happy to say that Sir Robert, though still very ill, is 
freer from pain, his pulse is less high, and he feels himself 
better ; the Doctors think there is no vital injury, and nothing 
from which he c€uinot recover, but that he must be for some 
days in a precarioiis state. 

1 The Qaeen, as she was leaving Oambridge House, where she had called to inquire after 
the Duke of Oambiidge's health, was stmck with a cane by one Robert Fate, an ez-officer, 
and a severe braise was inflicted on her forehead. The outrage was apparently committed 
wittioot motive, bat an attempt to prove Fate insane failed, and he was sentenced to seven 
jeacs' trai^ortation. 

2 On the day following the Don Pacifico debate, Sir Robert Peel, after attending a 
meetiiig of tiie Exhibition GommiasionerB, had gone oat riding. On his return, while 
passing up Constitution Hill, he was thrown from his horse, and, after lingering three days 
in intense pain, died on the 5th of July. 

3 The Prince of Prussia. 

264 TECE KING OF DENMARK [chap. xes. 

The King of Denmark to Queen Victoria, 

OOPENHAGini, 4 JuOUt 1880. 

Madame ma Scextb, — Je remplis iin devoir des plus agr^bles, 
en m'empressant d'annonoer k voire Majesty que la paix vient 
d'etre sign^e le ?' de ce mois k Berlin entre moi et Sa Majesty le 
Roi de Prusse, en Son nom et en celui do \& Conf6ddration 

Je sais et je reconnais .e grand cceur combien je suis redev- 
able k votre Majesty et k Son Gouvemement de ce r^sultat 
important, qui justifie mon esp6rance de pouvoir bientdt 
rendre k tous mes sujets les bienfaits d'une sincdre reconcilia- 
tion et d'une vMtable Concorde. 

Votre Majesty a par la sollicitude avec laquelle Elle a con- 
stamment accompli le mandat de la mediation dans I'int^ret 
du Danemark et de TEurope, ajout6 aux t6moignages inappr6- 
ciables de sincere amiti6 qu'elle n'a cess6 de m'accorder durant 
la longue et p^nible 6preuve que le Danemark vient de nouveau 
de traverser, mais qui parait, k I'aide du Tout-Puissant, devoir 
maintenant faire place k un meilleur avenir, ofiErant, sous les 
auspices de votre Majesty, de nouveJes garanties pour rind6- 
pendance de mon antique Couronne et pour le maintien de 
l*integrit6 de ma Monarchic, k la defense desquelles je me suis 
vou6 entierement. 

Je suis persuade que votre Majesty me fera la justice de 
croire que je suis on ne peut plus reconnaissant, et que mon 
peuple fiddle et loyal s*associe k moi et aux miens, pen6tr6 de 
ces memes sentiments de gratitude envers votre Majesty. 

Je m'estimerais infiniment heureux si Elle daignait aj outer 
k toutes Ses bont^s, celle que de me foumir I'occasion de Lui 
donner des preuves de mon d6vouement inalterable et de la 
haute consideration avec lesquels je prie Dieu qu'il vous ait, 
Madame ma Soeur, vous, votre auguste j6poux et tous les votees, 
deuis sa sainte et digne garde, et avec lesquels je suis, Madame 
ma Soeur, de votre Majeste, le bon Frere, Fbbdebick. 

T?ie King of the Belgians to Qtieen Victoria, 

liAEEEN, 5th July 1850. 

My dearest Victoma, — ^It gave me the greatest pain to 
learn of the death of our true and kind friend, Sir Robert PeeL 
That he should have met with his end — he so valuable to the 
whole earth — from an accident so easily to be avoided with 

1 Denmark and the Schleswig-Holstdn Dachies were still at war. Qermaoj was bent 
on absorbing the Dachies, but Prossia now concladed a peace with Denmark : the enlist' 
ment of individoal Germans in the insorgent army continued. 

1850] DEATH OF PEEL 266 

some care, is the more to be lamented. You and Albert lose 
in him a friend whose moderation, correct judgment, great 
knowledge of everything connected with the country, can never 
be found again. Europe had in him a benevolent and a truly 
wise statesman. . . . 

Give my best themks to Albert for his kind letter. I mean 
to send a messenger probably on Sunday or Monday to write 
to him. I pity him about the great Exhibition. I fear he 
will be much plagued, and I wcis glad to see that the matter 
is to be treated in Parliament. Alas ! in all human affairs one 
is sure to meet with violent passions, and Feel knew that so 
well ; great care even for the most useful objects is necessary. 

I will write to you a word to-morrow. God grant that it 
may be satisfactory.^ Ever, my beloved, dear Victoria, your 
devoted Uncle, Leopold R. 

Queen Victoria to the King of Prussia. 

BUGEINaHAM PALACE, 6th Jvly 1850. 

Sere, my most honoxtbed Bbotheb, — ^I have to express to 
you my thanks for the plecisure which the visit of your dear 
brother has given us, who, as I hope, will remit these lines to 
you in perfect health. That things go so well with you, and 
that the healing of your wound hcis made imdisturbed progress, 
has been to us a true removal of anxiety. You will no doubt 
have leamt that I too have been again the object of an attempt, 
if possible still more cowardly. The criminal is, as ustial, this 
time too, insane, or will pretend to be so ; still the deed remains. 

All our feelings are, in the meanwhile, preoccupied by the 
sorrow, in which your Majesty and all Europe will share, at the 
death of Sir Robert Peel. That is one of the hardest blows of 
Fate which could have fallen on us and on the country. You 
knew the great man, and understood how to appreciate his 
merit. "His value is now becoming clear even to his opponents ; 
all Parties are united in mourning. 

The only satisfactory event of recent times is the news of 
your conclusion of peace with Denmark. Accept my most 
cordial congratulations on that account. 

Requesting you to remember me cordially to the dear 
Queen, and referring you for detailed news to the dear Prince, 
also recommending to your gracious remembrance Albert, who 
does not wish to trouble you, on his paxt, with a letter, I 
remain, in imchangeable friendship, dear Brother, your 
Majesty's faithful Sister, Victoria R. 

1 The Princess Charlotte of Belgium was seriously ill. 

Queen Victoria to the Kipg of the Belgicms. 

BUCKINGHAH PALACB, 9th Jvly 1850. 

My deabest Uncle, — ^We live in the midst of sorrow and 
death ! My poor good Uncle Cambridge breathed his last, 
without a struggle, at a few minutes before ten last night. I 
still saw him yesterday morning at one, but he did not see me, 
and to-day I saw him lifeless and cold. The poor Duchess and 
the poor children are very touching in their grief, and poor 
Augusta,^ who arrived just five hov/ra too late, is quite heart- 
broken. The end was most peaceful ; there was no disease ; 
only a gastric fever, which came on four weeks €igo, from over- 
exertion, and cold, and which he neglected for the first wedc, 
carried him off. 

The good Prince of Prussia you will have been pleased to tdk 
to and see. Having lived with him for a fortnight on a very 
intimate footing, we have been able to appreciate his real wortii 
fully ; he is so honest and frank, and so steady of purpose and 

Poor dear Peel is to be biuied to-day. The sorrow cuid grief 
at his death are most touching, and the country mourns over 
him as over a father. Every one seems to have lost a personal 

As I have much to write, you will forgive me ending here. 
You will be glad to hear that poor Aunt Gloucester is wonder- 
fully calm and resigned. My poor dear Albert, who had been 
so fresh and well when we came back, looks so pale and fagged 
agsdn. He has felt, and feels. Sir Robert's loss dreadfvUy, He 
feels he has lost a second father. 

May God bless and protect you all, you dear ones ! Ever 
your devoted Niece, Victoria R. 

Queen Victoria to Viscount Patmerston. 

Osborne, 19th July 1850. 

Before this draft to Lord Bloomfield about Greece is sent, it 
would be well to consider whether Lord Palmerston is justified 
in calling the Minister of the Interior of Greece *' a notorious 
defaulter to the ajnount of 200,000 drachms," ^ and should he 
be so, whether it is a proper thing for the Queen's Foreign 
Secretary to say in a public despatch ! 

1 See ante, vol. i. p. 437. 

2 The Convention of the 18tii of April (see ante, p. 242, note 1) had decided that £8S00 
shoald be distributed among the claimants, and that Don Pacifico's fecial daim afipainBt 
Portugal should be referred to arbitration. Ultimately he was awarded only an insignifi- 
cant sum. 


Queen Victoria to Lord John Ruasdl. 

OSBORNE, 2Sth July 1850. 

The Queen will have much pleasure in seeing the Duke and 
Duchess of Bedford here next Saturday, and we have invited 
them. She will be quite ready to hear the Duke's opinions on 
^e Foreign Office. Lord John may be sure that she fully 
admits the great difficulties in the way of the projected altera- 
tion» but she, on the other hand, feels the duty she owes to the 
country and to herself, not to allow a man in whom she can 
have no confidence, who has conducted himself in anything biU 
a straightforward and proper manner to herself, to remain in 
the Foreign Office, and thereby to expose herself to insults 
from other nations, and the country to the constant risk of 
serious and alarming complications. The Queen considers 
these reasons as much graver than the other difficulties. Each 
time that we were in a difficulty, the Government seemed to be 
detenoined to move Lord Palmerston, and as soon as these 
difficulties were got over, those which present themselves in 
the carrying out of this removal appeared of so great a magni- 
tade as to cause its relinquishment. There is no chance of 
Lord Palmerston reforming himself in his sixty-seventh year, 
and after having considered his last escape as a triumph. . . • 
The Queen is personally convinced that Lord Palmerston at 
this moment is secretly plcmning an cunned Russian interven- 
tion in Schleswig, which may produce a renewal of revolutions 
in Germany, and possibly a general war. 

The Queen only adduces this as an instance that there is no 
question of delicacy and danger in which Lord Palmerston 
will not arbitrarily and without reference to his colleagues or 
Sovereign engage this country. 

Queen Victoria to the King of Denmark, 

Osborne, 29 JuUlet 1850. 

SiBE ET MON BON Fbbre, — La lettre dont votre Majest6 a 
bien voulu m'honorer m'a caus6 un bien vif plaisir comme 
t^moignage que votre Majesty a su appr6cier les sentiments 
d'amiti6 pour vous et le d^ir d'agir avec impartiality qui m'ont 
anim^e ainsi que mon Gouvemement pendant tout le cours des 
longues n^gociations qui ont pr6c6d6 la signature de la Paix 
avec FAllemagne. Votre Majest6 pent aisiment comprendre 
aussi combien je dois regretter le renouvellement de la guerre 
avec le Schleswig qui ne pourra avoir d' autre r^sultat quo 
Taccroissement de ranimosit6 et TafFaiblissement des deux 

VOL. n 9 


nobles peuples sur lesquels vous r6gnez. Dieu veuille que oette 
derniere lutte setermine pourtant dansune reconciliation solide» 
bas6e sur la reconnaissance des droits et des obligations des 
deux cdt^s. Je me trouve pouss^e k vous soumettre ici. Sire, 
une priere pour un Prince qui s'est malheureusement trouv6 
en conflit avec votre Majesty, mais pour lequel les liens de 
parent6 me portent k plaider, le Due de Holstein-Augusten- 
burg. Je suis persuad6B que la magnanimite de votre Majesty 
lui rendra ses biens particuliers, qu'elle a jug6 n6cessaire de lui 
oter pendant la guerre de 1848, ce que je reconnaltrais bien 
comme une preuve d'aniiti6 de la part de votre Majesty envers 

En faisant des voeux^pour son bonheur et en exprimant le 
d6sir du Prince, mon Epoux, d'etre mis aux pieds de votre 
Majesty, je suis. Sire et mon bon Frere, de votre Majesty la 
bonne Soeur, Victoria R. 

Qtieen Victoria to Lord John RusseU. 

OSBORNE, Zlst July 1850. 

The Queen must draw Lord John Russell's attention to the 
accompanying draft ^ with regard to Schleswig, which is evi- 
dently intended to lay the ground for future foreign armed 
intervention. This is to be justified by considering the assist- 
ance which the Stadthalterschaft of Holstein may be tempted 
to give to their Schleswig brethren " €W an invasion of Schleswig 
by a German force." 

Lord John seems himself to have placed a ** ? " against that 
passage. This is, after two years' negotiation and mediation, 
begging the qttestion at issue. The whole war — Revolution, 
mediation, etc., etc. — ^rested upon the question whether 
Schleswig was part of Holstein (though not of the Grerman 
Confederation), or part of Denmark and not of Holstein. 

Qtceen Victoria to Lord John RuaseU. 

OSBORNE, Zlst July 1850. 

The Queen has considered Lord Sejnnour's memorandum 
upon the Rangership of the Parks in London, but cannot say 
that it has convinced her of the expediency of its abolition. 
There is nothing in the management of these parks by the Woods 
and Forests which does not equally apply to all the others, as 

1 In this draft, Lord Falmerston was remonstrating with the Prossian Gtovemmeat 
against the orders given by the Holstein Statthalters to their army to invade SchleBwig, 
after the signatore of the peace between Fruasia and Denmark. 


Greenwich, Hampton Court, Richmond, etc. There is cer- 
tainly a degree of inconvenience in the divided authority, but 
tills is amply compensated by the advantage to the Crown, in 
appearance at least, to keep up an authority emanating per- 
sonally from the Sovereign, and unconnected with a Govern- 
ment Depfifftment which is directly answerable to the House of 
Commons. The last debate upon Hyde Park has, moreover, 
shown that it will not be safe not to remind the public of the 
fact that the parks are Royal property. As the Ranger has 
no power over money, the management will always remain 
with the Office of Woods. 

The Duke of Wellington to Queen Victoria, 

London, Zrd August 1850. 

Field-Marshal the Duke of Wellington presents his humble 
duty to your Majesty. He regrets to be under the necessity of 
submitting to your Majesty the enclosed letter from General 
Sir Charles Napier, G.C.B., in which he tenders his resignation 
of the office of Commander-in-Chief of your Majesty's Forces 
in the East Indies.^ 

Upon the receipt of this paper Field-Marshal the Duke of 
Wellington considered it to be his duty to peruse all the papers 
submitted by Sir Charles Napier ; to survey the transaction 
which had occasioned the censure of the Governor-General in 
Council complained of by Sir Charles Napier ; to require from 
the India House all the information which could throw light 
upon the conduct complained of, as well as upon the motives 
aUeged for it ; the reasons given on account of which it was 
stated to be necessary. 

He has stated in a minute, a memorandum of which he sub- 
mits the copy to your Majesty, his views and opinions upon the 
whole subject, and the result which he submits to your Majesty 
is that he considers it his duty humbly to submit to your 
Majesty that your Majesty should be graciously pleased to 
accept the resignation of General Sir Charles Napier thus 

Before he should submit this recommendation to your Ma- 
jesty in relation to an office of such high reputation in so high 
and important a station, Field-Marshal the Duke of Wellington 
considered it his duty to submit his views to your Majesty's 
servants, who have expressed their concurrence in his opinion. 

It is probable that the President of the Board of Control will 

1 This was in consequence of Sir Charles Napier's action in exercising powers belonging 
to the Supreme Ciooncil, on tiie oocasion of a mutiny of a regiment of the Native Anny. 


fay before your Majesty the papers transmitted to the Secsret 
Committee of the Court of Directors, by the Governor-General 
in Council, which are adverted to in the paper drawn up by the 
Duke, and of which the substance alone is stated. 

All of which is himibly submitted to your Majesty by your 
Majesty's most dutiful Subject €«id most devoted Servant, 


Memorandum by the Prince Albert. 

OSBORNE, Wi August 1850. 

Lord John Russell having lately stated that Lord Clarendon, 
who had always been most eager to see Lord Palmerston 
moved, had lately expressed to him his opinion that it would 
be most dangerous and impolitic to do so under present circum- 
stances, we thought it right to see Lord Clarendon here. . . . 
In conversation with me. Lord Clarendon spoke in his old 
strain of Lord Palmerston, but very strongly also of the danger 
of turning him out and making him the leader of the Radicals, 
who were anxiously waiting for that, were much dissatisfied 
with Lord John Russell, and free from control by the death of 
Sir Robert Peel. I said that if ever5rthing was done with Lord 
Palmerston's consent there would be no danger, to which Lord 
Clarendon assented, but doubted that he would consent to 
giving up what was his hobby. He added, nobody but Lord 
John could carry on the Foreign Affairs, but he ought not to 
leave the House of Commons under present circumstances, 
where he was now the only authority left. 

We saw the Duke of Bedford yesterday, whom Lord John 
had wished us to invite. He is very unhappy about the present 
state of affairs, frightened about things going on as at present, 
when Lord John can exercise no control over Lord Palrnerston, 
and the Queen is exposed year after year to the same annoyances 
and dangers arising from Lord Palmerston's mode of conducting 
the affairs ; but on the other hand, equally frightened at turn- 
ing him loose. The Duke was aware of all that had passed 
between us and Lord John, and ready to do anything Tie could 
to bring matters to a satisfactory solution, but thought his 
brother would not like to leave the House of Commons now. 
He had very much changed his opinion on that head latterly, 
and the more so as he thought something ought to be done next 
year with the franchise, which he alone could carry through. 
On my questioning whether it was impossible to persuade him 
to take the Foreign Office and stay in the Lower House, with 
a first-rate under-secretary, at least for a time, the Duke 


thought he might perhaps temporarily, as he felt he owed to 
the Queen the solution of the difficulty, but expressed again his 
fears of Lord Falmerston's opposition. I replied that if Lord 
John would make up his mind to take the Foreign Office, and 
to stay in the House of Commons, I saw no danger, as Lord 
John would be able to maintain himself successfully, and Lord 
Paknerston would not like to be in opposition to him, whilst 
he would become most formidable to anybody who was to gain 
. only the lectdership in the House ; moreover. Lord John, 
having done so much for Lord Palmerston, could expect and 
demand a return of sacrifice, and a variety of posts might be 
offered to him — the Presidency of the Coimcil, the office of 
Home Secretary, or Secretary for the Colonies, Chancellor of 
the Exchequer, etc., etc., which places I was sure any member 
of the Cabinet would vacate for him. The Duke of Bedford 
added the Lieutenancy of Lreland, as Lord Clarendon had told 
him he was ready to give it up for the purpose, but only under 
one condition, viz. that of not having to succeed to Lord Pal- 
merston at the Foreign Office. Observing oiur surprise at this 
declaration, the Duke added that Lord Clarendon acted most 
considerately, that he was ready to have no office at all, and 
would support the Government independently in the House of 
Lords if this were to facilitate arrangements. The Queen 
rejoined that a peerage was of course also at Lord John's 
disposal for Lord Palmerston. We then agreed that Lord 
Granville would be the best person to become Lord John's 
Under-Secretary of State, a man highly popular, pleasing,- con- 
ciliatory, well versed in Foreign Affairs, and most industrious ; 
trained under Lord John, he could at any time leave him the 
office altogether, if Lord John should find it too much for him- 
self. Lord Granville had a higher office now, that of Vice- 
Presid^cit of the Board of Trade and Paymaster-General, but 
would be sure to feel the importance of taking a lower office 
under such circumstances and with such contingencies likely 
to depend upon it. I have seen a great deal of him latterly, 
as he is the only working man on the Commission for the 
Exhibition of 1851, €«id have found him most able, good- 
natured, and laborious. The Duke liked the proposal very 
much, and is going to communicate all that passed between us 
to Lord John on Tuesday. Albert. 

Memorandum by the Prince Albert, 

OSBORNE, %th August 1850. 

Lord John Kussell came down here yesterday in order to 
report to the Queen what had passed between him aAd Lord 


Palmerston the day before, on whom he had called in order to 
have an explanation on the Foreign Affairs. 

Lord John reminded him of former communications, but 
admitted that circumstances were much changed by the recent 
debates in both Houses of Parliament ; still, it was necessaiy 
to come to an imderstanding of the position. The policy 
pursued with regard to the Foreign Affairs had been right and 
such as had the approval of Lord John himself, the Cabinet 
generally, and he believed the greater part of the country. 
But the manner in which it htui been executed had been un- 
fortunate, led to irritation and hostility ; although peace had 
actually been preserved, and England stood in a position 
requiring no territorial aggrandisement or advantage of any 
kind, yet all Governments and Powers, not only Russia and 
Austria, but also France and the liberal states, had become 
decidedly hostile to us, and our intercourse was not such as 
was desirable. Lord John could instance many cases in which 
they had been unnecessarily slighted and provoked by Lord 
Palmerston, like M. Drouyn de Lhuys in the Greek affair. 
Lord Pahnerston's conduct towards the Queen had been dis- 
respectful and wanting in due attention and deference to her, 
and h€ui been much complained of. 

In consequence of all this Lord John had before proposed 
to Her Majesty that the Foreign Affcdrs should be entrusted 
to Lord Minto, he himself should go to the House of Lords, 
and Lord Palmerston should have the lead in the House of 
Commons. The Queen had, however, objected to this arrange- 
ment, [thinking] the lead in the Lower House to be more pro- 
perly given to Sir Greorge Grey, who had as Home Secretary 
conducted all internal business in the House. Now had come 
Sir R. Peel's death, which made it impossible for Lord John to 
leave the House of Conmions without endangering the position 
of Government and of the parties in the House. 

Lord Palmerston was much pleased to hear of Lord John's 
intention to stay in the House of Commons, said all was changed 
now ; there had been a great conspiracy against him, he had 
been accused in Parliament, put on his trial and acquitted. 
The acquittal htui produced the greatest enthusiasm for him 
in the country, and he was now supported by a strong party ; 
he owned, however, that his success had been chiefly owing to 
the handsome manner in which Lord John and his colleagues 
had supported him in the debate. That he should incur the 
momentary enmity of those states whose interests and plans 
he might have to cross was quite natural ; he had never in- 
tended any disrespect to the Queen, and if he had been guilty of 
any he was quite unconscious of it and sorry for it. 


Lord John reminded him that although the Government had 
got a majority in the House of Commons in the Foreign debate, 
it was not to be forgotten that the fate of the Government had 
been staked upon it, and that many people voted on that 
account who would not have supported the Foreign policy ; 
that it was remarkable that all those who had the strongest 
reason to be anxious for the continuance of the Government, 
but who could not avoid speaking, were obliged to speak and 
vote against the Government. Sir R. Feel's speech was a most 
remarkable instance of this. 

Xiord PaJmerston saw in Sir Robert's speech nothing but a 
reluctant effort to defend Lord Aberdeen, whom he was bound 
to defend. If he (Lord Palmerston) were to leave the Foreign 
Office, there must be a ground for it, such as his having to take 
the lead in the House of Commons, which was evidently im- 
possible with the conduct of Foreign Department at the same 
time. (It had killed Mr Canning, and after that failure nobody 
ought to attempt it.) But without such a ground it would be 
loss of character to him, which he could not be expected to 
submit to. There was not even the excuse of wishing to avoid 
a difficulty with a foreign country, as all was smooth now. 
Those who had wished to injure him htui been beat, and now 
it would be giving them a triumph after all. If the Queen or 
the Cabinet were dissatisfied with his management of the 
Foreign Affairs, they had a right to demand his resignation, and 
he would give it, but they could not ask him to lower himself 
in public estimation. Lord John answered that his resignation 
would lead to a further split of parties : there were parties 
already enough in the House, and it was essential that at least 
the Whig party should be kept together, to which Lord Palmer- 
ston cussented. He (Lord Palmerston) then repeated his com- 
plaints against that plot which htui been got up in this country 
€igainst him, and urged on by foreigners, complained particu- 
larly of Lord Clarendon, Mr Greville of the Privy Council, Mr 
Reeve, ditto, and their attacks upon him in the Times, and of 
Mr Delane, the Editor of the Times, of Guizot, Princess Lieven, 
etc., etc., etc. However, they had been convinced that they 
could not upset him, and Mr Reeve had declared to him that 
he had been making open and honourable (? ! !) war upon 
him ; now he would make a lasting peace. With Russia 
and France he (Lord Palmerston) had just been signing the 
Danish Protocol, showing that they were on the best terms 

Lord John felt he could not press the matter further under 
these circumstances, but he seemed much provoked at the result 
of his conversation. We expressed our surprise that he had 


not made Lord Palmerston any offer of any kind. Lord John 
replied he had not been sure what he could have offered him. . ; . 


Queen Victoria to Lord John RuaaeU^ 

OSBORNE, 12(h Augutt 1850. 

With reference to the conversation about Lord Palmerston 
which the Queen had with Lord John Russell the other day, 
and Lord Falmerston's disavowal that he ever intended any 
disrespect to her by the various neglects of which she has had 
so long and so often to complain, she thinks it right, in order 
to prevent any mistake for the future, shortly to explain what 
it is she expects from her Foreign Secretary, She requires : (1) 
That he will distinctly state what he proposes in a given case, 
in order that the Queen may know as distinctly to wheat she 
has given her Royal sanction ; (2) Having once given her 
sanction to a measure, that it be not arbitrarily altered or 
modified by the Minister ; such an act she must consider as 
failing in sincerity towards the Crown, and justly to be visited 
by the exercise of her Constitutional right of dismissing that 
Minister. She expects to be kept informed of what passes 
between him and the Foreign Ministers before important de- 
cisions are taken, based upon that intercourse ; to receive the 
Foreign Despatches in good time, and to have the drafts for 
her approval sent to her in sufficient time to make herself 
acquainted with their contents before they must be sent off. 
The Queen thinks it best that Lord John Russell should show 
this letter to Lord Palmerston. 

Viscount Palmerston to Lord John RusseU, 

FOREIGN Office, IZth August 1850. 

My dear John Russell, — ^I have taken a copy of this 
memorandum of the Queen and will not fail to attend to the 
directions which it contains. With regard to the sending of 
despatches to the Queen, they have sometimes been delayed 
longer than should have been the case, in consequence of 
my having been prevented by great pressinre of business, and 
by the many interruptions of interviews, etc., to which I am 

1 Compare the memorandam suggested by Baron Stockmar, antef p. 238. This letter 
was, after much forbearance, written in the hope of bringing Lord Palmerston to a proper 
understanding of his relation to the Soyereign. Even when the catastrophe came, and 
its tenor had to be communicated by the Premier to Parliament, the Preamble was gener- 
ously omitted ; but in consequence of its description by Lord Palmerston, in a letter 
published by Mr Ashley, as an angry memorandum, it was printed in full in The Life of 
the Prince Consort, 


liable, from reading and sending them back into the Office so 
soon as I could have wished. But I will give orders that the 
old praciAce shall be reverted to, of making copies of all im- 
portant despatches as soon as they reach the Office, so that 
there may be no delay in sending the despatches to the Queen ; 
this preMstice was gradually left off as the business of the Office 
increased, and if it shall require an additional clerk or two 
you must be liberal and allow me that assistance. — ^Yours 
sincerely, Palmebston. 

The Ihic de Nemours to Queen Victoria. 

CLABEMONT, 26 Aout 1850. 

Madame ma chebe Cousine, — La main de Dieu vient de 
s^appesantir sur nous. Le Koi notre Pere n*est plus.^ AprSs 
avoir re^u hier avec calme et resignation les secours de la 
religion, il s'est 6teint ce matin k huit heures au miHeu de nous 
tons. Vous le connaissiez ma chere Cousine, vous savez tout 
ee! que nous perdons, vous comprendrez done Tiaexprimable 
douleur dans laquelle nous sommes ploughs ; vous la par- 
tagerez meme je le sais ! 

La Heine bris^, malgr6 son courage, ne trouve de soulage- 
ment que dans ime retraite absolue oii ne voyant personne 
elle puisse laisser cours k sa douleur. 

Veuillez f aire part k Albert de notre malheur et recevoir ici, 
ma chSre Cousine, Thommage des sentiments de respect et 
d'attachement, de votre bien a£fectionn6 Cousin, 

Louis d'Oblbans. 

Queen Victoria to Viscount Palmerston. 

OSBORNE, 26th August I860. 

The Queen wishes Lord Palmerston to give directions for a 
Court mourning according to those which are usual for an 
abdicated King. She likewise wishes that every assistance 
should be given, and every attention shown to the afflicted 
Royal Fam&y, who have been so severely tried during the last 
two years, on the melancholy occasion of the poor Bling of the 
French's death. 

The Queen starts for Scotland to-morrow. 

1 King Louis Philippe was in his seventy-seventh year when he died : his widow, Queen 
Harie Am^e, lived till 1866, when she died at the age of eighty-four. 

VOL. n 9* 

266 THE POET LAUREATE [chap, xec 

The King of the Belgians to Queen Victoria. 

LAEEEN, 30CA AugvM 1850. 

... I have offered to the poor Queen of the French to 
remain at Claremont and d^en disposer as long as Heaven does 
not dispose of myself. She, of course, dislikes the place, but 
will keep the f anuly with her at least for some time. 

Lord John Russell to Queen Victoria, 

TATM0X7TH CASTLE, 5th September 185a 

Lord John Russell presents his humble duty to your Majesty, 
and was happy to receive your Majesty's graxiious letter, whidi 
reached him the night before last. 

The proofs of attachment to your Majesty, which are every- 
where exhibited, axe the more gratifjdng as they are entirely 

It is fit and becoming that your Majesty should inhabit the 
royal Palax^e of Hol3rrood, and this circumstance gives great 
satisfaction throughout Scotland. 

Lord John Russell is gltui to learn that the family of the 
late King of the French will continue to reside in England. 

The reflection naturally occurs, if Napoleon and Louis 
Philippe were unable to consolidate a dynasty in France, who 
will ever be able to do it ? The prospect is a succession of 
fruitless attempts at civil Government till a General assumes 
the command, and governs by military force. 

Lord John RusseU to Queen Victoria, 

DUNEELD, 7th September 1850. 

. . . Lord John Russell has had the honour of receiving 
at Taymouth a letter from the Prince. He agrees that the 
office of Poet Laureate ought to be filled up. There are three 
or four authors of nearly equal merit, such as Henry Taylor, 
Sheridan Knowles, Professor Wilson, and Mr Tennyson, who 
are qualified for the office. 

Tlie King of the Belgians to Queen Victoria, 

OSTEND, 1th October 1850. 

My dearest Vicjtoria, — I write a few words only to tell you 
how our dear patient is.^ Yesterday was a most perilous, 

1 The Queen of the Belgians died on the 11th of October, at the age of thirty-eifl^t 


truly dreadful day ; our dear angelic Louise wa« so fainting 
that Madfiune d'Hulst, who was with her, felt the greatest 
alarm. She afterwards wes better, and her mother, C16m, 
Joinville, and Aumale having curived, she saw them with 
more composure than could have been expected. Still, she 
would in faxst wish to be left quiet and alone with me, and we 
try to manage things as much as possible so that their visit 
does not tire her too much. 

Her coursbge and strength of mind are most heart-breaking 
when one thinks of the danger in which she is, and her dear 
and angelic soul seems even to shine more brightly at this 
moment of such great and imminent danger. I am in a 
dreadful state when I am with her. She is so contented, so 
cheerful, that the possibilities of danger appear to me im- 
pofledble ; but the physicians are very much alarmed, without 
fch iT^l""g the state absolutely hopeless. That one should write 
such things about a life so precious, and one in fact still so 
young, and whose angelic soul is so strong ! You will feel 
with me as you love her so dearly. God bless you and pre- 
serve you from heart-breaking sufferings like mine. Ever, 
my deeurest Victoria, your devoted Uncle, Leopold R. 

Viscount Palmerston to Qiieen Victoria. 

BROADLiiNDS, Sth October 1850. 

Viscount Palmerston presents his humble duty to your 
Majesty, and has had the honour to receive your Majesty's 
communication of the 4th instant, expressing your Majesty's 
wish that an alteration should be made in his answer to Baron 
Roller's ^ note of the 6th of September, on the subject of the 
attack made upon General Haynau ; ' but Viscount Palmerston 
begs to state that when Baron Koller was at this place about ten 
days ago, he expressed so much annoyance at the delay which 
had already taken place in regard to the answer to his note of 
the 5th September, and he requested so earnestly that he might 
immediately have the reply, that Viscount Palmerston could 
do no otherwise than send him the answer at once, and Baron 
Koller despatched it the next day to Vienna. 

Viscount Palmerston had put the last paragraph into the 
answer, because he could scarcely have reconciled it to his own 

1 The Austrian Ambassador. 

2 General Haynau had earned in the Hungarian War an odious reputation as a flogger 
of women. When visiting the brewery of Barclay dc Perkins, the draymen mobbed and 
aasaolted bim ; he had to fly from them, and take refuge in a neighbouring house. Lord 
Palmerston had to send an oflScial letter of apology to the Austrian Government, which, 
aa originally despatched, without waiting for the Queen's approval, contained a paragraph 
oftenslTe to Austria. 

268 GENERAL HAYNAU [chap, xix 

feelings and to his sense of public responsibility to have put 
his name to a note which might be liable to be called for by 
Parliament, without expressing in it, at least as his own 
personal opinion, a sense of the want of propriety evinced by 
General Haynau in coming to England at the present moment.^ 

The state of public feeling in this country about General 
Haynau and his proceedings in Italy and Hungary was per- 
fectly well known ; and his coming here so soon after those 
events, without necessity or obligation to do so, was liable to be 
looked upon as a bravado, and as a challenge to an expression 
of public opinion. 

Baron Roller indeed told Viscount Falmerston that Prince 
Mettemich and Baron Neumann had at Brussels strongly 
dissuaded General Haynau from coming on to England ; and 
that he (Baron Koller) had after his arrival estmestly entreated 
him to cut off those long moustachios which rendered him so 
liable to be identified. 

With regard to the transaction itself, there is no justifying 
a breach of the law, nor an attack by a large niunber of people 
upon one or two individuals who cannot resist such superior 
force ; and though in the present case, according to Baron 
Keller's account, the chief injury sustained by General Haynau 
consisted in the tearing of his coat, the loss of a cane, and some 
severe bruises on his left arm, and though four or five police- 
men proved to be sufficient protection, yet a mob who begin 
by insult lead each other on to outrage ; and there is no sa3nbQg 
to what extremes they might have proceeded if they had not 
been checked. 

Such occurrences, however, have taken pla^^e before ; and 
to go no further back than the last summer, the attadss on 
Lord Talbot at the Stafford meeting, and on Mr Bankes, Mr 
Sturt, and others at the Dorchester meeting, when a man was 
killed, were still more violent outrages, and originated simply 
in differences of political opinion ; whereas in this case the 
brewers' men were expressing their feeling at what they con- 
sidered inhuman conduct on the part of General Haynau. 

The people of this country are remarkable for their hospit- 
able reception of foreigners, and for their f orgetfulness of past 
animosities. Napoleon Bonaparte, the greatest enemy that 
England ever had, was treated while at Plymouth with respect, 
and with commiseration while at St Helena. Marshal Soult, 
who h€ui fought in many battles against the English, was 
received with generous acclamation when he ceune here as 
Special Ambassador. The King of the French, Mons. Guizot, 

1 See Lord Falmerston's letter to Sir G. Grey, Ashley's Idfe of Lord Pahnertton, toL L 
chap. vi. 


and Prince Mettemich, though all of them great antagonists of 
English policy and English interests, were treated in this 
country with courtesy and kindness. But General Haynau 
was looked upon as a great moral criminal ; and the feeling in 
regard to him was of the same nature as that which was mani- 
fested towards Tawell^ and the Mannings,' with this only 
difference, that Greneral Haynau's bad deeds were committed 
upon a far larger scale, and upon a far larger number of victims. 
But Viscount PaJmerston can assure your Majesty that those 
feelings of just cmd honourable indignation have not been 
confined to England, for he had good reason to know that 
General Haynau's ferocious and unmanly treatment of the 
unfortunate inhabitants of Brescia and of other towns and places 
in Itedy, his savsige proclamations to the people of Pesth, and 
his barbarous acts in Hungary excited almost as much disgust 
in Austria as in England, and that the nickname of *' General 
Hyesna " was given to him at Vienna long before it was applied 
to him in London. 

Queen Victoria to Lord John RusseU. 

BUOEINQHAM PALACE, 11th October 1850. 

The Queen having written to Lord PaJmerston in conformity 
with Lord John Russell's suggestion respecting the draft to 
Baron Koller, now encloses Lord Palmerston's answer, which 
she received at Edinburgh yesterday evening. Lord John 
will see that Lord PaJmerston has not only sent the draft, but 
passes over in silence her injunction to have a corrected copy 
given to Baron Koller, and adds a vituperation against 
General Haynau, which clearly shows that he is not sorry 
for what has happened, and makes a merit of sympathising 
with the draymen at the brewery cmd the Chaxtist Demon- 
strations. . . . 

The Queen encloses likewise a copy of her letter to Lord 
Palmerston, and hopes Lord John wOl write to him.^ 

1 Executed for the Salt Hill murder. 

3 Marie Manning (an ex-lady's maid, whoee career is said to have suggested Hortense 
in Bleak House to Dickens) was executed with her husband, in 1849, for the murder of 
a guest. She wore black satin on the scaffold, a material which consequently became 
nnpofralar for some time. 

3 Lord John insisted on the note being withdrawn, and another substituted with tiie 
oOenalYe passage omitted. After threatening resignation, Lord Falmerston somewhat 
tamely consented. 

Lord John Russell wrote to the Prince Albert that he would be " somewhat amused, 
if not surprised, at the sudden and amicable termination of the dispute regarding th« 
letter to Baron Koller. The same course may be adopted with advantage if a despatch 
is ever again sent which has been objected to, and to which the Queen's sanction has no^ 
been given." See the Queen's letter of the 19th of October. 


Qtieen Victoria to Viscount Palmerston. 

BUCKINQHAM FAIACB, 12th October 1850. 

The Queen has received Lord Pahnerston's letter respectai^ 
the draft to Baron KoUer. She cannot suppose that Baron 
KoUer addressed his note to Lord Paknerston in order to re- 
ceive in answer an expression of his otun personal opinion ; and 
if Lord Paknerston could not reconcile it to his own feelings 
to express the regret of the Queen's Government at the brutal 
attack and wanton outrage committed by a ferocious mob on 
a distinguished foreigner of past seventy years of age, who was 
quietly visiting a private establishment in this metropolis, 
without adding his censure of the want of propriety evinced by 
General Haynau in coming to England — he might have done 
so in a private letter, where his personal feelings could not be 
mistaken for the opinion of the Queen and her Government. 
She must repeat her request that Lord Paknerston will rectify 

The Queen can as Httle approve of the introduction of Lynch 
Law in this country as of the violent vituperations with which 
Lord Paknerston accuses and condemns pubkc men in other 
countries, exiting in most difficult circumstances and under 
heavy responsibikty, without having the means of obtaining 
correct information or of sifting evidence. 

Queen Victoria to Viscount Palmerston. 

OSBORNB, 16th Ockfber ISfiO. 

The Queen is glad to hear from Lord Palmerston that he 
has given no coimtenance to the French and Russian proposal 
at the suggestion of Denmark, that England, France, and 
Russia should, after having signed the Protocol in favour of 
Denmark, now go further and send their armies to aid her in 
her contest with Holstein.^ The Queen does not expect any 
good result from Lord Palmerston's counter proposal to urge 
Prussia and Austria to compel the Holsteiners to lay down 
their arms. The mediating power ought rather to make 
Denmark feel that it requires more than a cessation of hostiHtiefi, 
a plan of reconciliation, and a solution of the questions in dis- 
pute, before she can hope permanently to establish peace. 

1 A strenaous attempt was being made by the Danish Government to bring pxeaBore 
to bear on Austria and Prussia, to put down the nationalist morement in the Dudiies, 
either by active intervention, or by reassembling the Conference which had n^otiated 
the Treaty ol Berlin. Lord Palmerston discountenanced both alternatives, but wrote 
to the Queen that he and the representatives of France, Russia, and Denmark tiiougbt 
that Austria and Prussia should be urged to take all feasible steps to put an end to tbe 


The mediating power itself, however, should strive to curive 
at some opinion on the matter in dispute, based, not on its 
own supposed interests, as the Protocol is, but on an anxious, 
careful, and impartial investigation of the rights and preten- 
sions of the disputing parties ; and if it finds it impossible to 
arrive at such an opinion, to fix upon some impartial tribunal 
capable of doing so, to which the dispute could be submitted 
for decision. Common principles of morality would point out 
such a course, and what is morally right only can be poUtically 

Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians, 

Osborne, 18<A Octc^er 1850. 

My deabest Uncle, — This was the day I always and for 
so many years wrote to her, to our adored Louise, and I now 
write to you, to thank you for that heart-breaking, touching 
letter of the 16th, which you so very kindly wrote to me. It is 
so kind of you to write to us. What a day Tuesday must have 
been ! Welch evnen Gang I and yesterday I My grief was so 
great again yesterday. To talk of her is my greatest consolation I 
Let us oZ^ ^ to imitate her I My poor dear Uncle, we wish so 
to be with you, to be of any use to you. You will allow us, in 
three or four weeks, to go to you for two or three days, quite 
quietly and alone, to Laeken without any one, without any 
reception anjrwhere, to cry with you and to talk with you of 
Her. It will be a great comfort to u» — a sH&nt tribute of res'pect 
and love to her — ^to be able to mingle our tears with yours over 
her tomb ! And the affection of your two devoted children 
will perhaps be some slight halm. My first impulse wcus to fly 
at once to you, but perhaps a few weeks' delay will be better. 
It. will be a great and melancholy satisfaction to us. Daily 
will you feel more, my poor deax Uncle, the poignancy of 
your dreadful loss ; my heart breaks in thinking of you and 
the poor dear children. How beautiful it must be to see 
that your whole country weeps and mourns with you ! For 
this country and for your children you must try to bear 
up, and feel that in so doing you are doing all she wished. 
If only we could be of use to you ! if / could do anything 
for dear Uttle Charlotte, whom our blessed Louise talked of 
80 often to me. 

May I write to you on Fridays when I used to write to her, as 
well as on Tuesdays ? You need not answer me, and whenever 
it bores you to write to me, or you have no time, let one of the 
dear children write to me. 

May God bless and protect you ever, my beloved Uncle, is 


our anxious prayer. Embrace the dear childbren in the name 
of one who has aknost the feelings of a mother for them. Ever 
your devoted Niece and loving Child, Victobia R. 

Queen Victoria to Lord John RusaeU, 

OSBORNE, 19(A October 1860. 

The Queen is very glad of the result of the conflict with Lord 
Palmerston, of which Lord John Russell apprised her by his 
letter of yesterday's date. The correspondence, which the 
Queen now returns, shows cleaxly that Lord Palmerston in 
this transaction, as in every other, remained true to his prin- 
ciples of axition. . . . But it shows also that Lord John has 
the power of exercising that control over Lord Palmerston, the 
careful exercise of which he owes to the Queen, his colleagues, 
and the country, if he will take the necessary pains to remain 
firm. The Queen does not believe in reaignaiion under almost 
any circumstances. 

The Queen is very anxious about the Holstein question, and 
sends a copy of her last letter to Lord Palmerston on the 

Lord John Russell to the Prince Albert. 

FEMBROEB LODQB, 21tt Octoier 1890. 

Sib, — ^I have just received this note from Lord Palmerston.^ 

The French Ambctssador, who has been here, confirms the 
news. We must consider the whole affair on Wednesd.iy, and 
I shall be glad to learn what the Queen thinks can be done. 

Mr Tennyson is a fit person to be Poet Laureate. 

I have the honoinr to be, yoinr Royal Highness's most 
obedient Servajit, J. Russell. 

Lord John Russell to Queen Victoria. 

BISHOPTHORPE, 2bth October 1860. 

Lord John Russell presents his humble duty to your Majesty ; 
he has read with attention the letter of the Duchess of Nor- 
folk.* He has also read the Pope's Bull. It strikes him that 

1 The note was in reference to the affairs of Hesse-Cassel, and to the rumoois of a Goo- 
ference to be held in Austria for the settlement of German affairs. 

a Two important events in the history of the English Church had just occurred. Th« 
Bishop of Exeter had refused to institute Mr Gorham to a Grown living in his diocese, oo 
the ground that his teaching on baptism was at variance with the formularies of the 
Ghurch. This decision, though upheld in the Gourt of Arches, was reversed (ihoogb 
not unanimously) by the Privy Council. High Church feeling was much aroused by the 

In September, Pius IX. (now re-established in the Vatican) promulgated a papal bnelf 


the division into twelve territorial dioceses of eight ecclesi- 
astical vicariats is not a matter to be alarmed at. The persons 
to be affected by this change must be already Romeui Catholics 
before it ccm touch them. 

The matter to create rational alarm is, as your Majesty says, 
the growth of Roman Catholic doctrines and practices within 
the bosom of the Church. Dr Arnold said very truly, " I look 
upon a Roman Catholic as an enemy in his uniform ; I look 
upon a Tractancm as an enemy disguised as a spy." 

It would be very wrong to do as the Bishop of Oxford pro- 
posed, and confer the patronage of the Crown on any of these 
Tractarians. But, on the other hand, to treat them with 
severity would give the whole party vigour and union. 

The Dean of Bristol is of opinion that the Tractarians are 
faDing to pieces by dissension. It appears clear that Mr 
Denison and Mr Palmer have broken off from Dr Pusey. 

Sir George Grey will ask the Law Officers whether there is 
anytliing illegal in Dr Wiseman's assuming the title of Arch- 
bishop of Westminster. An English Cardinal is not a novelty.^ 

T?ie King of the Bdgiana to Queen Victoria. 

Ardenne, lOtA November 1850. 

My DBABEST VicrroRiA, — ^I write already to.-day that it .may 
not miss to-morrow's messenger. I came here yesterday by 
a mild sunshine, and the valley of the Meuse was very pretty. 
I love my solitude here, and though the house is small and not 
what it ought to have been, still I always liked it. There seems 
in most countries danger of agitation and convulsions arising. 
I don't know how it will end in Germany. In France it is 
difficult that things should not break up some way or other. 
I trust you may be spared religious agitation. These sorts of 
things begin with one pretext, and sometimes continue with 
others. I don't think Europe w€is ever in more danger, Uy a 

restoring the Boman Oatholic hierarchy in England, and dividing it territorially into 
twelve sees, and in October Cardinal Wiseman, as Archbishop of Westminster, issued his 
Pastoral, claiming that Catholic England had been restored to its orbit in the ecclesiastical 
firmament. The Duchess of Norfolk, writing from Arundel, had criticised the proselytis- 
ing action of certain Boman Catholic clergy. See the Queen's reply, posty p. 277. 

1 Lord John wrote on the 4th of November to Dr Maltby, Bishop of Durham, denounc- 
ing the assumption of spiritual superiority over England, in the documents issued from 
Bome. But what alarmed him more (he said) was the action of clergymen within the 
Church leading their flocks dangerously near the brink, and recommending for adopti(Mi 
the honour paid to saints, the claim of infallibility for the Church, the superstitious use of 
the sign of the cross, the muttering of the liturgy so as to disguise the language in which it 
was said, wiUi the reconmiendation of auricular confession and the administration of 
penance and absolution. 

■ Lord John was pictorially satirised in Punch as the bc^ who chalked up *' No popecy ** 
on the door and ran away. 

274 UNREST IN EUROPE [chap, xnc 

tant (Tanarchie dans les esprits. I don't think that ceai. be cured d 
Veau de rose ; the human race is not naturally good, very much 
the contrary ; it requires a strong hand, and is, in fact, even 
pleased to be led in that way ; the memory of all the sort of 
C^sars and Napoleons, from whom they chiefly got blows, is 
much dearer to them than the benefactors of mankind, whom 
they crucify when they ccm have their own way. Give my 
best love to Albert ; and I also am very anxious to be recalled 
to the recollection of the children, who were so very friendly 
at Ostende. How far we were then to guess what has since 
happened. . . . My dearest Victoria, your devoted Unde, 

Leopold R. 

Queen Victoria to the Countess of Gainsborough.^ 

TkuTtdaijf morning {November . .] 1860. 

Deabest Fanny, — ^This is a case of positive necessity, and 
as none of the ladies are forthcoming I fear I must call upon 
you to attend me to-night. You did so once in state before, 
€uid as it is not a matter of pleasure^ but of duty, I am sure you 
will at once feel that you can have no scruple. 

Whenever the Mistress of the Robes does not attend, I 
always have three ladies, as they must take turns in standing 
behind me. Ever yours affectionately, Victobia R. 

Queen Victoria to Viscount Palmerston. 

WINDSOR Castlb, ISth November 1800. 

The Queen is exceedingly sorry to hear that Lord West- 
morland 3 is gone, as she was particularly anxious to have seen 
him before his return to Berlin, and to have talked to him on 
the present critical events in Germany ; but she quite forgot 
the day of his departure. What is the object of his seeing 
the President at Paris ? and whi^t are his instructions with 
regard to Germany ? ^ 

Having invariably encouraged Constitutional development in 
other countries, . . . and having at the beginning of the great 
movement in 1S47, which led to all the catastrophes of the 
following years, sent a Cabinet Minister to Italy to declare to 

1 Frances, Countess of Gainsborough, daoghter of the third Earl of Boden, a Lady of 
the Bedchamber, and known till 1841 as Lady Barham. 

3 Minister at Berlin. 

3 Lord Palmerston may have had this letter of the Queen's in mind when he wrote on 
the 22nd of November to Lord Cowley : ** Her (i.e. Prussia's) partisans try to miake oat 
that the contest between her and Austria is a struggle between constitutional aod 
arbitral^ Goyemment, but it is no such thing." Ashley's Life of Lord Falmertton, Yol I 
chap. yi. 


all Italian states that England would project them from Austria 
if she should attempt by threats and violence to debar them 
from the aUaimnent of their Constitutional development, con- 
sistency would require that we should now, when that great 
straggle is at its end and despotism is to be re-imposed by 
Austrian arms upon Germany, throw our weight into the scale 
of Constitutional Prussia and Germany. . . . The Queen is 
afraid, however, that all our Ministers abroeui, — at Berlin, 
Dresden, Mimich, Stuttgart, Hanover, etc. (with the exception 
of Lord Cowley at Frankfort) — are warm partisans of the 
despotic league against Prussia and a German Constitution and 
for the mcdntenance of the old Diet under Austrian and Russian 
influence. Ought not Lord Palmerston to make his agents 
understand that their sentiments axe at variance with those 
of the English Government ? and that they are doing serious 
mischdef if they express them at Courts which have already 
©very inclination to follow their desperate course ? 

Lord Palmerston is of course aware that the old Diet once 
reconstituted and recognised, one of the main laws of it is that 
** no organic change can be made without unanimity of voices," 
which was the cause of the nullity of that body from 1820 to 
1848, and will now enable Austria, should Prussia and her 
confederates recognise the Diet, to condemn Germany to a 
farther life of stagnation or new revolution. 

Viscount Palmerston to Queen Victoria. 

FOREiaN QpnCE, 18/A November 1850. 

Viscount Palmerston presents his humble duty to your 
Majesty. With respect to the maintenance of Constitutional 
€k>vemment in Germany, Viscoimt Palmerston entirely sub- 
scribes to your Majesty's opinion, that a regard for consistency, 
as well B& a sense of right and justice, ought to lead your 
Majesty's Government to give to the Constitutional principle 
in Germany the same moral support which they endeavoured 
to afford it in Italy, Spain, Portugal, and elsewhere ; but 
though he is conscious that he may be deceived and may think 
better of the Austrian Government in this respect than it de- 
serves, yet he cannot persuade himself that rational and soimd 
Constitutional Government is at present in danger in Germany, 
or that the Austrian Government, whatever may be their in- 
clination and wishes, can think it possible in the present day 
to re-estabhsh despotic government in a nation so enlightened, 
and so attached to free institutions as the German people now 
is. The danger for Germany seems to lie rather in the opposite 


direction, arising from the rash and weak precipitation with 
which in 1848 and 1849 those Governments which before had 
refused everything resolved in a moment of alarm to grant 
everything, and, passing trom one extreme to the other, ihrew 
universal sufiErage among people who had been, some wholly 
and others very much, unaccustomed to the working of re- 
presentative Government. The French have found universal 
suffrage incompatible with good order even in a Republic; 
what must it be for a Monarchy ? 

Viscount Palmerston would, moreover, beg to submit that 
the conflict between Austria and Prussia can scarcely be said 
to have turned upon principles of Grovemment so much as 
upon a struggle for political ascendency in Grermany. At 
Berlin, at Dresden, and in Baden the Prussian Grovemment 
has very properly no doubt employed military force to re- 
establish order ; and in regard to the affairs of Hesse, the ground 
taken by Prussia was not so much a constitutional as a military 
one, and the objection which she made to the entrance of the 
troops of the Diet was that those troops might become hostile, 
and that they ought not, therefore, to occupy a central position 
in the line of military defence of Prussia,. 

The remark which your Majesty makes as to unanimity 
being required for certain purposes by the Diet regulations is 
no doubt very just, and that circvunstance certainly shows that 
the free Conference which is about to be held is a better con- 
structed body for planning a new arrangement of a central 

Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians, 

Windsor Castle, 22nd November 1850. 

My deakest Uncle, — ^Accept my best thanks for your kind 
letter of the 17th, and the dear little English one from dear 
little Charlotte, which is so nicely written, and shows such an 
amiable disposition. I send her to-day a little heart for the 
hair of our blessed Angel, which I hope she will often wear. 
Our girls have all got one. I have written to the dear child. 
You should have the dear children as much with you as possible ; 
I am sure it would be so good and useful for you and them. 
Children ought to have great confidence in their parents, in 
order for them to have any influence over them. 

Yesterday Vicky was ten years old. It seems a dreeun. If 
she lives, in eight years more she may be married ! She is a 
very clever child, and I must say very much improved. 

1 War was staved off by the Conference ; out the relative predominance of 
and Austria in Germany was left undecided for some years to come. 


The state of the Continent is deplorable ; the folly of 
Austria and the giving way of Prussia are lamentable. Our 
Snfiuence on the Continent is nviJIl, . . , Add to this, we are 
between two fires in this country : a furious Protestant feeling 
and an enraged Catholic feehng in Ireland. I believe that 
Austria fems the flame at Rome, and that the whole movement 
on the Continent is anti-ConstitiUional, anti-Protestant, and 
onH-EngHah ; and this is so complicated, and we have (thanks 
to Lord Pcdmerston) contrived to quarrel so happUy, separately 
with each, that I do not know how we are to stand against 
it all! 

I must now conclude. Trusting soon to hear from you again. 
Ever your devoted Niece, Victoria R. 

My longing for dearest Louise seems only to increase as time 
goes on. 

Queen Victoria to the Duchess of Norfolk, 

Windsor Castle, 22nd November 1850. 

My deab Duchess, — ^It is very remiss in me not to have 
sooner answered your letter with the enclosure, but I received 
it at a moment of great grief, and since then I have been much 

I fully understand your anxiety relative to the proceedings 
of the Roman Catholic Clergy, but I trust that there is no real 
danger to be apprehended from that quarter, the more so as 
I believe they see that they have been misled and misinformed 
as to the feehng of this country by some of the new converts to 
their religion. The real danger to be apprehended, and what 
I am certedn ha^s led to these proceedings on the part of the 
Pope, lies in our own divisions, and in the extraordinary con- 
duct of the Puseyites. I trust that the eyes of mcmy may now 
be opened. One would, however, much regret to see any acts 
of intolerance towards the many innocent people who I 
believe entirely disapprove the injudicious conduct of their 

Hoping that you are all well, beHeve me, always, yours 
affectionately, Victobia R. 

Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians. 

Windsor Castle, 29<A November 1860. 

My deabest Uncle, — ^I have no dear letter to answer, but 
write to keep to the dear day, rendered so peculiarly dear to 
me by the recollection of our dearly beloved Louise. 

278 STATE OF GERMANY [chap. 

We are well, but much troubled with numberless thingsl 
Our religious troubles are great, and I must just say that 
Cardinal Wiseman himself admits that Austria not only ap- 
proves the conduct of the Pope but is urging on the Proper 
ganda, I know this to be so. Our great difficulty must be» 
and will be, to steer clear of both parties — the violent Pro- 
testants and the Roman Catholics. We wish in no way to 
infringe the rights of the Roman Catholics, while we must 
protect and uphold our own religion. 

We have seen Greneral Radowitz,i with whom we have been 
much interested ; his accoimts are very clear and very able, 
and T must say, very fair and strictly constitutionaL You 
know him, I suppose ? Might I again ask, dearest Uncle, if 
you would like to have a copy of Ross's picture of our angel 
Louise or of Winterhalter's ? 

Lady Lyttelton, who is returned, is very anxious in her 
enquiries after you. 

I must now conclude, my dearest Uncle. Ever your 
devoted Niece, Victoria R. 

Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians. 

WINDSOR Castlb, Srd December I860. 

My beloved Uncle, — ^Two of your dear letters are before 
me, of the 29th November and of yesterday. Li the former 
you give me a promise, which I consider most valuable, and 
which I shall remind you of if you get desponding, viz. " I will 
to please you labour on, and do all the good I can" It is so 
pleasing to feel that one does good and does one's duty. It 
sweetens so many bitter trials. 

The state of Germany is indeed a very anxious one. It is a 
mistake to think the supremacy of Prussia is what is unshed for. 
General Radowitz himself says that what is necessary for Ger- 
many [is] that she should take the lead, and should redeem the 
pledges given in '48. Unless this be done in a moderate and 
determined way, a fearful reaction will take plarce, which will 
overturn Thrones ; to use Radowitz's own words : " und nicht 
vor dem Thron stehen bleiben.'' Prussia is the only large and 
powerful really German Power there is, and therefore she must 
take the lead ; but her constant vacillation — one day doing 
one thing and another day another — has caused her to be 
entirely distrusted. You are quite right in saying things 
should be done d'un commun accord, and I think that the other 

1 General Radowitz, who had been Minister for Foreign Affairs in Proasla, bad foA 
arrived in England on a fecial mission from the King of Frossia. 


great Powers ought to be consulted. Unfortunately, Lord 
Pcdfnerston has contrived to make us so hated by all parties 
abroad, that we have lost our position and our influence, 
which, considering the flourishing and satisfactory state of this 
country during all the Europeaji convulsions, otight to have 
been immenae. This it is which pains and grieves me so deeply, 
and which I have so plainly been speaking to Lord John 
Russell about. What a noble position we might have had, and 
how wantonly has it been thrown away ! 

Gk>od Stockmar is well, and always of the greatest comfort 
and use to us. His judgment is so sound, so unbieissed, and so 
dispassionate. Ever your devoted Niece,. Victoria R. 

Queeth Victoria to Lord John, RusaeU. 

Windsor Oastle, Sth December 1850. 

The Queen received Lord John Russell's letter and the dr£^t 
yesterday. He must be a better judge of what the effect of 
Mr Shell's ^ presence in Rome may be than she can ; but for 
her own part, she thinks it entirely against her notions of what 
is becoming to ask the Pope for a favour (for it is tantamount 
to that) at a moment when his name is being vilified and abused 
in every possible manner in this country. It strikes the Queen 
as an undignified course for this Government to pursue. 

The Queen is glad to hear of what passed between the Arch- 
bishop and Lord John.^ She trusts that something may be 
done, as the desire for it seems to be so great. On the other 
hand, the Queen deeply regrets the great abuse of the Roman 
Catholic religion which takes place at all these meetings, etc. 
She thinks it unchristian and unwise, and trusts that it will soon 

Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians. 

Windsor Castle, lOth December 1850. 

My beloved Uncle, — ^My letter must, I fear, be a somewhat 
hurried and short one, for my morning has been taken up in 
receiving in state Addresses from the City and Universities 
about this unfortunate " Papal Aggression " business, which is 
still keeping people in a feverish state of wild excitement.^ One 
good effect it has had, viz. that of directing people's serious 

1 Minister at the Court of Toacanv. 

2 The Government were preparing for the introduction of their Ecclesiastical Titles Bill. 

3 These Addresses were presented at Windsor, Prince Albert and the Duke of Wellington 
rq;>resenting the Universities of Cambridge and Oxford. 

280 LADY PEEL [chap, xts 

attention to the very alarming tendency of the Tractarians, 
which was doing immense hairni. . . . 

Manj^, many thanks for your two dear and kind letters of the 
6th and of yesterday. All you say about Louise, and about 
the disappearance for ever of aU that she loved and was proud 
of, is so true, so dreadful. One fancies (foolishly and wrongly, 
but still one does) that the lost one has been hardly used in no 
longer enjo3dng these earthly blessings, and one's grief seems to 
break out afresh in bitter agony upon smM and comparatively 
trifling occeisions. Poor Lady Peel (whom I saw for the first 
time yesterday at Buckingham Palace, whither I had gone for 
an hour) expressed this strongly. Hers is indeed a broken 
heart ; she is so truly crushed by the agony of her grief ; it was 
very touching to see and to hear her. Poor thing ! she never 
can be happy again ! 

What you say about me is far too kind. I am very often 
sadly dissatisfied with myself and with the little self-control I 

Your long letter interested us much. I fear the German 
affairs are very bad. . . . That everlasting '* backwards and 
forwards,'* as you say, of my poor friend the King of Prussia is 
calamitous ; it causes all parties to distrust him, and gives real 
strength only to the Republicans. Since '48 that has been his 
conduct, and the misfortune for Germany. A steady course, 
whatever it may be, is always the best. 

What you say about poor H61dne ^ and France is true €Uid sad. 
I really wish you would caution H61dne as to her lajiguage ; 
she is much attached to you. I pity her very much ; her 
position is very trying, and her religion renders it more difficult 

I must now end my letter. I grieve to hear of your going 
alone to Ardenne ; it is bad for you to be alone, and your poor 
children also ought not to be alone. Ever your devoted Niece, 


Lord John Russell to Queen Victoria. 

COWNINQ Stbeet, llih December 185a 

Lord John Russell presents his humble duty to your Majesty^ 
and has the honour to state that the Cabinet to-day considered 
at great length the question of the steps to be taken in respect 
to the Papal Aggression. 

The inclination of the majority was not to prosecute, but to 
bring a Bill into Parliament to make the assimiption of any 

1 The Dachess of Orleans. 


titles of archbishop, etc., of any plsrce in the United Kingdom 
illegal, and to make emy gift of property conveyed mider such 
title null and void. 

Queen Victoria to the Dtcchess of Oloitcester. 

Windsor Castle, 12th December 1850. 

My deab Aunt, — ^Many thanks for your kind letter ; you 
are quite right not to distress the Duchess of Cambridge by 
mentioning to her what I wrote to you about the Bishop of 
London.^ I am glad that you are pleased with my answers to 
the Addresses ; I thought them very proper.' 

I would never have consented to say anything which breathed 
a spirit of intolerance. Sincerely Protestant as I always have 
been and always shall be, and indignant as I am at those who 
caU themaelvea Protestants, while they in fact are quite the 
contrary, I much regret the unchristian and intoleremt spirit 
exhibited by many people at the public meetings. I cajinot 
bear to hear the violent abuse of the Catholic religion, which 
is so painful cmd cruel towards the many good cmd innocent 
Roman Catholics. However, we must hope and trust this 
excitement will soon ceeise, and that the wholesome effect of 
it on our own Church will be the lasting result of it. Ever 
yours ... Victoria R. 

Queen Victoria to Lord John Russell. 

WINDSOR CASTLB, lUh December 185a 

The Queen has received Lord John Russell's letter of yester- 
day. She sanctions the introduction into Parliament of a Bill 
framed on the principles agreed upon at yesterday's Cabinet, 
presuming that it will extend to the whole United Kingdom. 
What is to be done, however, with respect to the Colonies where 
the Roman Catholic bishoprics are recognised by the Govern- 
ment under territorial titles ? and what is to be done with 
Dr Cullen, who has assumed the title of Archbishop of Armagh, 
Primate of all Ireland, which is pimishable under the Emanci- 
pation Act ? If this is left unnoticed, the Government will 
be left with the " lame " argimient in Parliament of which we 
conversed here. Could the Government not be helped out of 
this difficulty by the Primate himself prosecuting the obtruder ? 
The Queen hopes that the meeting of the archdeacons with 

1 The Bishop of London had taken the same view as Lord John Baseell of the Fi^ 
action, though thej had disagreed over the Gorham controversy. 
' See onto, p. 279. 

282 RITUALISM [chap, m 

Dr Lushington may do some good ; she camiot Ray that she 
is pleased with the Archbishop's answer to the laity published 
in to-day's Times, which leaves them without a remedy if the 
clergymen persist in Puseyite Rituals ! The Queen will return 
Lord Minto's letter with the next messenger. 

Queen Victoria to Lord John Russell. 

Windsor Castle, 22nd December 1850. 

The Queen now returns Lord Seymour's letter respecting 
the New Forest, and sanctions the proposed arrangement. 
Considering, however, that she gives up the deer, and all 
patronage and authority over the Forest, she wishes the shoot- 
ing, as the only remaining Royalty, not to be withdrawn from 
her authority also. It will be quite right to give Deputations^ 
to shoot over the various divisions and walks of the Forest to 
gentlemen of the neighbourhood or others ; but in ordw tiiat 
this may establish no right on their part, cmd may leave the 
Sovereign a voice in the matter, she wishes that a fist be pre- 
pared every year of the persons recommended by the (Mfioe 
of Woods to receive Deputations and submitted for ,her 

1 A deputation, t.e., a deputed rigbt to take game. 


The Ministry were in diflSculties at the very beginning of the 
session ( 1851 ), being nearly defeated on a motion made in the interest 
of the agricultural party ; €bnd though the Ecclesiastical Titles Bill 
was allowed to be brought in, they were beaten in a thin House 
rfiiefly by their own friends, on the question of the County Frsinchise. 
A crisis ensued, and a coalition of Whigs €bnd Feelites w£is attempted, 
but proved impracticable. Lord Stanley having then failed to form 
a Protectionist Ministry, the Whigs, much weakened, had to resume 

*■ The Exhibition, which was opened in Hyde Park on the 1st of May, 
was a complete success, a brilliant triumph indeed, for the Prince, 
over six million people visiting it ; it remained open till the Autumn, 
and the building, some time after its removal, was re-erected at 
Sy46nham, at the Crystal Palace. 

The Ecclesiastical Titles Bill, much modified, was proceeded with, 
and, though opposed by the ablest Peelites and Radicals, became law, 
though its effect, while in operation, was virtually nil. It was in 
after-years repealed. 

Kossuth, the champion of Hungarian independence, visited Eng- 
land in October, and Lord Palmerston had to be peremptorily 
restrained from receiving him publicly at the Foreign OflBce. A 
little later, Kossuth's ultra-liberal sympathisers in London addressed 
the Foreign Secretary in language violently denunciatory of the 
Emperors of Austria €bnd Russia^ for which Lord Palmerston failed 
to rebuke them. The cup was filled to the brim by his recognition 
of the President's cowp d^etcU in France. Louis Napoleon, after 
arresting M. Thiers and many others, proclaimed the dissolution of 
the Council of State €ind the National Assembly, decreed a state of 
siege, and re-established universal suffrage, with a Chief Magistrate 
elected for ten years, and a Ministry depending on the executive 
alone. Palmerston thereupon, though professing an intention of 
non-interference, conveyed to the French Ambassador in London 
his full approbation of the proceeding, and his conviction that the 
President could not have acted otherwise. Even after this indis- 
creet action, the Premier found some difficulty in bringing him to 
book ; but before the end of the year he was dismissed from office, 
with the offer, which he declined, of the Irish Lord-Lieutenancy and 
a British Peerage. Greatly to the Queen's satisfaction. Lord 
Granville became Foreign Secretary. 

At the Cape, Sir Harry Smith was engaged in operations against 
the Kaffirs, which were not brought to a successful termination till 
the following year, when General Cathcart had superseded him. 




Queen Victoria to Lord John Russell. 

Windsor Castle, 25th January 1851. 
The Queen approves of the elevation of Mr Pemberton 
Leigh 1 to the Peerage, which she considers a very useful 
measure, and not likely to lead to any permanent increase of 
the Peerage, as he is not likely to marry at his present age, and 
considering that he has only a life interest in his large property. 

With regard to the creation of Dr Lushington^ as a Peer, 
without remainder, the Queen has ageun thoroughly considered 
the question, and is of opinion that the estabHslmient of the 
principle of creation for life — ^in cases where public advaiitage 
•may be derived from the grcmt of a Peerage, but where there 
may be no fortune to support the dignity in the family — Is 
most desirable. The mode in which the public will take the 
introduction of it will however chiefly depend upon the merits 
of the first case brought forward. Dr Lushington appecurs to 
the Queen so unobjectionable in this respect that she cannot but 
approve of the experiment being tried with him. 

It would be well, however, that it should be done quietly ; 
that it should not be talked about beforehand or get into the 
papers, which so frequently happens on occasions of this kind, 
and generally does harm. 

Queen Victoria to Viscount Palmerston, 

Windsor Castle, 31^ January 1851. 

The Queen has received Lord Palmerston's letter of the 29th, 

in which he proposes a change in those diplomatic arrangements 

which she had already sanctioned on his recommendation, and 

must remark that the reasons which Lord Palmerston adduces 

1 Member of Parliament for Rye 1831-1832, and Ripon 1836-1843, afterwards a mem- 
ber of the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council : he became a Peer (Lord Kingsdown) 
in 1858, haying declined a peerage on the present and other occasions. 

2 Dr Lushington was iudige of the Admiralty Court : he had been cocmsel for, and an 
executor of, Queen Caroline. He declined the offer now suggested, and the sobseqneDt 
debates on the Wensleydale Peerage show that the proposed grant would have been in- 
effectual for its purpose. 



in support of his present proposition axe in direct contradiction 
to those by which he supported his former reconunendation.^ 
The principle which the Queen would wish to see acted upon 
in her diplomatic appointments in general, is, that the good of 
Ihe service should precede every other consideration, and that 
the selection of an agent should depend more on his personal 
qualifications for the particular post for which he is to be selected 
than on the mere pleeisure and convenience of the person to be 
employed, or of the Minister recommending him. 

According to Lord Palmerston*s first proposal, Sir H. Sey- 
mour was to have gone to St Petersburg, Lord Bloomfield to 
Berlin, and Sir Richard Pakenham to Lisbon ; now Lord 
Palmerston wishes to send Lord Cowley to St Petersburg. 

The Queen has the highest opinion of Lord Cowley's abilities, 
and agrees with Lord Palmerston in thinking that Russia will, 
for some time at least, exercise a predominating influence over 
all European affairs. She would accordingly not object to see 
that Agent accredited there in whom she herself places the 
greatest confidence. But according to the same principle, she 
must insist that the posts of Berlin and Frankfort, which in her 
opinion are of nearly equal importance, should be filled by men 
•capable of dealing with the complicated and dangerous political 
questions now in agitation there, and the just appreciation and 
judicious treatment of which are of the highest importance to 
the peace of Europe, and therefore to the welfare of England. 
Before the Queen therefore decides upon Lord Palmerston's 
new proposals, she wishes to know whom he could recommend 
for the post of Frankfort in the event of Lord Cowley leaving it, 
and thinks it but right to premise that in giving her sanction to 
the proposals Lord Palmerston may have to submit, she will 
336 guided entirely by the principle set forth above. 

Lord John Rv^sdl to Queen Victoria. 

CHESHAM PlACB, 12/A January 1851. 

Lord John Russell presents his hmnble duty to your Majesty, 
and has the honour to state that Mr Disraeli brought forward 
his Motion yesterday.' His speech W6w long and elaborate, but 
not that of a man who was persuaded he was undertaking a 
good cause. 

He proposed nothing specific, but said nothing offensive. 

The doubts about the division increase. Mr Hayter reckoned 

1 Lord Palmerston had altered his mind as to certain proposed diplomatic changes, and 
soggeeted the appointment of Sir Hamilton Seymour to Benin, Lord Bloomfield to Lisbon, 
Lord Cowley to Petersburg, Mr Jemingham, Sir Henry Ellis, or Sir Richard Pakenham 
4o Ftankfort. 

^ On agricultural distress ; the Motion was lost by fourteen only in a large House. 


yesterday on a majority of three ! Sir James Graham is of 
opinion Lord Stanley Will not undertake anything desperate. 
He will speak in favour of Government to-morrow, whusn the 
division will probably take place. 

Queen Victoria to Viscount Palmerston. 

BucKoroHAX Pal^cb, 15a FdfTuarw 1851. 
The Queen has received Lord Palmerston's letter of yesterday, 
and has to state in answer her decision in favour of the original 
plan of appointments, viz. of Sir H. Seymour to Petersburg, 
Lord Bloomfield to Berlin, and Sir R. Pakenham to Ldsbon. 
The Queen quite agrees with Lord Palmerston in the opinion 
that the post at Petersburg is more important than that of 
Frankfort, and had Lord Palmerston been able to propose a 
good successor to Lord Cowley she would have approved his 
going to Petersburg ; Sir R. Pakenham, however, would not 
take Frankfort if offered to him, as it appecurs, and the two other 
persons proposed would not do for it, in the Queen's opinion. 
It must not be forgotten that at a place for action like Peters- 
burg, the Minister will chiefly have to look to his instructions 
from home, while at a place of observation, as Lord Palmerston 
justly calls Frankfort, everything depends upon the acuteneas 
and impartiality of the observer, and upon the confidence with 
which he may be able to inspire those from whom alone accurate 
information can be obtained. Lord Cowley possesses eminently 
these qualities, and Sir H. Seymour has at all times shown him- 
self equal to acting under most difficult circumstances. The 
desire of the Emperor to see Lord Cowley at Petersburg may 
possibly resolve itself in the desire of Baron Brunnow to see him 

removed from Germany The Queen had always understood 

that Sir H. Seymour would be very ax3ceptable to the Emperor, 
and that Count Nesselrode called him a diplomatist " de la 
bonne vieille roche." 

Memorandum by Queen Victoria. 

BUCEINQHAM PALACE, llth February 186L 

Lord John Russell came at half -past three. He had had a 
long conversation with Sir James Graham, had stated to him 
that from the tone of his speech (which Lord John explained 
to us yesterday was of so very friendly a character and pointed 
directly to supporting the Government) — ^its friendliness, and 
the manner in which he advocated the union of those who 
opposed a return to Protection, that he proposed to him to 
join the Government ; that Sir G. Grey had offered to resign 


bis office in order that Sir J. Graham might have it. Before 
[ go farther I ought to say that Lord John yesterday explained 
the importance of obtaining support like Sir J. Graham's in the 
[Cabinet, and that he thought of proposing the Board of Control 
to him, which Sir J. Hobhouse was ready to give up — ^receiving 
i, Peerage, and retaining a seat in the Cabinet or the Admiralty, 
^hich Sir F. Baring was equally ready to give up. 

Well, Sir J. Graham said that before he answered he wished 
x> show Lord John a correspondence which had passed between 
lim and Lord Londonderry. In the course of conversation in 
;he country. Sir James had said to Lord Londonderry that 
parties never could go on as they were, and that they must 
iltimately lapse into two ; this, Lord Londonderry reported to 
VLr Disraeli, who told it to Lord Stanley ; and Mr Disraeli 
wrote to Lord Londonderry, stating that if certain advantages 
lad reliefs were given to the landed interests, he should not 
ding to Protection ; in short, much what he said in his speech 
—end that he was quite prepared to give up the lead in the 
Sotise of Commons to Sir J. Graham. Sir James answered 
iiat he never meant anything by what he had said, and that 
le had no wish whatever to join Lord Stanley ; that if he had, 
le was so intimate with Lord Stanley that he would have 
communicated direct with him. 

Sir James said that as soon as he heard from Lord John, he 
ihought what he wished to see him for, and that he had been 
thinking over it, and had been talking to Lord Hardinge and 
i£r Cardwell. That he did wish to support the Government, 
mt that he thought he could be of more use if he did not join 
he Government, and was able to give them an independent 
upport ; that he had not attempted to lead Sir Robert Peel's 
oUowers ; that many who had followed Sir Robert would not 
bllow him ; that he thought the Government in great danger ; 
liat the Protectionists, Radicals, and Irish Members would try 
» take an opportimity to overset them (the Government) ; 
ihat should the Government be turned out, he would find no 
lifficulty in joining them ; or should they go on, that by-and- 
)y it might be easier to do so ; but that at this moment he 
hiould be injuring himself without doing the Government any 
•eal service ; besides which, there were so many measures 
lecided on which he was ignorant of, and shoiild have to 
it^port. Lord John told him that were he in the Cabinet, he 
^oiild have the means of stating and enforcing his opinions, 
ucid that at whatever time he joined them, there would always 
)e the same difficulty about measures which had already been 
iecided on. He (Sir James) is not quite satisfied with the 
?apal Aggression Bill, which he thinks will exasperate the Irish ; 


he also adverted to the report of our having protested i^amst 
Austria bringing her Italian Provinces, etc., into the Grerman 
Confederation. Lord John told him that this had not been 
done, but that we meant to ask for explanations. 

In short, Lord John said it was evident that Sir James 
thought the Government in great danger, and *' did not wish 
to embark in a boat which was going to sink." Still* he was 
friendly, and repeated that it would be very easy when in 
opposition to imite, and then to come in together. 


Lord John Russell to Queen Victoria, 

Chbsham Plaob, 2Ut Fdmutry 1851. 

Lord John Russell presents his humble duty to your Majesty, 
and has the honour to report that on a motion of Mr Locke 
King's ^ yesterday the Government was defeated by a hundred 
to fifty-two. 

This is another circumstance which makes it probable the 
Ministry cannot endure long. The Tories purposely stayed 

Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians. 

BucEXNGHAM Palace, 21st February ^XSL 

My dbabest Uncle, — ^I have only time just to write a few 
hasty lines to you from Stockmar's room, where I came up to 
speak to Albert and him, to tell you that we have got 8 
Ministerial crisis ; the Ministers were in a great minority last 
night, and though it was not a question vUal to the Govern- 
ment, Lord John feels the support he has received so meagre, 
and the opposition of so many parties so great, that he mast 
resign / This is very bad, because there is no chance of any 
other good Government, poor Peel being no longer alive, and 
not one man of talent except Lord Stanley in the Party ; . . . 
but Lord John is right not to go on when he is so ill supported, 
and it will raise him as a political man, and will strengthen his 
position for the future. 

Whether Lord Stanley (to whom I must send to-morrow 
after the Government have resigned) will be able to form a 
Government or not, I cannot tell. Altogether, it is very 
vexatious, and will give us trouble. It is the more provokiogi 
as this coimtry is so very prosperous. 

On Tuesday I hope to be able to say more. . . 

With Albert's love, ever your truly devoted Niece, 

Victoria B. 

1 For equalising the Ooont j and the Boroogh franchise. 


M&motandium by the Prince Albert, 

BUCKINQHAM Falacb, 22nd February 1851. 

Lord John Russell having been for a few minutes with the 
Queen, in order to prepare her for the possibility of the 
Government's resignation (yesterday, at two o'clock), went to 
Downing Street to meet the Cabinet, and promised to return 
at four in order to communicate the decision the Cabinet might 
have arrived at. On his return he explcdned that after the 
vote at the beginning of the Session on the Orders of the Day, 
which went directly against the Government, after the small 
majority (only fourteen) which they had on the motion of 
Mr Disraeli on the landed interest, and now the defeat on 
the Franchise, it was clear that the Government did not 
possess the confidence of the House of Commons. He com- 
jdained of the Protectionists staying away in a body on Mr 
King's motion, and he (Lord John) himself being left without 
a supporter even eunongst his colleagues in the debate, but 
most of all of the conduct of the Radicals ; for when Mr King, 
hearing Lord John's promise to bring in a measure next 
Session, wanted to withdraw his Motion, as he ought to have 
done on such a declaration by the head of the Government, 
Mr Hume insisted upon his going on, " else Lord John would 
withdraw his promise agcdn in a fortnight " ; and when the 
result of the vote was made known the shouting and triumph 
of the hundred was immense. 

Lord John had declared to the Cabinet that he could not go 
on, that the Income Tax would have to be voted the next day, 
and a defeat was probable; it were much better therefore 
not to hesitate, and to resign at once. The Cabinet agreed, 
although some Members thought with Lord Palmerston that 
the occasion was hardly sufficient. Lord John begged to be 
allowed till to-day, in order to see Lord Lansdowne, whom he 
had sent for from the country, and to be able to tender then 
his resignation ; he would go down to the House to adjourn it, 
promising explanations on Monday. 

We a^eed with Lord John that he owed to his station per- 
sonally, fiuid as the Queen's Minister, not to put up with igno- 
minious treatment, praised his speech on the Suffrage, which is 
admirable, and regretted that his colleagues had prevented him 
from bringing in a measure this year. We talked of the diffi- 
culty of forming any Government, but agreed that Lord 
Stanley and the Protection Party ought to be appealed to ; 
they longed for office, and would not rest quiet till they had 
had it if for ever so short a time only. 

We further went over the ground of a possible demand for a 

VOL. n 10 


Dissolution, which might bring on a general commotion in the 
country. Lord John agreed in this, but thought the responsi- 
bility to be very great for the Crown to refuse an appeal to the 
country to the new Government ; he thought a decision on that 
point ought to depend on the peculiar circvimstances of the case. 

Lord Lansdowne, who had come from Bowood by the express 
train, arrived at twelve o'clock, and came at once to meet 
Lord John Russell here at the Palace. 

In the audience which the Queen gave him he expressed his 
entire concurrence with the decision the Cabinet had come to, 
as the resignation could at any rate only have been delayed 
It was clear that the Cabinet had lost the confidence of the 
House of Commons ; what had happened the other night was 
only the last drop which made the cup flow over, and that it 
was much more dignified not to let the Government die a 
lingering and ignominious death ; he [thought] that Lord 
Stanley would have great difficulties, but would be able to 
form a Government ; at least the Protectionist Party gave 
out that they had a Cabinet prepared. 

We then saw Lord John RusseU, who formally tendered hk 
resignation, and was very much moved on taiong leave ; he 
said that, considering Lord Stanley's principles, it would not 
be possible for him to hold out any hope of support to that 
Government, except on the estimates for which he felt respon- 
sible, but he would at all times be ready vigorously to defend 
the Crown, which was in need of every support in these days. 

At three o'clock came Lord Stanley, whom the Queen had 

The Queen informed him of the resignation of the Grovem- 
ment, in consequence of the late vote, which had been the 
result of the Protectionists staying away, of the small majority 
which the Government had had upon Mr Disraeli's Motion, 
and of the many symptoms of want of confidence exhibited 
towards the Government in the House of Commons. The 
Queen had accepted their resignation, and had sent for him as 
the head of that Party, which was now the most numerous in 
Opposition, in order to ask him whether he could undertake 
to form a Government. 

Lord Stanley expressed great surprise. The impression had 
been that the Government had not been in earnest in their 
opposition to Mr L. King's Motion ; in the minority had voted 
only twenty-seven members of the Government side, the rest 
had been of his Party. He asked if the whole Cabinet had 
resigned, or whether there had been dissension in the Cabinet 
upon it ? The Queen replied that the resignation had been 
unanimously agreed upon in the Cabinet, and that Lord Lans- 


downe, who had only come up from Bowood this morning, had 
given his entire approval to it. Lord Stanley then asked 
whether €uiybody else had been consulted or applied to, to 
which the Queen replied that she had written to him a few 
minutes after Lord John's resignation, and had communicated 
with no one else. Lord Stanley then said that he hoped the 
Queen's acceptance had only been a conditional one ; that he 
felt very much honoured by the Queen's confidence ; that he 
hoped he might be able to tender advice which might contri- 
bute to the Queen's comfort, and might relieve the present 

In order to be able to do so he must enter most freely and 
openly into his own position and that of his Party. It was 
quite true that they formed the most numerous in Parliament 
after the supporters of what he hoped he might still call the 
present Government, but that there were no men contained in 
it who combined great ability with experience in public busi- 
ness. There was one certainly of great ability and talent — 
Mr Disraeli — ^but who had never held office before, and perhaps 
Mr Herries, who possessed great experience, but who did not 
commsuid great authority in the House of Commons ; that he 
should have great difficulties in presenting to the Queen a 
Gk>vemment fit to be accepted, unless he could join with some 
of the late Sir R. Peel's followers ; that he considered, for 
instance, the appointment of a good person for Foreign Affairs 
indispensable, €Uid there was scarcely any one fit for it except 
Lord Palmerston €uid Lord Aberdeen. Lord Aberdeen had 
told him that he had no peculiar views upon Free Trade, and 
that he did not pretend to understand the question, but that 
he had felt it his duty to stand by Sir R. Peel ; this might now 
be different, but it ought first to be ascertained whether a 
combination of those who agreed in principle, and had only 
been kept asunder hitherto by personal considerations, could 
not be formed ; that Sir James Graham had in his last speech 
declared it 843 his opinion that the ranks of those who agreed 
ought to be closed ; when such a combination had taken place, 
those of Sir R. Peel's followers who could not agree to it might 
not be unwilling to join him (Lord Stanley). As to his prin- 
ciples, he would frankly state that he thought that the landed 
interest was much depressed by the low state of prices ; that 
an import duty on com would be absolutely necessary, which, 
however, would be low, and only a revenue duty ; such a duty, 
he thought, the coimtry would be prepared for ; and if they 
were allowed to state their honest opinion, he felt sure the 
greatest part of the present Government would be heartily 
glad of. He would require Duties upon sugar for revenue. 


but he could not conceal that if the revenue after a diminution 
in the direct taxation, which he would propose, should con- 
siderably fall off, he might be driven to raise the Import duties 
on other articles. He thought the present House of Conmxons 
could hardly be expected to reverse its decision upon the 
financial and commercial policy of the country, and that 
CMScordingly a Dissolution of Parliament would become neces- 
sary. Such a Dissolution, however, could not be undertaken 
at this moment for the sake of public business. The Mutiny 
Bill had not been voted nor the Supplies, and it would require 
more than eight weeks before the new Parliament could be 
assembled, and consequently the Crown would be left without 
Army or money. A Dissolution could accordingly not take 
place before Easter. He felt, however, that if he were to take 
office now, he would between this cmd Easter be exposed to 
such harassing attacks that he should not be able to withstand 
them ; moreover, it woxild subject the members of his Grovem- 
ment to two elections in two months. He hoped therefore 
that the Queen would try to obtcun a Government by a coalition 
of the Whigs and PeeUtes, but that this failing, if the Queen 
should send again for him, €uid it was clear no other Govern- 
ment could be formed, he would feel it his duty as a loyal 
subject to risk everything, except his principles and his honour, 
to carry on the Government ; cmd he hoped that in such a case 
the Queen would look leniently on the composition of the 
Cabinet which he could offer, and that the country would, 
from the consideration of the circiunstances, give it a fair trial 
^e begged, however, that he might not be called upon to take 
office except as a dernier ressort, a necessity. 

I interrupted him when he spoke of his financial measures, 
and begged him further to explain, when it appeared that a 
duty of about six shillings on com was the least he could im- 
pose to bring up the price to forty-five shillings, which Sir R. 
Peel had stated to the House of Commons was in his opinion 
the lowest price wheat would fall to after the abolition of the 
Com Laws. 

We expressed our doubts as to the country agreeing to such 
a measure, and our apprehension of the violent spirit which 
would be roused in the working classes by a Dissolution for 
that purpose, which Lord Stfiualey, however, did not seem to 
apprehend ; on the contrary, he thought the distress of the 
farmers would lead to the destruction of the landed interest, 
which was the only support to the Throne. 

I told him that the Queen and certainly myself had been 
under a delusion, and that I was sure the country was equally 
so, as to his intention to return to Protection. Sometimes it 

1851] PROTECTION 293 

stated that Protection would be adhered to, sometimes 
that it was given up, and that it was compensation to the landed 
interest which the Protectionists looked to. His last speeches 
and the Motion of Mr Disraeli led to that belief, but that it was 
of the highest importance that the country should know exactly 
what was intended ; the Queen would then have an oppor- 
tunity of judging how the nation looked upon the proposal. 
I hoped therefore that the declaration of his opinions which 
Lord Stanley had now laid before the Queen would be clearly 
enunciated by him in Parliament when the Ministerial explana- 
tions should take place, which would naturally follow this crisis. 

Lord Stanley merely answered that he hoped that no ex- 
planations would take place before a Government was formed. 
He said he should wish the word " Protection " to be merged, 
to which I rejoined that though he might wish this, I doubted 
whether the country would let him. 

Before taking leave, he repeated over and over again his 
advice that the Coalition Ministry should be tried. Albebt. 

Queen Victoria to Lord Stanley. 

22nd February 1861. 

Li order to be able to be perfectly £iccmrate in stating Lord 
Stanley's opinions, which the Queen feels some delicacy in 
doing, she would be very thankful if he would write down for 
her what he just stated to her — as his advice in the present 
difficulty. Of course she would not let such a paper go out 
of her hands. 

Memorandum by the Prince Albert. 

Buckingham Palace, 2Zrd February 1851. 

Sir James Grahcun, who had been out of Town, came at six 
o'clock, having received my letter on his return. Lord John 
Russell had been here before that time. 

After having stated to him (Lord John) what had passed with 
Lord Stanley, we told him that Sir James Graham was here ; 
Lord John seemed much surprised at Lord Stanley's refusal to 
form an Administration, declared himself ready to do what 
he could towards the formation of a new Government on an 
extended basis, but thought that Sir James Graham and Lord 
Aberdeen should have the first offer. 

I went accordingly over to my room, where Sir James was 
waiting. He was entirely taken by surprise by the announce- 
ment of the resignation of the Government, and begged to be 
able to state to me how he was situated before he saw the 
Queen and Lord John. 

294 SIR JAMES GRAHAM [chap, xx 

I then communicated to him what had passed with Lord 
Stanley, upon which we had a conversation of more than an 
hour, of which the chief features were : 

1. Apprehension on the part of Sir James Graham lest the 
attempt on the part of Lord Stanley to re-impose Protective 
duties should produce imiversal commotion in the country, 
which would be increased by the Dissolution, without which 
Lord Stanley would not be able to proceed. 

2. His disbelief that Lord Aberdeen would be able to joiii 
in any Government abandoning Sir R. Peel's principles, as he 
had been consulted before and after Sir James's late speech 
in which he expressed his entire concurrence. 

3. His own utter wesikness, calling himself the weakest man 
in England, who had lost his only friend in Sir R. Peel, and 
had for the last fifteen years not exercised an independent 
judgment, but rested entirely on his friend. 

4. His disagreement with some of his late colleagues — ^the 
Duke of Newcastle, Mr Gladstone, and Mr Sidney Herbert— 
in religious opinions. 

6. His disagreement with Lord John's Government upim 
some most important points. 

He could not take office with Lord Palmerston as Foreign 
Secretary, whose policy and mode of conducting business he 
disapproved, who was now protesting against the admission of 
Austria into the Germcm Confederation ; he disapproved the 
Papal Aggression Bill, finding it militating against the line 
which he had taken as Secretary of State with regard to the 
Roman Catholic Bishops in Lreland, and particularly the 
Bequest Act, and considering that after Lord John's letter 
the Bill would fall short of the high expectations formed in 
the minds of the English public. 

He disapproved of the abolition of the Irish Lord-Lieu- 
tenancy, and the making a fourth Secretary of State had been 
considered by Sir Robert Peel and himself as introducing into 
England all the Irish malpractices, while Ireland was still kept 
wholly separate from England. 

Lord John had raised a new difficulty by his declaration 
upon Reform. He had been thunderstruck when he read the 
announcement on the part of the chief author of the Reform 
Bill, who had stood with him (Sir J. Grahsun) hitherto upon 
finality, condenming his own work, and promising at a year's 
distance importcmt alterations, in which interval great agita- 
tion would be got up, great expectations raised, and the 
measure when brought forward would cause disappointment 
Sir Robert Peel had always been of opinion that it was most 
dangerous to touch these questions, but if opened with the 


consent of the Crown, a measure should at once be brought 
forward and passed. 

After my having repKed to these different objections, that 
the Queen felt herself the importance of Lord Palmerston's 
removal, and would make it herself a condition with Lord 
John that he should not be again Foreign Secretary ; that the 
protest to Austria had not gone, and that upon studying 
the question Sir James would find that the entrance of the 
whole Austrian Monarchy, while giving France a pretext for 
war and infringing the Treaties of 1815, would not tend to the 
strength and wnity of Germany, which held to be the true 
English interest, but quite the reverse ; that I did not think 
the Papal Aggression Bill touched the Bequest Act or militated 
against toleration ; that the Lieutenancy would perhaps be 
given up, and a measinre on the Franchise be considered by the 
new Government and brought forward at once. I thought 
it would be better to discuss the matters with Lord John 
Hussell in the Queen's presence, who accordingly joined us. 

The discussion which now arose went pretty much over the 
same ground. Lord John agreeing that Lord Palmerston ought 
to form no difficulty, that the Papal Aggression Bill would 
be further modified, that the Lieutenancy Bill might be given 
up, that he agreed to Sir James's objection to the declaration 
about reform, but that he had intended to bring forward a 
measure, if he had been able to get his colleagues to agree to it, 
that he would be ready to propose a measure at once. This 
6ir J. Graham thought important as a means of gaining at a 
General Election, which he foresaw could not be long delayed, 
whoever formed a Government. 

In order to obtain some result from this long debate I suromed 
up what might be considered as agreed upon, viz. That there 
was tabula rasa, and for the new Coalition a free choice of 
men and measures, to which they assented. Lord John merely 
stating that he could not take office without part of his friends, 
and could not sacrifice his peraotud declarations. Dinner- 
time having approached, and Lord Aberdeen having written 
that he would be with us after nine o'clock, we adjourned the 
further discussion till then, when they would return. 

Whilst the Queen dressed I had an interview with the Duke 
of Wellington, who had come to dine here, in which I informed 
him of the nature of our crisis. He expressed his regret 
and his dread of a Protectionist Government with a Dissolu- 
tion, which might lead to civil conmiotion. He could not 
forgive, he said, the high Tory Party for their having stayed 
away the other night on Mr Locke King's Motion, and thus 


abandoned their own principles ; he had no feeling for Lord 
John Russell's Cabinet, measures, or principles, but he felt 
that the Crown and the country were only safe in these days by 
having the Liberals in office, else they would be driven to join 
the Radical agitation against the institutions of the country. 

After dinner we resumed our adjourned debate in my room 
at a quarter to ten, with Lord Aberdeen, and were soon joined 
by Lord John and Sir James Graham. We went over the same 
ground with him. Lord Stanley's letter was read and dis- 
cussed. Lord Aberdeen declared his inability to join in a 
Protectionist Ministry ; he did not pretend to understand the 
question of Free Trade, but it was a point of honour with him 
not to abandon it, and now, since Sir R. Peel's death, a matter 
of piety. He thought the dajiger of a Dissolution on a questi(m 
of food by the Crown, for the purpose of imposing a tax upon 
bresrd, of the utmost danger for the safety of the country. He 
disapproved the Papal Bill, the abolition of the Lieutenancy, 
he had no difficulty upon the Franchise, for though he was called 
a despot, he felt a good deal of the Radical in him sometimes. 

Lord John put it to Lord Aberdeen, whether Tie would not 
undertake to form a Gk)vemment, to which Lord Aberdeen 
gave no distinct reply. 

As Sir James Graham reused nothing but difficulties, though 
professing the greatest readiness to be of use, and as it was 
getting on towards midnight, we broke up, with the Queen's 
injunction that one of the three gentlemen must form a Gov«m- 
ment, to which Lord Aberdeen laughingly replied : " I aee 
your Majesty has come into ^ the President de la R^publique.'* 
Lord John was to see Lord Lansdowne to-day at three o'clock, 
and would report progress to the Queen at five o'clock. On one 
point we were agreed, viz. that the Government to be formed 
must not be for the moment, but with a view to strength and 
stability. Albest. 

Queen Victoria to Lord John Russell. 

2Zrd Fdmtary 1861. 

The Queen hajs seen Lord Aberdeen and Sir J. Graham, 
but is sorry to say that her doing so was premature, as they 
had no opportunity of seeing each other after they left Lord 
John Russell, and therefore had not considered the Memo- 
randum * which Lord John had handed to them. Lord Aber- 

1 Sic. 

2 With a view of uniting with the Peelites, Lord John drew up a Memorandam, 
printed in Walpole's Lord John Russdl^ vol. ii. chap, xjdi., with the following points: 

A Cabinet of not more than eleven Members. 

The present commercial policy to be maintained. 

The financial measures of the year to be open to revisioxL 


deen has in the interval seen Lord Stanley, and declared to him 
that he must undeceive him as to the possibility of his ever 
joining a Protection Government. What further resulted 
from the conversation the Queen would prefer to state to Lord 
John verbally to-morrow. Perhaps Lord John would come 
in the forenoon to-morrow, or before he goes to the House ; 
he will be so good as to let her know. 

Memorandum by the Prince Albert. 

BUGKlNaHAM PALACE, 23rd February 1861. 

Lord John Russell came at half-paust five, much fatigued and 
depressed. On the Queen's asking whether he could report 
any progress, he said he thought he could ; he had met Lord 
Aberdeen and Sir James Graham, together with Sir George 
Giey (Lord Lansdowne being ill). That he had informed them 
that he had received the Queen's commcuids to form a Govern- 
ment (?), and handed to them a Memorandum which follows 
here and which they had promised to take into consideration. 

We asked him whether he had chalked out a Government. 
He said he had not thought of it yet ; he added, however, 
that Tie could not undertake the Foreign Affairs with the lead 
in the House of Commons and Government (which the Queen 
had pressed upon him) ; Lord Palmerston might be leader in 
the House of Lords ; he would not like Lord Aberdeen at the 
Foreign Office ; Lord Clarendon and Lord Grcuiville were 
equally acceptable to him. 

I suggested that it might be well if the Queen were to see 
Sir Jcunes and Lord Aberdeen again, which he approved, but 
thought it better he should not be present himself, and that 
the Queen might tell Sir James that he might have any Office 
be liked ; perhaps Tie would take the Foreign Affedrs. 

Lord John's relations and private friends evidently are 
distressed at his resuming office ; the Radicals were very much 
pleased with the idea of Sir James Graham being in office. 


Memorandum by tTie Prince Albert. 

i4th February 1851. 
(Monday evening.) 

Lord John came at three o'clock before making his statement 
to the House of Commons. We communicated to him what 

The EodeBiastical Titles Bill to be persefrered in so far as the Preamble and the first 
danse, bat the remaining clauses to be abandoned. 
A Beform Bill for the extension of the Franchise. 
A Gommission of Bnauirj into corrapt practices at elections in cities and borou£^ 

VOL. n 10* 


had passed with Sir James Graham and Lord Aberdeen yester- 
daj'' evening. He thought his Memorandum had been mis- 
understood : the nature of the Reform Bill was left open to 
discussion, and what he had said about filling the Ofi&ces only 
meant that the Ofifices should not be divided according to 
number, and each party left to fill up its share, as had been 
done in former Coalition Ministries. He had seen Lord 
Palmerston, who was not willing to give up the Foreign Office 
— spoke of retiring from business at his age, of his success in 
conducting Foreign Affairs, and of its being a self-condemna- 
tion if he accepted another Office. Lord John told him that 
he did not agree in this view, that the Lord-Lieutenancy of 
Ireland was to be maintained, and thought it best to leave it 
there. He thought Lord Palmerston had given up the idea of 
leading the House of Commons. We ascertained from him 
in conversation that he could not agree to Lord Aberdeen taking 
the Foreign Office nor that he could serve under Lord Aberdeen 
or Sir James Graham in case any one of these were to form a 

At half-past six Lord John returned from the House of 
Commons, and reported that two very import€uit events had 
taken place : the one that upon his making his statement to the 
House that the Government had resigned, that Lord Stanley 
had been sent for, had declared his inability then to form a 
Oovemment (words agreed upon between Lord Lansdowne, 
Lord John, and Sir George Grey), and that he was now charged 
with the formation of a Government, Mr. Disraeli got up, and 
denied that Lord Stanley had declined forming a Government, 
which was received with cheers from the Protectionists. Lord 
John had merely answered that when Lord Stanley would 
make his explanations, what he had stated would be found to 
be correct, relying entirely, not upon what the Queen had com- 
municated, but on Lord Stanley's own letter. The second 
event was a letter from Lord Aberdeen and Sir James Graham,^ 
which put an end to all thoughts of a Coalition. It stated that 
they could agree to no legislation whatever on the Papal 
Aggressions, and ended with a hint that Sir James Graham was 
prepared to go farther in reductions than Lord John was likely 
to consent to. 

Lord John had at once answered that although he did 
not understand the latter objection, the difference on the 
Papal Bill must put €ui end to their negotiation. We much 
leunented the result, and after some discussion agreed that 
the only thing to be done now was to send for Lord 

1 PablJshed in Wa^>ole's Lord John Russdl, toL ii. chiq>. xxii. 


Aberdeen. Lord Stanley could not pretend to be consulted 
before every other means of forming a Government had been 

Queen Victoria to Lord John RicsselL 

BUCKINGHAM PALACE, 24th February 1851. 
(Half-past ten P.M.) 

The Queen returns these papers, as Lord John Russell 
wished. She has just seen Lord Aberdeen and Sir James 
Grahcun, who, though refiidy to do anything which could be of 
any use to the Queen and the country, have stated it as their 
decided opinion that Lord Stanley should be asked to form 
a Government. Under these circumstances the Queen intends 
to send to Lord Stanley to-morrow. The Queen did ask Lord 
Aberdeen if he could undertake to form a Government, but he 
said that he thought it would not be successful, and that the 
Papal Aggression would be an insurmountable difficulty for 
him and Sir James Graham. 

The Queen rejoices to hear from them, and from Lord John 
and Lord Lansdowne, the expression of cordiality of feeling, 
which it is so essential for the Crown and the country that 
there should be. 

Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians, 

BUCEINGHAM PALACE, 26th February 1851. 

My dearest Uncle, — ^Through Van der Weyer, you will 
have heard what was the state of the long and anxious crisis 
yesterday evening. 

Alas ! the hope of forming a strong Coalition Government 
has failed — for the present, I say for the present, as they are 
all so entirely agreed on the Commercial PoHcy that another 
time they hope there will be no difficulty, when they have fought 
together. The Pa/pal Aggression has in fact been the only 
insurmountable difficulty. We sent to Lord Aberdeen last 
night (both he and Sir James Graham have been most kind 
to us), and asked if he could not try to form a Government ; 
but with the greatest readiness to serve me, he said he could 
not, on account of this self -same Papal Aggression. He equally 
declares that he cannot join Lord Stanley. Accordingly this 
morning I have seen Lord Stanley, and he means to try if he 
can form any fit sort of Government, but he has no men of 
talent, and his difficulties are gigantic. I shall only know to- 
morrow definitely if he can form an Administration. I am calm 
and courageous, having such support and advice as my dearest 

300 ABERDEEN AND GRAHAM [chap, xx 

Albert's ; but it is an anxious time, and the uncertainty and 
suspense very trying. More details you will have later on. 
Ever your devoted Niece, Viotobia R. 

Memorandum by the Prince Albert. 


Lord Aberdeen and Sir James Graham came yesterday 
evening at nine o'clock ; the Queen put it to them whether 
tJiey could form a Government, to which they replied that they 
had turned it in their heads a hundred times, that there was 
nothing they would not do to show their readiness to serve the 
Queen, but that they did not see a possibility of forming an 
Administration which could stand a day. They were most 
likely at that moment the two most unpopular men in England, 
having declared that nothing should be done in Parliament 
against the Papal Aggression, which the whole country 
clamoured for ; the Whigs would be very angry with them 
for their having broken up the new combination ; they might 
find favour with the Radicals, but that was a support upon 
which no reliance could be plciced. There was a growing 
opinion that Lord Stanley ought to have a chance of bringing 
forward his measures ; that it was perilous, but that it was 
an evil which must be gone through ; that this opinion had 
been strongly expressed by Lord Lansdowne, whose modera- 
tion nobody could doubt ; that it was shared by the Duke of 
Newcastle, Mr Sidney Herbert, and others of Sir James's 
friends whom he had had time to consult. 

Upon the Queen's expression of her great apprehension as to 
the consequence of such a step on the country, they said there 
would no doubt spring up a most violent opposition, that there 
would be attempts to stop the supplies and dissolve the Army, 
but that Lord John Russell and Sir James Graham together 
would do their utmost to preach moderation, and would refer 
the House of Commons to the Queen's example, who had taken 
strictly the Constitutional coiurse throughout the crisis, whose 
opinions on Free Trade were well known (as far as subjects 
could allow themselves to pretend to know their Sovereign's 
private opinions) from the hearty support she had given to Sir 
Robert Peel's and Lord John's Governments. That upon the 
first proposition of a Stanley Government the junction of 
Parties would be completed, and there would be only one strong 
opposition. After having fought together, there would be no 
longer any difficulty about forming a strong Government out of 
their joint ranks, whilst now it was impossible not to see that 
every Minister displaced would feel personally aggrieved, that 


then they stood on a footing of perfect equality. Sir James 
had seen Lord John since he had tendered his second resigna- 
tion, and found him quite altered ; whilst he was embarreissed 
and houtonni before, he was open and unreserved now, and they 
could speak on terms of private friendship. Lord Aberdeen 
would save his influence in the House of Lords, which he would 
probably have lost if he had joined the Whigs in office ; in 
future sdl this would be different. 

Lord John Russell's letter with the Memoranda came and 
interrupted us. From these papers, and what Sir James and 
Lord Aberdeen said, it is clear that all parties are relieved by 
the failure of their attempt to form a Coalition Government, 
but determined to form a positive junction, which will be most 
salutary to the country. The Queen will therefore send for 
Lord Stanley. 

We discussed further the means Lord Stanley ^ould have 
to form an Administration, for which the material was certainly 
sad. Disraeli's last scene in the House of Commons would 
render the publication of Lord Stanley's letter necessieury. Mr 
Gladstone might possibly join him ; at least no pains would be 
spared to bring him in Lord Palmerston had often so much 
secret understanding with Disraeli that he might be tempted 
with the bait of keeping the Foreign Office, particularly if 
personally offended. 

Whether the Queen should allow or refuse a Dissolution was 
debated ; the latter declared a most heavy responsibility for 
the Sovereign to imdertake, but a subject upon which the 
decision should only be taken at the time, and on a due con- 
sideration of the circumstances. Albebt. 

Lord John Ruaaett to Queen Victoria, 

Oheshau Place, 26th Fdtntary 1861. 

Lord John Russell presents his humble duty to your Majesty, 
and has the honour to state that having seen the letter which 
Lord Stanley addressed to your Majesty, and feeling himself 
precluded from entering into any details, he announced to the 
House of Commons that Lord Stanley had in reply to your 
Majesty's offer declared " he was not then prepared to form 
a Government." 

Mr DisraeU disputed the accuracy of this statement. 

Your Majesty's word cannot be called in question, but Lord 
John Russell now feels it due to his own honour humbly to ask 
your Majesty for a copy of Lord Stanley's letter. He does not 
propose to read the letter to the House of Commons, but to 
refer to it in the statement he is compelled to make. 


Lord John Russell humbly requests that this representation 
may* be shown to Lord Stanley. He will feel what is due to the 
honour of a public man. 

Memorandum by the Prince Albert, 

26th Fdfruary 1851. 

Lord Stanley obeyed the Queen's summons at eleven o'clock, 
and seemed very much concerned when she informed him that 
Lord John Russell had given up his task, as differences of 
opinion, particularly on the Papal Bill, had prevented a jimc- 
tion between him. Lord Aberdeen, and Sir James Graham; 
that an appeal to Lord Aberdeen had been equally unsuccessful 
from the same cause, viz. their difficulty in dealing with the 
Papal Question ; that consequently the contingency had arisen 
under which Lord Stanley had promised to undertake the 
formation of a Government. 

Lord Stanley said his difficulties were immense, and he could 
not venture to approach them unless he was sure of every support 
on the part of the Crown ; that he would have arrayed against 
him a formidable opposition of all the talent in the country. 

The Queen assured him that he should have every Constitu- 
tional support on her part, of which Lord Stanley repeated he 
had felt sure, although the total change must be very trying to 
the Queen. 

On his question, whether there was any hope of Lord Aber- 
deen joining him and taking the Foreign Office, we had to tell 
him that he must quite discard that idea. He replied, with a 
sigh, that he would still try and see him ; he had thought of 
the Duke of Wellington taking the Foreign Office ad interim, 
but felt that he could hardly propose that, considering the 
Duke's age and infirmity ; he would make an attempt to see 
Lord Canning with the Queen's permission, and that failing, 
could only think of Sir Stratford Canning, now at Constanti- 
nople, which the Queen approved. 

He still hoped he might get Mr Gladstone to take the lead 
in the House of Commons, without which assistance he must 
not conceal that it was almost impossible for him to go on. Mr 
Gladstone was on his way home from Paris, and he had written 
to him to see him as soon as he arrived ; till then he could not 
promise that he would succeed to form an Administration, and 
he only undertook it for the good of his country, but was ^raid 
of ruining his reputation. 

To this I rejoined that who tried to do the best by his 
country need never be afraid for his reputation. 

The Queen showed Lord Stanley Lord John Russell's letter 

1851] MR DISRAELI 303 

respecting Mr Disraeli's denial of the truth of Lord John's 
statement in the House of Commons yesterday. 

Lord Stanley said it had been a very mif ortunate misvmder- 
standing, that he had been sorry Lord John and Lord Lans- 
downe should have felt it necessary to say that " he had not 
then been prepared to form a Government," as the knowledge 
of this fact, as long as there was a chance of his being called 
back, could not but act injuriously to him and dispirit those 
with whom he a<;ted. He would explain all this on Friday 
in the House of Lords, and had no objection to sending Lord 
John a copy of his letter. 

We now came to Measures. Lord Stanley hopes to obviate 
the Papcd Question by a Parliamentary declaration and the 
appointment in both Houses of a Committee to enquire into the 
position of the Roman Catholic Church in this coiuitry ; he 
would diminish the Income Tax by a million, and exempt 
temporary incomes ; he would allow compounding for the 
Window Tax and levy a moderate duty on com, which he called 
a Countervailing Duty, and tried to defend as good political 
economy, on the authority of Mr M*Culloch's last edition of 
" Ricardo." ( I had some discussion with him, however, on 
that point.) 

Returning to the offices to be filled. Lord Stanley said he 
should have to propose Mr Disraeli as one of the Secretaries of 
State. The Queen interrupted him by saying that she had not 
a very good opinion of Mr Disraeli on account of his conduct 
to poor Sir R. Peel, and what had just happened did not tend 
to diminish that feeling ; but that she felt so much Lord 
Stanley's difficulties, that she would not aggravate them by 
passing a sentence of exclusion on him. She must, however, 
make Lord Stanley responsible for his conduct, and should she 
have cause to be displeased with him when in office, she would 
remind Lord Stanley of what now passed. Lord Stanley 
promised to be responsible, and excused his friend for his former 
bitterness by his desire to establish his reputation for cleverness 
and sharpness ; nobody had gained so much by Parliamentary 
schooling, and he had of late quite changed his tone. 

Mr Herries would make a good Chancellor of the Exchequer. 

As to Ireland, he had thought of having a more ostensible 
Lord-Lieutenant, whilst the business should be done by the 
Secretary for Ireland. He asked the Queen whether the Duke 
of Cambridge might be offered that post, which she took ad 
referendum. The Duke of Northumberland, though not of his 
Party, he should like to offer the Admiralty to. 

At the conclusion of the interview he broached the important 
question of Dissolution, and said that a Dissolution would 

304 DISSOLUTION [chap, xx 

anyhow become necessary ; that, if it was thought that the 
Queen would withhold from him the privilege of dissolving, he 
would not have the slightest chcuice in the House of Commons ; 
he would be opposed and beat, and then his adversaries would 
come in and dissolve. He avowed that it could not be said 
that the Queen had refused him the power of dissolving, but 
he required some assurance. 

On the Queen's objecting to giving him a contingent positive 
promise, but declaring her readiness fairly to discuss the question 
when the emergency arose, he contented himself with the 
permission to deny, if necessary, that she would not consent 
to it, putting entire confidence in the Queen's intention to 
deal fairly by him. 

I tried to convince Lord Stanley, and I hope not without 
effect, of the advantage, both to the Queen and Lord Stanley 
himself, that they should not be hampered by a positive engage- 
ment on that point, which might become very inconvenient 
if circumstances arose which made a Dissolution dangerous to 
the country. Albebt. 

Queen Victoria to Lord John BusaeU, 

Buckingham Falacb, 26th Fe^ruarp 18SL 
The Queen has seen Lord Stanley, who will let Lord John 
Bussell have a copy of the letter. He wishes it not to be 
known or considered that he ha.s formally undertaken to form 
a Government till to-morrow, on account of the House of Lords 
meeting to-day. He feels the difficulty of his position, and is 
not sure yet that he will be able to complete a Ministry. To- 
morrow he will give the Queen a positive answer. 

Queen Victoria to Lord Statdey. 

Buckingham palace, 26th FAruary 186L 

The Queen has just received Lord Stanley's letter. She had 
forgotten the Lev6e, and waus just going to write to him to 
inform him that she wished to see him at eleven o'clock to- 

The Queen cannot but regret that Lord Stanley should think 
Lord John Russell's explanation led to a; wrong inference ; for 
Lord Stanley will himself recollect that he stated his objections 
to her much more strongly in his first interview than he did in 
writing, and as Lord Stanley so strongly advised the Queen 
to try if no other arrangement could first be come to, she hardly 
knows how this could otherwise have been expressed than by 
the words used by Lord Lansdowne and Lord John KusselL 


Memorandum by Queen Victoria, 

feeth February 1851. 

Lord Stanley came again at eleven. The first part of the 
audience, which was not long, was occupied by Lord Stanley's 
trying to explain away Mr Disraeli's contradiction of Lord 
John Russell, though he termed it " very unfortunate," by 
saying that he wished Lord John had not mentioned that he 
(Lord Stanley) " was not then prepared " to form a Government, 
for that, though true in fact, he had not absolutely refused, 
but had only advised me to try and make other arrangements 
first. I said I thought the distinction '* a very nice one," 
which he admitted. What passed between us on the subject 
the correspondence between Albert and Lord John will best 

Lord Stanley then told us that he had seen the Duke of 
Northumberland, who wished for time to consider ; that he was 
to see Lord Canning again to-day, but had no hopes of his 
accepting ; and that he found so many people out of Town that 
he must ask for forty-eight hours more before he could give me 
a positive answer, viz. till Friday. He added he " must not 
conceal " from me that he was " not very sanguine " of success ; 
almost all depended on Mr Gladstone, who was expected to 
arrive to-day ; but that it might now be said (in answer to a 
question of Albert's " whether in these dayB of nice distinctions 
one might say that he had undertaken to form a Government "), 
that he had aUem^pted to undertake to form a Oovemment. 

Victoria R. 

Lord Stanley to Qu^en Victoria. 

8t James's Square, 7,1th F^tmairy 1851. 
(Four o'clock FM.) 

Lord Stanley, with his humble duty, awaits your Majesty's 
conunands at what hour he may be honoured with an audience, 
to explain the grounds on which, with the deepest regret, he 
feels himself under the necessity of resigning the important 
trust with which your Majesty has honoured him. 

Queen Victoria to Sir James Graham. 


The Queen sanctions Sir James Graham's making any state- 
ment to the House of Commons which he thinks necessary, to 
explain the part which he and Lord Aberdeen took in the late 


Ministerial negotiations, and indeed hopes that these explana- 
tions will be as full as possible on all parts, in order that the 
country may fully appreciate the difficulties of the crisis. 

Memorandum by the Prince Albert, 

Buckingham Faiacb, 27th February 1851. 

Lord Stanley arrived at half-past five o'clock. We were 
struck by the chsuige of his countenance, which had lost all the 
expression of care and anxiety which had marked it at the 
previous interviews. 

He assured the Queen that he had been labouring incessantly 
since he had seen her last, but that he weis sorry to say without 
any success. 

He had seen Mr GlcKlstone, who declined joining his Govern- 
ment on account of his previous pledges in Parliament respect- 
ing the Commercial Policy of Sir R. Peel, but evidently also on 
account of his peculiar views with respect to the Papal Aggres- 
sion, which he did not seem disposed to look upon as in any way 

Lord Canning had given him some hope at one time, but 
finally declined in order not to risk his credit for political con- 

Mr H. Corry, whose opinions on Free Trade were by no means 
decided, and who had only filled a very subordinate situation 
in Sir R. Peel's Government, he had offered high office, but 
was refused, Mr Corry expressing his fears that the Government 
had no chance of standing against the opposition it would have 
to meet in the House of Commons. 

The Duke of Northumberland was the only person not pro- 
perly belonging to the Protection Party who had accepted 
office (First Lord of the Admiralty). At one time Lord IHlen- 
borough had accepted, but having been sent on a mission to 
Mr Goulbum in order to see whether he could convert him, he 
came home himself converted, and withdrew his acceptance 

In this situation Lord Stanley called his friends together, 
and after some discussion concurred in their opinion that it 
was not possible for them to form such an Adniinistration as 
ought to be offered to the Queen. Lord Stanley then qualified 
this expression again, and said that though he could have 
offered a very respectable Government if he had had a majority 
in the House of Commons,or the means of strengthening himself 
by an immediate Dissolution, he could not form such a one 
which could have withstood an adverse majority and such a 
formidable array of talent in the Opposition. He therefore 

1851] THE PAPAL BILL 307 

returned the trust which had been committed to him into the 
Queen's hands, expressing at the same time his deep sense of 
gratitude for the kmdness with which she had treated him, the 
support and confidence she had given him, sorry only that it 
should have led to no result. He thought, however, that the 
prolongation of the crisis had not inconvenienced the public 
service, as Her Majesty's preserU Government were constitu- 
tionally enabled to carry on all necessary business. 

The Queen rejoined that she was very sorry that this attempt 
had also failed, that she had tried every possible combination, 
and still was without a Government. Lord Stanley answered 
88 if he considered it natural that Lord John Russell's Govern- 
ment should now quietly proceed ; but on the Queen's observa- 
tion, that it was now necessary that all Parties should join in 
the support of some measures at least, and particularly the 
Papal Bill, he stated what he was prepared to support, and 
would have been prepared to propose had he taken office, viz. 
a fuller recital in the preamble of the Bill and no penal clause 
in the body of it. (The present Bill looked pettish and un- 
dignified, as if framed in anger as a return for the insult, and 
not a correction of the state of the law.) He thought the Law 
very complex and obscure, and never found it acted upon. He 
would have proposed therefore that Committees of both Houses 
should enquire into the whole subject ; the state of the Con- 
vents ; whether subjects were detained against their will ; 
whether people were forced to bequeath their property to the 
Church on the deathbed, etc., etc. ; he knew that the Roman 
Catholic laity felt severely the oppression which the Priests 
exercised over them, and would be willing to give evidence. 

Lord Stanley asked whether it could be of use if he were to 
state all this in his explanation to-day, which the Queen 
strongly a^foned. I added that I hoped he would explain 
what he was prepared to do on all the subjects in dispute — the 
Commercial and Financial Policy as well. He promised to do 
so, and entered into his views on the Income Tax, which he 
called a War Tax, which had been imposed for temporary 
purposes only in 1842, and ought to be taken oft again when 
practicable in order to keep faith with the public ; but if, as 
often as there was a surplxis, this was immediately absorbed 
by remission of other burdens, this object could never be ful- 
filled. He would propose that by degrees, as surpluses arose, the 
Income Tax should be decreased, and so on to its final repeal. 

I disputed with him for some time on the advantages of an 
Income Tax, but without coming to any result. 

On his enquiry whether there was anything else the Queen 
might wish liim to state — ^perhaps the rvunour that he had 


been refused the power of dissolving — ^we agreed that he shordc] 
say the question had never been seriously entertained, but that 
the Queen had been ready to give him the same support and 
advantages which any other Government might have enjoyed^ 


The Prince Albert to the Duke of Wellington. 

BUOEINOHAM PALACE, 28lA February 185L 

My deab Duke, — ^Lord Stanley has likewise resigned his 
task, not being able to gain over any of Sir K. Peel's frieDds, 
and being incapable of forming a Government out of his Party 

So Lord John Kussell has declared his inability to carry on 
the Government. Lord Stanley has then declared his in-; 
ability to form one until every other combination should have 
failed. We have tried all possible combinations between 
Whigs and Peelites, and have not succeeded, and now Lord 
Stanley throws up the game a second time ! The Queen 
would be happy to consult you and heajr your advice in tiiis 
dilemma. Possibly to-night's Debate may define the position 
of Parties more clearly, and give a clue to what may be best to 
be done under the circiunstances. Ever yours, etc. Albebt. 

Lord John RusaeU to the Prince Albert. 

Ghssham Place, 28^^ FOtmay 1861. 

Sib, — ^The former Cabinet meet at eleven, at Lansdowne 

It appears to me that the Queen might with advantage see 
Lord Lansdowne. He was in office with Mr Fox and Lord 
Grenville in 1806 ; he has been distinguished and respected in 
political life ever since ; he is now desirous of retiring, and has 
therefore no personal object to gain. If the Queen approves, 
Lord Lansdowne might wait on Her Majesty soon after 
twelve o'clock. I have the honour to be. Sir, your Royal 
Highness's very dutiful Servant, J. Kussell. 

Queen Victoria to Lord Lansdowne. 

BUCEINQHAM PALACE, 2%ih February 1861. 

It would be a great satisfaction to the Queen to heeir Lord 
Lansdowne's advice in the present critical state of afiEaiis^ 

1 The Prince tbereupon, at the Qaeen's request, communicated with Lord John Bnaadl, 
and after recoimting to him the various succeasiye failures to form a Government, wrote 
that the Queen must " pause before she again entrusts the commission of fonning aa 
Administration to anybody, till she has been able to see the result of to-morrow evening*! 
Debate." He added, *' Do you see any Constitational objection to this ooorse ? " 


and she would be glad if he could come to her at twelve this 
maming. The Queen has sent to the Duke of Wellington in 
order to hear his opinion also ; but he cannot be here before 
to-nighty being at Strathfieldsaye. 

Mtw/yraindum by the Prince Albert. 

Fridat, 28<A February 1851. 

Lord Lansdowne, who currived at twelve o'clock, was asked 
by the Queen what advice he could offer her in the present com- 
plication. His answer was : "I wish indeed I had any good 
advice to offer to your Majesty." He expressed his delight 
at the Queen having sent for the Duke of Wellington. We 
talked generally of the state of affairs ; he agreed in a remark 
of mine, that I thought the Queen should be entirely guided in 
her choice of the person to construct a Government, by the 
consideration which Party would now appecur to be the strong- 
est in the House of Commons. On my asking, however, 
whether he knew if, on the failure of Lord Stanley to form a 
Government, part of his followers would now give up Protec- 
tion as past hope, and be prepared in future to support the 
Peelite section of the Conservative Party, Lord Lansdowne 
said he had he€u:d nothing on the subject, nor could he give us 
more information on the chance of the Radicals and Lish 
members now being more willing to support Lord John Russell 
in future. He liked Lord Stanley's plan of dealing with the 
Papal Question, of which the Queen communicated to him the 
outlines, was afraid of Sir J. Graham's excessive leaning to- 
wards economy, shook his head at Lord John Russell's letter 
to the Bishop of Durham ^ which had been instrumental in 
favinging on the present crisis, and confessed that he had been 
amongst those in the Cabinet who haA prevented the bringing 
forward of a measure of reform in the present Session. He 
offered to do whatever might be most conducive to the Queen's 
comfort — stay out of office, or come into office — as might be 
thought the most useful. AiiBEBT. 

QiLeen Victoria to the King of the Belgians. 

BUCKINQHAM Paiaob, Ist March 1861. 

My deabest Uncle, — ^I did not write to you yesterday, 
thinking I could perhaps give you some more positive news to- 
day, but I cannot, I am still without a Government, and I am 
still trying to hear and pause before I actually call to Lord 
John to undertake to form, or rather more to continue, the 

i See ante, p. 273 note 1. 


Government. We have passed an anxious, exciting week, and 
the difficulties are very pec\iliar ; there are so many con- 
flicting circumstances which render coalition between those 
who agree in almost everything, and in particular on Fret 
Trade, impossible, but the ** Papal Question " is the real and 
almost insuperable difficulty. 

Lord Lansdowne is waiting to see me, and I must go, and 
with many thanks for your two kind letters, ever your devoted 
Niece, Victobia R. 

Memorandum by the Prince Albert. 



Lord Lansdowne, who arrived after church, had seen Lord 
John Russell and discussed with him the Memorandum which 
we left with him yesterday. He had since drawn up a Memo- 
randum himself which embodied his views, and which he had 
not yet communicated to any one. He was very apprehensive 
lest to begin a new Government with an open question would 
produce the greatest prejudice against it in the public ; he 
was still inclined therefore to recommend the continuance of 
the present Government avowedly for the purpose of passing 
the Papal Bill, after which the Coab'tion might take place, 
which, however, should be agreed upon and settled at this 
time. As the Duke of Wellington has not yet sent his pro- 
mised Memorandum, and Lord Lansdowne was anxious to 
hear his opinion, the Queen commissioned him to appoint Lord 
John Russell to come at three o'clock, and to go himself to the 
Duke of Wellington. 

Lord John Russell, who arrived at the appointed time, and 
had not seen Lord Lansdowne's Memorandum yet, read it 
over, and expressed great misgivings about the execution of 
the proposal. He said he saw in fact, like Sir J. Graham, 
nothing but difficulties. He had ascertained that his Party 
by no means liked the idea of a fusion, and had been mudi 
relieved when the attempt to form a CoaUtion Ministry had 
failed. He was afraid that in the interval between their re- 
suming office and giving it up again every possible surmise 
would be current who were the Ministers to be displaced, and 
every possible intrigue would spring up for and against par- 
ticular members of the Cabinet. He would prefer not to make 
any arrangements for the CoaHtion now, but merely to engage 
to resign again after having carried the Papal Bill, when the 
Queen could try the Coalition, and that failing, could entrust 
Lord Aberdeen and Sir J. Graham with the carrying on of the 


Government, whose chief difficulty would then be removed. 
I objected to this — that his Party might feel justly aggrieved 
if after their having carried him through the difficulty of the 
Papal Measure, he were to throw them over and resign, and 
asked him whether his Cabinet would not repent in the mean- 
time and wish to stay in. 

He answered that it would be entirely in his and Lord 
Lansdowne's hands to carry out the proposed arrangements. 

We asked him whether it would strengthen his hands if, 
instead of his only accepting the task of continuing the Govern- 
ment till the Papal Measure had been passed, the Queen were 
to make it a condition in giving him the CJommission, that it 
should terminate then. He replied, ** Certainly." He begged, 
however, to be understood not to have given a decided opinion 
that the plan of " the open Question " proposed in our Memo- 
randum was not preferable, although he saw great objections 
to that also, particularly as Sir J. Graham had reserved the 
statement of his principal objections to the Papal Bill for the 
second reading. He promised to draw up a Memorandum, 
which he would bring to-morrow at twelve o'clock, after having 
consulted some of his colleagues, and begged that it might not 
be considered that he had accepted the Government till then. 

One of the difficulties which we likewise discussed was the 
position of the financial measures which required almost im- 
mediate attention, and still ought to be left open for the 
consideration of the future Government. 

We agreed that the pressing on the Papal Measure was the 
chief point, and that it ought to be altered to meet the objec- 
tions (as far as they are reasonable) of its opponents, strength- 
ening the declaratory part, however, to please Lord Stanley ; 
and the Queen promis^ to call upon Lord Stanley to give this 
so modified Bill the support of himself and his Party, which 
we thought she could in fairness claim after all that had 

The Queen reiterated her objections to Lord Palmerston, 
and received the renewed promise that her wishes should be 
attended to. Albert. 

Memorandum by the Prince Albert. 

BUCKINGHAM Pala.CE, Zrd MoTch 1851. 

Lord John Russell arrived at the hour appointed (twelve 
o'clock), and was sorry to inform the Queen that all hope of a 
Coalition must be given up. He had found that his Party was 
very much averse to it. On proposing to his former colleagues 
the plan of keeping Office now, and vacating it after the Aggres- 


sion Bill had pa43sed, many of them, amongst which were Lord 
Grey, Sir Charles Wood, Sir Francis Baring, declared they 
would not be warming-pans (an expression used at the time of 
the Grey-Grenville Coalition), and would resign at once. The 
Duke of Wellington, whose opinion the Queen had asked, had 
recommended the return of the old Cabinet to power. He 
(Lord John) could therefore only advise that course, although 
he was conscious that it would be a very weak Government, 
and one not likely to last any length of time. 

He then read the Memorandum which he had drawn up and 
which follows here.i 

The Queen now asked whether Lord John proposed a 
modification of his own Cabinet, to which Lord John replied. 
None, except perhaps an exchange of Office between Sir C. 
Wood and Sir F. Baring, if Sir Charles were to refuse bringing 
in a different budget from the one he had already propounded ; 
he was for maintaining the Income Tax, whilst Sir Francis was 
for repealing it by degrees. The Queen then reminded Lord 
John of her objections to Lord Palmerston, and his promise 
that Lord Palmerston should not again be thrust upon her as 
Foreign Secretary. Lord John admitted to the promise, but 
said he could not think for a moment of resinning offioe and 
either expel Lord Palmerston or quarrel with him. He (Lord 
John) was in fact the weakness and Lord Pcdmerston the 
strength of the Government from his popularity with the 
Badicals. . . . He said he was very anxious that he and Lord 
Lansdowne should bear the responsibility of removing Lord 
Palmerston from the Foreign Office and not the Queen ; her 
refusal now could only go to the country as a personal objection 
on her part, and the country would be left without a Gk)vem- 
ment in consequence. On the Queen's reiterating that she 
wanted to keep Lord John and get rid of Lord Pcdmerston, and 
that it was too painful to her to be put into the situation of 
having actually to tuish the fall of her own Government, Lord 
John promised to move Lord Palmerston in the Easter recess, 
or to resign then himself if he should meet with difficulties; 
in the meantime he must apprise Lord Palmerston of this 
intention, which he could explain to him as a wish to make a 
general modification of his Government. He would offer him 
the Lieutenancy of Ireland or the Presidency or lead in the 
House of Lords, which Lord Lansdowne would be ready to 
resign. He might at that period perhaps get some of the 
Badicals into office or some Peelites. The Queen finally en- 
trusted Lord John with the Government on these conditions. 


1 i8M next page. 


Memorandwn by Lord John RusaeU. 

ird March 1861. 

Her Majesty having tried in vain the formation of a Govern- 
ment — ^first, by Lord Stanley ; second, by Lord John RusseU, 
Lord Aberdeen, and Sir James Graham ; third, by Lord 
Aberdeen ; fourth, by Lord Stanley a second time — ^had re- 
course to the advice and opinion of the Duke of Wellington. 
The Duke, admitting the great qualifications for office of the 
adherents of the late Sir Robert Peel, yet advises the Queen to 
restore her former Ministers to office. 

But supposing Her Majesty to follow that advice, a further 
question naturaUy arises : the late Government having fallen 
from want of Parliamentary support, can they upon their 
return be in any way strengthened, and be enabled to carry 
on the public business with more power and efficiency T 

This might be done in three ways : first, by a Coalition 
sooner or later with the Peel Party ; secondly, by admitting to 
office some of their own Radical supporters ; thirdly, by seek- 
ingaid from the Party which has followed Lord Stanley. 

TThe first of these courses appears the most natural. The 
present Ministers are agreed with the adherents of Sir Robert 
Peel on Free Trade, and on the policy which has regulated our 
finances of late years. The difference between them is of a 
temporary nature. But it may be doubted whether any strength 
would be gained by an immediate junction with that Party. 

If such junction took place now, the Ministers coming in 
most oppose their colleagues on the Ecclesiastical Titles BUI — 
an unseemly spectacle, a source of weakness, and probably the 
beginning of strife, which would not end with the Bill in 

Ify on the other hand, the junction were delayed till the 
Ecclesiastical Titles Bill is disposed of, the existing Ministry 
would be divided into two portions, one of which would have 
only a temporary tenure of office. Rumours, cabals, and in- 
trigues woi:dd have ample room to spread their mischief in such 
a state of things. 

But finally the Whig Party in the House of Commons would 
not be cordial supporters of the junction ; jealousy and dis- 
content would soon break up the Ministry. 

Secondly, by admitting to office some of their Radical sup- 
porters. This course must lead to concessions on measures 
as well as men, and those concessions would provoke hostility 
in other quarters. The great question of the defence of the 
country is besides one of too great importance to be made a 
matter of compromise. 


Third, by seeking aid from the Party which has followed 
Lord Stanley. This cannot be done by means of official con- 
nection ; but something might be effected by adopting mea- 
sures calculated to convince the Landed Interest that their 
sufferings were not disregarded. 

Upon the whole, if the late Ministers are invited by your 
Majesty to resume office, the easiest course would be to proceed 
at once with the Ecclesiastical Titles Bill. That question dis- 
posed of, it would be seen whether the Ministry had sufficient 
strength to go on ; if they had, they might, as occasion arose, 
seek assistance from other quarters, looking to those with 
whom there is the greatest agreement of opinion. 

Should the Ministry, on the other hand, not receive Parlia- 
mentary support sufficient to enable them to carry on the 
Government, the Queen would be in a position to form a new 
Government free from the obstacles which have lately been 

Qtteen Victoria to Lord John Russell. 


. . . The Queen was in hopes to have heajrd from Lord John 
Russell this morning relative to what passed in the House of 
Commons last night. She wishes likewise to hear what takes 
place at the meeting of Lord John's supporters to-day. The 
Queen must ask Lord John to keep her constantly informed of 
what is going on, and of the temper of pe^ies in and oat of 
Parliament ; for no one can deny that the present state of 
affairs is most critical ; and after all that has happened it is 
absolutely necessary that the Queen should not be in a state of 
uncertainty, not to say of ignorance, as to what is passing. 
She can else not form a just opinion of the position of affairs. 

QiLCcn Victoria to the King of the Belgians. 


My deabest UNCiiE, — Pray receive my warmest thanks for 
two kind letters of the 28th, and my excuses for the terribly 
incoherent scrawl of last Saturday. The denouement of ten 
days of the greatest anxiety and excitement I cannot call satis- 
factory, for it holds out only the prospect of another crisis in 
a very short time, and the so much wished-for union of Parties 
has been again frustrated. I have been speaking very strongly 
about Lord Palmerston to Lord John, and he has promised tha^ 
if the Government should still be in at Easter, then to make a 
change. . . . Lord Stanley cem never succeed until he gives 


jip Protection, which he would do, if the country decides 
against him ; ^ he has failed solely from the impossibility of 
finding one single man capable to take the important Offices. 
He said last night to Lord John Bussell, *' I am Vkomme im- 
possible ; they cannot come to me again." Still it would be 
Tery desirable that there should be a strong Conservative 
Party ; nothing but the abandonment of Protection can bring 
this to pass, and Lord Stanley cannot abandon it with honour 
till after the next Election. This is the state of Parties, which 
is greatly erschwert by the Papal Question, which divides the 
Liberals and Conservatives. Li short, there never was su4ih a 
convpiicated emd difficult state of affairs. Ever your devoted 
Nieoe, Victobia R. 

Stockmar has been an immense comfort to us in our trials, 
and I hope you will tell him so. 

Memorandum by the Queen. 

Buckingham palace, Uh March 1861. 
The Queen would give every facility to the selection of a 
good site for a new National Gallery, and would therefore not 
object to its being built on to Kensington Palace or anywhere 
in Kensington Gardens ; but does not see why it should exactly 
be placed upon the site of the present Palace, if not for the 
purpose of taking from the Crown the last available set of 
apartments. She is not disposed to trust in the disposition of 
Parliament or the public to give her an equivalent for these 
4^>artments from time to time when emergencies arise. The 
surrender of Kensington Palace will most likely not be thanked 
for at the moment, and ajiy new demand in consequence of 
such surrender would be met with lavish abuse. Aa to eco- 
nomy in the construction, it will most likely be best consulted 
by building on a spot perfectly free and unencumbered. 

Lord John Rvssdl to the Prince Albert. 

Ghbsham Place, lUh March 1851. 
Sib, — ^I cannot undertake to make any change in the Foreign 
Office. Our Party is hardly reunited, and any break into 
flections, following one man or the other, would be fatal to us. 
I need not say that the Queen would suffer if it were attributed 
to her desire, and that as I have no difference of opinion on 
Foreign Policy, that could not fail to be the case. 

1 Hie Queen's judgmeoit was amply confirmed by the events of 1853. See post^ p. 404. 


Upon the whole, the situation of affairs is most perplexing. 
A Dissolution I fear would not improve it. 

I can only say that my Office is at all times at the Queen's 

I have the honour to be, Sir, your Royal Highness's most 
dutiful Servant, J. Russell. 

Queen Victoria to Sir Oeorge Orey, 

BUGKINaHAH pal^cb, zoth Mvck 1861. 
The Queen approves of the draft of a letter to the Archbishop 
of Canterbury. With respect to the Archbishop's letter and 
the address, the Queen will receive it in the Closet. It seemi 
strange to propose as a remedy for the present evils in the 
Church, and for its evident great disunion, 600 more churchflft 
to be built ! There ought clearly to be some security givoi 
to those who are to encourage such a scheme against the 
extension of those evils. 

Lord John, RtisseU to the Prince Albert, 


Sm, — ^Lord Granville came here yesterday to speak to job 
upon the order for opening the Exhibition at one o'clock on 
the 1st of May. He is anxious to have the order changed, and 
the season-ticket bearers admitted at eleven o'clock. 

I did not give him any positive opinion on the subject. Bat 
the account he gave me of the route which the Queen will 
follow in going to the Exhibition takes away the main objeo* 
tion which I felt to the eulmission of visitors before one o'clock. 
It appears there cannot well be any interruption to Her 
Majesty's progress to and from the Crystal Palace on the Iflft 
of May. 

I conclude that Her Majesty will not go in the State Coach, 
but in the same manner that Her Majesty goes in state to 
the theatres. . . . 

I feel assured there will be no undue and inconvenient 
pressure of the crowd in the part of the building in which Her 
Majesty may be. Colonel WemyBs and Colonel Bouverie 
might easily be in attendance to request the visitors not to 
crowd where the Queen is. At the same time, I am ready to 
abide by the existing order, if Her Majesty wishes it to be 

I have the honour to submit two private letters sent by 
Lord Palmerston. I have the honour to be, Sir, your Royal 
Highness's most dutiful Servant, J. Russell. 


The Ducheaa of Oloticester to Queen Victoria. 

Glouobsteb House, 2nd May 1851. 

My deabest Viotobia, — It is impossible to tell you how 
warmly I do pai*ticipate in all you must have felt yesterday, 
88 wen as dear Albert, at everjrthing having gone off so beau- 
tifully. After so much anxiety and the trouble he has had, 
the joy must be the greater.^ 

The sight from my window was the gayest and the most 
gratifying to witness, and to me who loves you so dearly as / 
dOp mieule it the more delightful. The good humour of all 
around, the fineness of the day, the manner you were received 
in both going and coming from the Exhibition, was quite 
perfect. Therefore what must it have been in the inside of 
£hfl building ! 

Mary and George came away in perfect enchantmnent^ and 
every soul I have seen describes it as the fairest sight that 
ever was seen and the best-conducted f^te / Why, G. Bathurst 
told me it far surpassed the Coronation as to magnificence, 
;and we €ill agreed in rejoicing that the Foreigners should have 
witnessed the affection of the People to you and your Family ^ 
And how the English people do love and respect the Crown, 
As to Mary, she was in perfect enchantment , and full of how 
pretty your decu: little Victoria looked, and how nicely she 
was dr^»ed, and so grateful to your Mother for all her kindness 
to her. I should have written to you last night, but I thought 
I would not plague you with a letter until to-day, as I think 
^u must have been tired last night with the excitement of the 
day. I shall ever lament the having missed such a sight, but 
i^oomfort myself in feeling sure I could not have followed you 
1(88 I ought) when you walked roimd. Therefore I was better 
owb of the way. We drank your health at dinner and con* 
^atulation on the complete success of Albert*s plans and ar- 
rangements, and also dear little Arthur's health. Many thanks 
for kind note received last night. Love to Albert. Yours, 


Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians, 


My deabest Uncle, — . . . I wish you could have witnessed 
the Ist May 1851, the greasiest day in our history, the most 
^beatttiftd and imposing and touching spectacle ever seen, and 
the triumph of my beloved Albert. Truly it was astonishing, 

1 "nie Greett Exhibition in Hjde Park was opened with brilliant ceremony on the 1st 
«f May. 


a fairy scone. Many cried, and all felt touched and impressed 
with devotional feelings. It was the happiesty proudest day 
in my life, and I can think of nothing else. Albert's dearest 
name is immortalised with tliis great conception, his own, and 
my ovm dear country showed she was worthy of it. The 
triumph is immense, for up to the last hour the difficulties, the 
opposition, and the ill-natured attempts to annoy and frighten, 
of a certain set of fashionables and Protectionists, were im- 
mense ; but Albert's temper, patience, firmness, and energy 
surmounted all, and the feeling is imiversal. You will be 
astounded at this great work when you see it ! — the beauty 
of the building and the vastness of it all. I can never thank 
God enough. I feel so happy, so proud. Our dear guests 
were much pleased and impressed. You are right to like the 
dear Princess, for she is a noble-minded, warm-heaj*ted, dis- 
tinguished person, much attached to you, and who revered 
dearest Louise. Oh ! how I thought of her on that great day, 
how kindly she would have rejoiced in our success ! Now 
good-bye, dearest Uncle. Ever your devoted Niece, 

Victoria R. 

Queen Victoria to the Emperor of Austria,^ 

Palais db Bugeinghah, 5 Mai 186L 

Sire et mon son Frere, — ^C'est avec un vif empressement 
que je viens remercier votre Majest6 Imp^riale des superbes 
objets do I'industrie et des arts de votre Empire, que vous 
avez eu I'extreme bont6 de m'envoyer et qui me sisront bien 
pr^cieux k plus d'un titre d'abord comme venant de votre 
Majesty, et puis k cause de leur grande beaut6 et comme un 
souvenir k une 6poque ou il a plu au Tout-Puissant de per- 
mettre une r6imion pacifique de tous les peuples du monde et 
de leurs produits. 

La c6r6monie de I'inauguration de I'Exposition a fait use 
profonde impression sur mon coeur et je regrette d'avoir 6t6 
le seul Souverain qui ait pu jouir de cette scene k la fois im- 
posante et parlant au coeur. Nous avons d6j^ fait plusieurs 
visites au d^partement Autrichien et le Prince et moi avons 
eu occasion d' admirer beaucoup les produits qui nous sent 
venus de vos Etats. Puisse leur exposition contribuer k la 
prosp6rit6 du commerce de 1' Empire Autrichien. 

Agr^ez r expression de ma sincere amiti^, qui j'esp^re pourra 
un jour etre ciment6e par la connaissance personnelle de votre 
Majesty, et croyez-moi toujours. Sire, de votre Majesty Im- 
periale, la bonne ScBur, Victoria R. 

1 Francis Joseph, who became Emperor in December 1848. 

1851] DEATH OF MR SHEIL 319 

Queen Victoria to Lord John Russell, 

BUCEINQHAM Faiace, 2nd June 1851. 

The Queen will see the Judge Advocate on Saturday at 

The place of the late Mr Mill is already filled up. 

Mr Sheil's death is very sudden, and must be a great shock 
to his fcunily. . . . 

We go to Windsor this afternoon to stay till Friday. We 
hope that Lord John Russell's little girl is going on quite well. 

The Queen has had good accounts from the dear Princess 
of Prussia from Coblentz. Her letter is full of England, her 
great happiness here, and her great sorrow at having left it. 
The Princes have expressed the same, so this dangerous 
journey has gone off without one single unpleasant circum- 
stance, which is very gratifying. 

The Prince and Prince Frederic are gone to Berlin, where 
the statue of Frederic the Great was to be inaugurated yes- 

Queen Victoria to Lord John RusseU, 

Buckingham palace, IZih June 1851. 

The Queen returns the papers signed. We are both much 
pleased at what Lord John Russell says about the Prince's 
speech yesterday.^ It was on so tickhsh a subject that one 
conld not feel sure beforehsuid how it might be taken ; at the 
same time the Queen felt sure that the Prince would say the 
right thing, from her entire confidence in his great tact and 

The Queen, at the risk of not appearing sufficiently modest 
(and yet, why should a wife ever be modest about her hus- 
band's merits ?), must say that she thinks Lord John Russell 
will admit now that the Prince is possessed of very extra- 
ordinary powers of mind and heart. She feels so proud at 
being his wife that she cannot refrain from herself paying a 
tribute to his noble character. 

Queen Victoria to Lord John RusseU. 


The Queen hastens to tell Lord John Russell how amiably 
everything went off last [night], and how enthusiastically we 

1 The Prince presided at the meeting commemorative of the one hundred and fifty 
years* existence of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. His q>eech was warmly 
praised by the Premier. 


were received by an almost fearfid mass of people in the 
streets ; ^ the greatest order prevailed, and the greatest and 
most gratifying enthusiasm. 

Not being aware whether Sir George Grey is equal to any 
business, the Queen writes to Lord John to direct that a 
proper letter be written without delay to the Lord Mayor, 
expressing not only the Queen's and Prince's thanks for the 
splendid entertainment at the Guildhall, but also our high 
gratification at the hearty, kind, and enthusiastic reception 
we met with during our progress through the City, both 
going and returning. Our only anxiety is lest any accident 
should have occurred from the great pressure of the dense 

The Queen would likewise wish to know what distinction 
should be conferred in honour of the occasion on the Lord 

Queen Victoria to Lord John RuaaeU. 


The Queen has received Lord John Russell's letter. She 
h£is no objection on this particular occasion to knight the two 
Sheriffs, this year being so memorable a one. 

But the Queen would wish it clearly to be underHood that 
they have no right or claim to be knighted whenever the 
Queen goes into the City. 

On the occasion of the opening of the Royal Exchange the 
Sheriffs were not knighted. . . . 

We regret to hear of Lord John's continued indisposition. 

Queen Victoria to Lord John RuaaeU. 

OSBORNB, 2ith Augtut 185L 

The Queen wishes to draw Lord John Russell's attention 
to the enclosed draft, which she does not think can go in its 
present shape. We argued in innumerable despatches that 
the choice of the aucceaaor to the Danish Crown was entirely 
an internal question for Denmark, in which foreign Powers 
could not interfere. Here, however, it is laid down that the 
German Diet has no right to treat the succession in Holstein 
(a German State) as an internal question, £is it ought to be 
decided on — not according to the Oennan law of aucceaaum, 
but according to the interests of Europe. Nor is it true, as 

1 A ball in commemoration of the Exhibition took place at the Guildhall on the 9Uk o< 


stated in the despatch, that the Duke of Augustenburg hews 
no claim to the Dcuiish Crown. His mother was the daughter 
of Christian VII. and of Queen Matilda. 

Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians. 

BALMORAL CASTLE, \Uh September 1851. 

My dearest Uncle, — Accept my best thanks for your kind 
and dear letter of the 8th» It is a good thing for Leo to begin 
to follow in your footsteps, but (if I may speak out plainly), I 
think that anything like fonctions and representation is agree- 
able €Uid not difficult to Leo. It is the common contact with 
his fellow-creatures, the being put on a par with him, the 
being brought to feel that he is as much one of them as any 
other, in spite of his birth, which I think of such great import- 
ance for hun, and I therefore hope you will send him to Bonn, 

My lett^* is terribly decoiisu, for it has been twice interrupted. 
I was out the whole day with Albert, in the forest in a perfectly 
tropical heat. Since we went to Allt-na-Giuthasach, our little 
bothy near Loch Muich on the 12th, the heat of the sun has 
been daily increasing, and has reached a pitch which makes 
it almost sickening to be out in it, though it is beautiful to 
behold. The sky these la&t two evenings has been like an 
Italian one, and for the last few days — at least the last four — 
without the slightest particle of cloud, and the sun bla^zing. 
With this, not a breath of air. The mountains look quite 
crimson and lilac, and everything glows with the setting sun. 
The evenings are quite a relief. Really one cannot undertake 
expeditions, the heat is so great. We Uiought of you, and 
wished you could be here ; you would fancy yourself in Italy. 

Albert got a splendid stag to-day. I must hastily conclude, 
hoping to hear from you that you udU come. Our moonlights 
have been magnificent also. Evot your devoted Niece, 

Victoria R. 

Queen Victoria to th^ King of the Belgians, 

BALMORAL Castle, 22nd September 1851. 

My dearest Uncle, — I write to you on purpose on this 
large paper in order that you may see and admire it. Landseer 
did it also on purpose, and I think it is even finer than the 
other. It is so truly the character of the noble animal. 

That abuse of the poor Orleans family in our papers is 
abominable, and Lord John is equally shocked at it, but 
won't interfere. Don't you think Joinville should not have 
left it open for him to accept it, for it is impossible for him to 

VOL. n 11 


be President of the French RepubKo ? Still, I feel convinced 
that he and they aU do what they think best for France, 
I must conclude. Ever your devoted Niece, 

Victoria R. 

Queen Victoria to the King of the Belffians. 

Shiel of AUA^-NA-GlUTHASACH, ZOth September 1851. 

My deabest Uncle, — ^I write to you from our little bothy 
in the hills, which is quite a wilderness — where we arrived 
yesterday evening after a long hill expedition to the Lake d 
Loch Nagar, which is one of the wildest spots imaginable. It 
was very cold. To-day it pours so that I hardly know if we 
shall be able to get out, or home even. We are not snotved, 
but rained up. Our little Shiel is very snug and comfortable, 
and we have got a little piano in it. Lady Douro is with us. 

Many thanks for your kind letter of the 22nd. Our warm, 
fine weather left us on the 25th, and we have had storm and 
snow in the mountains ever since then. 

The position of Princes is no doubt difficult in these times, 
but it would be much less so if they would behave honourably 
and straightforwardly, giving the people gradually those 
privileges which woiJd satisfy all the reasonable and well- 
intentioned, and would weaken the power of the Red Republi- 
cans ; instead of that, reaction and a return to all the tyranny 
and oppression is the cry and the principle — ^and all papers 
and books are being seized and prohibited, as in the days of 
Mettemich ! . . . 

Vicky was kicked off her pony — a quiet beast — ^but not the 
least hurt ; this is more than three weeks ago. Alfred (whom 
you will recollect I told you was so terribly heedless and 
entirely indifferent to all punishment, etc.) tumbled down- 
stairs last week. He was not seriously hurt at all, and quite 
well the next morning, only with a terribly black, green, and 
yellow face and very much swelled. He might have been 
killed ; he is always bent upon self-destruction, and one hardly 
knows what to do, for he don't mind being hurt or scolded or 
punished ; and the very next morning he tried to go down the 
stairs leaning over the banisters just as he had done when he 

Alas ! this will be my last letter but one from the dear 
Highlands. We start on the 7th, visiting Liverpool and Man- 
chester on our way back, and expect to be at Windsor on the 

I must now conclude. Ever your devoted Niece, 

Victoria R. 

1851] THE HIGHLANDS 323 

Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians. 

Balmoral Castle, 6th October 1851. 

My deabest UncijE, — Only two words can I write to you, 
as we are to start to-morrow morning. My heart is bien gros 
at going from here. 

I love my peaceful, wild Highlands, the glorious scenery, 
the dear good people who are much attached to us, and who 
feel their Einaamkeit sadly, very much. One of our Gillies, a 
young Highlander who generally went out with me, said, 
in answer to my observation that they must be very dull here 
when we left : " It's just like death come all at once." In 
addition to my sorrow at leaving this dear place, I am in great 
sorrow at the loss of a dear and faithful, excellent friend, whom 
you will sincerely lament — our good Lord Liverpool. He was 
well and in the highest spirits with us only six weeks ago, and 
in three days he was carried away. I cannot tell you how it 
has upset me ; I have known him so long, and he was such an 
intimate friend of ours. We received the news yesterday. 

Many thanks for your kind letter of the 29th. I am glad all 
vent off so well, but it must have been dreadful to miss dearest 
Louise. This time reminds me so much of all our sorrow last 
year on her dear account. Victoria R. 

Queen Victoria to Lord Palmerston. 

Windsor castle, IZth October 1851. 

The Queen returns Lord Howden's letter, and thinks that 
the best answer to the Queen of Spain's request will be that 
the Statutes do not allow the Garter to be bestowed upon a 
lady ; that the Queen herself possesses no order of knighthood 
from any country.^ 

With reference to the claim for the Bang arising out of the 
Prince having received the Fleece, it may be well to say that 
the offer of the Fleece had in the first instance been declined 
for fear of establishing a ground for the necessity of giving the 
Garter in return, and was at its second offer accepted by the 
Prince, together with the first orders of almost every country, 
on the understanding that no return would be expected. It 
would have been impossible to give the Garter to every 
Sovereign, and very difficult to make a selection. The Queen 
of Spain ought to be made aware of the fact that among the 
reigning Sovereigns, the Emperors of Austria and Brazil, and 
the Kings of Sweden, Denmark, Bavaria, Holland, Sardinia, 

1 The Queen of Spain had expressed a desire through Lord Howden to receive the 
Order of the G«rter. 


Naples, Greece, etc., etc., have not got the Gaxter» although 
many of them have expressed a wish for it, and that amongst 
the Kings Consort, the King of Portugal, the Queen's first 
cousin, has not received it yet, althou^ the Queen has long 
been anxious to give it to him. 

Anything short of these explanations might offend, or leave 
the claim open to be repeated from time to time. 

Lord John Ruaaell to Qtieen Victoria. 

Downing Strict, Uth Odober 1851. 
Lord Carlisle, Lord Minto, and Sir Charles Wood are ap- 
pointed a Committee to consider of the extension of the 
Suffrage. They meet to-morrow. Lord John Bussell expects 
to see Mr Peel to-morrow. It is proposed that Parliament 
should meet on the 3rd or 5th of February. . . . 

Qtieen Victoria to Lord John RvsaeH. 

Windsor Castle, IMh Odober 1851. 
The Queen does not consider the Committee appointed to 
consider the extension of the Franchise a very strong one. 
Will Lord Carlisle be up to the peculiar business ? 

QiLcen Victoria to Lord John RusseU,^ 

Windsor Castle, 24/A Odober 1861. 

The Queen concludes Lord John Russell has read the accounts 
of Kossuth's arrival in to-day's papers. 

She wishes Lord John could still try to prevent Lord Palmer- 
ston from receiving him. The effect it will have abroad wili 
do us immense harm. At all events. Lord John should take 
care to have it understood that the Government have not 
sanctioned it, and that it is a private act of Lord Palm^pston's. 

The Queen will else have a^gain to submit to insults and 
affronts, which are the result of Lord Palmerston's conduct. 

Lord John Rtcssdl to Queen Victoria. 

WINDSOR CASTLE, 24ih Odober 18S1. 

Lord John Russell presents his humble duty to your Majesty^ 
and is sorry to say he can interfere no further with respect to 
Lord Palmerston's reception of Kossuth. 

With respect to the manner of the reception, however, he 

1 Substance of the note to Lord John Eussell, written down from i 


will write to Lord Pabnerston to desire him to take care that 
nothing is said which goes beyond the strict expression of 
tiianks for the efforts made by the British Government to 
procure first the safety, and next the Kberty, of Kossuth. 

As for the reception, it is to be considered that Kossuth is 
considered the representative of English institutions against 

if this were so the public feeling would be laudable. 

Lord John Russell to Qtieen Victoria, 

Pembroke Lodge, Zlst October 1861. 

Lord John Bussell presents his humble duty to your Majesty ; 
lie has the honour to submit to your Majesty a correspondence ^ 
which has taken pla^e between Lord Palmerston and himself. 

After Lord Palmerston's answer. Lord John Russell can 
have but Httle hope that Lord Palmerston will not see M. 
Kossuth. Lord John Russell cannot separate the private from 
the public man in this instance ; the reception of Kossuth, if it 
takes place, will be a reception by yoTir Majesty's Secretary of 
State for Foreign Affairs. Whether that reception is to take 
pisLce in Downing Street or Carlton Terrace does not appear 
to him material. 

Lord John Russell would, as a lfi»t resource, himably advise 
your Majesty to command Lord Palmerston not to receive 
M. Kossuth. 

It appears to him that your Majesty owes this mark of 
respect to your Majesty's ally, and generally to all States at 
peace with this country. 

Lord John Russell has no other copy of this letter to Lord 

Queen Victoria to Lord John Russell, 

Windsor CAsma, list October 1861. 
The Queen has received Lord John Russell's letter, and 
returns the enclosures. She likewise sends him her letter 
to Lord Palmerston, which she begs him to send on, merely 
changing the label. She must tell Lord John, however, that 
although he may go cav with a colleague, even after having 
received an answer like the one Lord Palmerston has returned 

1 liord Palmerston wi^ed to receive KcesaUi at tiie Foreign Office. In the corre- 
apondence here referred to, which will be found in Euss^'b Iri/e, the Premier " poeitively 
requested ** Lord Palmerston to decline to receive Kossuth. The rejoinder, written while 
the znessengar waited, was : *' There are limits to all things. I do not choose to be dictated 
to as to who I may or may not receive in my own house. ... I shall use my own dis- 
cretion. . . . You will, of course,, use youis a» to the composition of your Government." 


to the many entreaties not to compromise the Government 
by his personal act, the Queen cannot expose herself to having 
her positive commands disobeyed by one of her public servants, 
and that should Lord Palmerston persist in lus intention he 
cannot continue as her Minister. She refrcdns from any ex- 
pression upon Lord Palmerston*s conduct in this matter, as 
Lord John is well aware of her feelings. 

Queen Victoria to Viscount Palmerston.^ 

Windsor Castle, Zlst October 1851. 
The Queen mentioned to Lord Palmerston when he was last 
here at Windsor Castle that she thought it would not be 
advisable that he should receive M. Kossuth upon his curival 
in England, as being wholly unnecessary, and likely to be 
misconstrued abroad. Since M. Kossuth's arrival in this 
country, and his violent denunciations of two Sovereigns with 
whom we are at peace, the Queen thinks that she owes it as a 
mark of respect to her Allies, and generally to all States at 
pea;Ce with this country, not to allow that a person endeavour- 
ing to excite a political agitation in this country against her 
Allies should be received by her Secretary of State for Foreign 
Affairs. Whether such a reception should take place at his 
official or private residence can make no difference as to the 

I public nature of the act. The Queen must therefore demand 
that the reception of M. Kossuth by Lord Palmerston should 
not take place. 

Lord John Russell to Queen Victoria. 

Pembboeb Lodge, ZUt October 1851. 
Lord John Russell presents his humble duty to your Majesty. 
Since writing to your Majesty this morning it has occurred to 
him that it will be best that your Majesty should not give any 
commands to Lord Palmerston on his sole advice. 

With this view he has summoned the Cabinet for Monday^ 
and he humbly proposes that your Majesty should await their 

Queen Victoria to Lord John Russell. 

Windsor Castle, Zlst Ooober 1851. 
The Queen has just received Lord John Russell's letter. 
She thinks it natural that Lord John should wish to bring a 
matter which may cause a rupture in the Government before 

1 Draft sent to Lord John Eussell* 


the Cabinet, but tliinks his having summoned the Cabinet only 
for Monday will leave Lord Palmerston at liberty in the inter- 
mediate time to have his reception of Kossuth, and then rest 
on his fait accom/pli. Unless, therefore. Lord John Russell can 
bind him over to good conduct, all the mischief which is ap- 
prehended from this step of his will result ; and he will have, 
moreover, the triumph of having carried his point, and having 
set the Prime Minister at defiance. . . . 

Lord John Russell to Qtieen Victoria. 

Fembrokb Lodge, Ist November 1851. 

Lord John Russell presents his humble duty to your Majesty ; 
he is deeply sensible of your Majesty's kindness and indulgence. 
He feels that he is at times overwhelmed by the importance 
and variety of the questions of which the principal weight lies 
upon him. 

He now lays before your Majesty a copy of the letter he has 
written to Lord Palmerston.^ With a grateful sense of your 
Majesty's confidence, he is now of opinion that the Cabinet 
should decide, and that no part of the burden should be placed 
upon your Majesty. 

He therefore returns the letter to Lord Palmerston. 

He summoned the Cabinet for Monday, as so many members 
of it are at a distance. He does not think Lord Palmerston 
will come to town before Monday. 

Qtceen Victoria to Lord John Russell. 

Windsor Gastlb, Ut November 1851. 

The Queen has to acknowledge Lord John Russell's letter 
of this day, and returns the copy of his to Lord Palmerston. 
She feels that she has the right and the duty to demand that 
one of her Ministers should not by his private acts, compromise 
her and the country, and therefore omitted in her letter to Lord 
Palmerston all reference to Lord John Russell's opinion ; but 
she of course much prefers that she should be protected from 
the wilful indiscretions of Lord Palmerston by the attention 
of the Cabinet being drawn to his proceedings without her 
personal intervention.^ 

1 The letter is printed in Lord Falmerston's Life. The Premier stated that the question, 
being one of grave public importance, must be decided by argument, not passion, and would 
be considered by the Cabinet on the following Monday. See Walpole's Rtissdl, chap. xzii. 

3 The Cabinet met, and having listened to the statement of the Frettiier, which is 
ininted in his Life, unanimously supported him. Lord Palmerston accordingly gave 
way for the time being. Lord John informed the Queen of the result. 


Queen Victoria to Lord John RtiaseU, 

WiNDfiOB Castle, Srtf November 1851. 
The Queen has just received Lord John Russell's letter. 
She is very glad to hear that this matter has been conieably 
arranged, and she trusts that Lord Paknerston will act accord- 
ing to his promises. 

Queen Victoria to Lord John Russell, 

WINDSOR Castle, 11th November 1851. 
The Queen sends this draft to Lord John Russell, as she 
thinks the tone in which it is written so very ironical, and not 
altogether becoming for a public despatch from the English 
Secretary for Foreign Affairs, to be given to the Minister of 
another State. The substance is quite right, and a dignified 
explanation of the absurdity of the conduct of the Parma 
officials would very likely produce its effect, but some expres- 
sions in this draft could only tend to irritate, and therefore 
prevent that readiness to comply with our demand, which is 
to be produced.^ 

Queen Victoria to I^>rd John RusseU^ 

Windsor Castle, 20tA Novemlber 1851. 
The Queen must write to-day to Lord John Russell on a 
subject which causes her much anxiety. Her feelings have 
again been deeply woiinded by the official conduct of her 
Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs since the arrival of M. 
Kossuth in this country. The Queen feels the best interests 
of her people, the honour and dignity of her Crown, her public 
and personal obligations towards those Sovereigns with whom 
she professes to be on terms of pea.ce and amity, most un- 
justifiably exposed. The Queen has unfortunately very often 
had to call upon Lord John to check his colleague in the 
dangerous and unbecoming course which at various times he 
has so wilfully persevered in pursuing. But Lord John Russell, 
although agreeing on most of these occasions with the view 
taken by the Queen, has invariably met her remonstrances 
with the plea that to push his interference with Lord Palmer- 
ston beyond what he had done would lead to a rupture with 
him, and thus necessarily to a breaking up of the Cabinet. 
The Queen, considering a change of her Government tinder 
present poUtical circumstances dangerous to the true interests 
of the nation, had only to choose between two evils, without 

1 Before ten days had elapsed, Lord Falmerston had resamed his high-handed methods. 


possessing sufficient confidence in her own judgment to decide 
which in its political consequences would turn out the least. 
But if in such a contingency the Queen chooses rather not to 
insist upon what is due to her, she thinks it indispensable at the 
same time to express to her Cabinet that she does so on their 
account, leaving it to them to reconcile the injuries done to her 
with that sound policy and conduct which the maintenance of 
pesKie and the welfare of the country require. These remarks 
seem to be especially called for after the report of the official 
interview between Lord Palmerston and the deputation from 
Finsbury,^ cmd the Queen requests Lord John Russell to bring 
them under the notice of the Cabinet. 

Lord John Ritssell to Queen Victoria. 

Pembroke Lodge, 2\st November 1851. 

Lord John Russell presents his humble duty to your Majesty. 
He had the honour of receiving last night your Majesty's com- 
munication respecting Lord Palmerston. 

Lord John Russell presumes that it is the substance of this 
communication which your Majesty wishes to be laid before the 

But before doing so he cannot refrain from mentioning some 
circumstances which appear to him to weigh materially in the 
consideration of Lord Palmerston*s conduct. 

In many instances Lord Palmerston has yielded to the 
remonstrances of Lord John Russell, supported as they have 
been by your Majesty. 

He did so on the question of furnishing guns to the Sicilians. 

He did so in respect to the letter to Baron Roller on the 
affair of Count Haynau. 

He gave way likewise in this last instance, when, after assur- 
ing Lord Dudley Stuart that he would see Kossuth whenever 
he chose to call upon him, he consented to intimate privately 
to Lord Dudley that he requested him not to call. 

This last concession must have been mortifying to Lord 
Palmerston, and he has consoled himself in a manner not very 
dignified by giving importance to the inflated addresses from 
some meetings in the suburbs of London. 

1 After Kossuth's departore, addresses of thanks to Lord Pahnerston, for his courteous 
ittentioDS to Kossuth, were voted by ultra-Radical meetings in Finsbury and Islington, 
lad he allowed a deputation to present the addresses to him at the Foreign Office, the 
BmperOTS of Austria and Bussia being stigmatised therein as " odious and detestable 
iaaaasina '* and " merciless tyrants and despots." Palmerston, who expressed himself as 
* extremely flattered and highly gratified " by the references to himself, did not in terms 
^^rdiend the language used of the two Sovereigns, and added, in a phrase immortalised 
^7 Leech's cartoon, that " a good deal of judicious bottle-holding was obliged to be brought 
nto play." 

eoL. n 11* 


But it appeems to Lord John Russell that every Minister 
must have a certain latitude allowed him which he may tiae, 
perhaps with indiscretion, perhaps with bad taste, but with no 
consequence of sufficient importance to deserve notice. 

Lord John Russell must, however, call your Majesty's atten- 
tion to an article in the Morning Post, which denies the accuracy 
of the report of Lord PaJmerston's answer to what is there 
called " the froth and folly of an address to Downing Street." 

Lord John Russell, in admitting that he has more them once 
represented to your Majesty that the expulsion of Lord Palmer- 
ston would break up the Government, begs to explain that he 
has always done so upon one of two grounds : 

First, if Lord Palmerston should be called upon by your 
Majesty to resign on account of a line of Foreign Policy of 
which his colleagues had approved, and for which they were, 
with him, responsible. 

Second, in case no difference of opinion had arisen, and the 
transaction should bear the character of an intrigue, to get rid 
of an inconvenient colleague. 

- It must be remembered that Lord Palmerston was recom- 
mended to the late King by Lord Grey as Foreign Secretary, 
and remained in that Office from 1830 to 1834 ; that he was 
afterwards replaced in the same Office by Lord Melbourne, and 
remained from 1835 to 1841. 

He has thus represented the Foreign Policy of the Whig 
Pfiuijy fifteen years, and has been approved not only by them 
but by a large portion of the country. In the advice which 
Lord John Russell has humbly tendered to your Majesty, he 
has always had in view the importance of maintcuning the 
popular confidence which your Majesty's ncune everjn^here 
inspires. Somewhat of the good opinion of the Emperor of 
Russia and other foreign Sovereigns may be lost, but the good 
will and affection of the people of England are retained, a great 
security in these times. 

Lord John Russell has made out a note of his address to the 
Cabinet for your Majesty's information. He prays to have it 

^ Queen Victoria to Lord John RusaeU, 

Windsor Castle, 21^ November 1861. 
The Queen has received Lord John Russell's letter and 
returns the note on his former communication to the Cabinet. 
If Lord John felt on the 3rd of November that *' above all, it 
behoves us to be particularly cautious and not to afford just 
ground of complaint to any Party, and that we cannot be too 


vigilcuit or weigh our proceedings too scrupulously *' — the 
Queen cannot suppose that Lord John considers the official 
reception by the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs of 
addresses, in which allied Sovereigns are called Despots and 
Assassins, as within that ** latitude " which he claims for every 
Minister, " which he may use perhaps with indiscretion, per- 
haps with bad taste, but with no consequence of sufficient 
importance to deserve notice." 

The Queen leaves it to Lord John Russell whether he will 
lay her letter, or only the substance of it, before the Cabinet ; ^ 
but she hopes that they will make that careful enquiry into the 
justice of her complaint which she was sorry to miss altogether 
in Lord John Russell's answer. It is no question with the 
Queen whether she pleases the Emperor of Austria or not, but 
whether she gives him a just ground of complaint or not. And 
if she does so, she can never believe that this will add to her 
popularity with her own people. Lord John's letter must 
accordingly have disappointed her as containing a mere attempt 
at a defence of Lord Palmerston. Lord John sees one cause of 
excuse in Lord Palmerston' s natural desire to console himself 
for the mortification of having had to decline seeing M. Kos- 
suth ; the Queen has every reason to believe that he has seen him 
after all. 

Queers Victoria to Viscount Palmerston. 

Windsor castle, 21*r November 1861. 

The Queen h£is just received Lord Palmerston's letter with 
the Memorandum relative to the mourning of her Uncle, the late 
King of Hanover ,3 and she has to say in reply that she thinks 
the mourning ought not to be for a Foreign Sovereign but for a 
Prince of the Blood Royal, which was the nearest relation in 
which he stood to the Throne. 

Queen Victoria to the King of Hanover, 

Windsor Castle, 21st November 1851. 

My dear George, — ^Your kind letter of the 18tli, announc- 
ing to me the melancholy news of the death of your Father, 
was given to me yesterday by Mr Somerset, and I hasten to 
express to you in both our names our sincere and heartfelt 

1 On the 4th of December the matter came b^ore tiie Cabinet. ISo formal resolution 
was adopted, but regret was expressed at Palmerston's want of caution in not ascertaining 
in advance the tenor of the addresses, and in admitting unreliable reporters. • 

2 King Ernest died on the 18th of November, aged eighty, and was succeeded by his 
■on, King George V., who reigned till 1866, and died in 1878. 


condolence, and beg you to do so in our names to our dear 
Cousin Mary.i 

It must be a consolation to you that the end of the King wbb 
peaceful and so free from pain and suffering. Most truly do I 
enter into your feelings as to the responsible position into 
which you are now placed, and my best wishes for your welfare 
and happness as well as that of Hanover will ever accompany 
you. I am happy to hear from Mr Somerset that you were 
well, as well £is your dear Mary and dear children. 

Albert desires me to say ever5rthing kind from him to you as 
well £is to our cousins, and with every possible good wish for 
your health and prosperity, believe me alwajrs, my dear George, 
your very affectionate Cousin, Victoria K. 

Viscount Palmerston to Qiieen Victoria, 

Carlton Gardens, 22nd November 1851. 
Viscount Palmerston presents his humble duty to your 
Majesty and has taken the proper steps according to your 
Majesty's commands, about the mourning for the late King of 
Hanover ; and he would wish to know whether it is your 
Majesty's desire that he should have letters prepcured for your 
Majesty's signature, announcing to Foreign Sovereigns the 
decease of the late King. 

Qiieen Victoria to Viscount Palmerston, 

OSBORNE, 227id NovenAer 185L 

The Queen has just received Lord Palmerston's letter. 

The Queen does not think it necessary for her to announce 
the King of Hanover's death to other Sovereigns, as there is a 
head of that branch of her Family who would have to do so. 
She declared the present King's marriage in Council, but she 
does not think that she announced it. This Lord Palmerston 
woTild perhaps be able to ascertain at the Office. 

Queen Victoria to Lord John Russell, 

Osborne, 3rd December 1851. 
The Queen has received Lord John Russell's letter of the 
30th ult., and has carefully considered his Memorandum on the 
report of the Committee of the Cabinet ; she now returns Sir 
Charles Wood's Memorandum. 

Considering the question of Reform under its two bearings^ 

1 Princess Mary of Saxe-Altenbarg (^1818-1907), wife of King Geoige V. of Hanover. 


on the Franchise and on the Suffrage — the Queen thinks the 
proposal of merely adding neighbouring towns to the small 
boroughs an improvement on the original plan, which contem- 
plated the taking away of members from some boroughs, and 
giving them to others. Thus the animosity may be hoped to be 
avoided which an attack upon vested interests could not have 
failed to have produced. Much will depend, however, upon the 
completeness, fairness, and impartiality with which the selec- 
tion of the towns will be made which are to be admitted into 
the electoral district of others. Sir Charles Wood's Memoran- 
dum being only a sketch, the Queen hopes to see a more com- 
plete list, stating the principle also upon which the selection is 

With regard to the Suffrage, the proposals of the Committee 
appear to the Queen to be framed with a due regard to the 
importance of not giving an undue proportion of weight to 
the Democracy. In the Queen's opinion, the chief question 
to consider will be whether the strengthening of the Democratic 
principle will upset the balance of Constitution, and further 
weaken the Executive, which is by no means too strong at 
present. The Queen is well aware of the difficulty of forming a 
correct estimate beforehand of the moral effect which such 
extensive changes may produce, but thinks that they cannot 
even be guessed at before the numerical results are accurately 
ascertained ; she hopes therefore that the statistics will be 
soon in a state to be laid before her. 

The Queen regrets that the idea of reviving the Guilds had 
to be abandoned, but can quite understand the difficulty which 
would have been added to the measure by its being clogged 
with such an additional innovation. 

Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians. 

OSBORNE, 2nd December 1851. 

My dearest Uncle, — ^Accept my best thanks for your kind 
letter of the 28th. I am truly grieved to hear that you have 
got so bad a cold ; nothing is more trying and annoying than 
those heavy colds, which render all occupation irksome and 
trying in the highest degree. I hope that it will soon be past. 

It is a great pity that you do not venture to come to us, as I 
am sure you might do it easily. I do not think that there will 
be any outburst yet awhile in France. . . . 

I am rather unhappy about dear Uncle Mensdorff, who, I 
hefiu*, has arrived at Vienna with gout in his head. I hope» 
however, soon to hear of his being much better. . . . 

334 THE CX)UP D'ETAT [chap, xx 

Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians. 

OSBOBNE, ith December 1851. 

Deabest Uncle, — I must write a line to ctsk what you say 
to the wonderful proceedings at Paris, which really seem like 
a story in a book or a play ! What is to be the result of it all ?^ 

I feel asheuned to have written so positively a few hours before 
that nothing would happen. 

We are anxiously waiting for to-day*s news — though I should 
hope that the Troops were to be depended upon, and order lot 
the present would prevail. I hope that none of the Orleans 
Family will move a limb or say a word, but remain perfectly 

I must now conclude. Ever your devoted Niece, 

Victoria R. 

Qu^en Victoria to Lord John Russell, 

08B0BNS, ith December 1851. 

The Queen has lecumt with surprise cmd concern the events 
which have taken place at Paris.' She thinks it is of great 
importance that Lord Normanby should be instructed to remain 
entirely passive, and to take no part whatever in what is 
passing. Any word from him might be misconstrued at such 
a moment. 

Lord John Russell to Queen Victoria. 

DOWNING Stbset, iih DecenAer 185L 
f 6 P.M.) 

Lord John Russell presents his humble duty to your 
Majesty. Your Majesty's directions respecting the state 
of affairs in Paris shall be followed. Lord Normcmby ' has 
asked whether he should suspend his diplomatic functions; 
but the Cabinet were unanimously of opinion that he should 
not do so. 

1 On the 2nd of December, Loais Napoleon seized the Goyemment of France, arrested 
his chief opponents, put an end to the National Assembly and Council cl State, and 
•declared Paris in a state of siege. 

a On the 3rd the tidings of the coup d^itai reached London. Count Walewski announced 
it to Lord Palmerston, who expressed his approval of it, and wrote to Lord Normaobj 
the letter printed in his Lt/^, disavowing surprise that the President had stroek the bknr 
when he did, ** for it is now well known here that the Duchess of Orleans was preparing 
to be called to Paris this week with her jounger son to commence a new period of CMesni 

3 Lord Normanby, having applied for instructions as to his future conduct, was deslrad 
to make no change in his relati<»s with the French Govonment, and to abstain from evea 
the appearance of interference in her internal affairs. Having made a commonication 
to this effect to M. Turgot, the latter replied that M. Walewski had notified to him that 
Lord Palmerston had already expressed to him his ** entire approbation of the act 
of the President," and his " conviction that he could not have acted otherwise." 


The result is very uncertain ; at present the power is likely 
to rest in the Army, to whose memory of victories and defeats 
the President has so strongly appealed. 

The King of the Belgians to Qiieen Victoria. 

Laeeen, 6th December 1851. 

My deabest Victoria, — Receive my best thajiks for 
your dear grs/cious letter of the 2nd, the date of the battle 
of Austerlitz, €uid the coup d'etat at Paris. What do you say 
to it? 

As yet one cannot form an opinion, but I am inclined to 
bhink that Louis Bonaparte will succeed. The country is 
tired and wish quiet, and if they get it by this coup d'itat they 
will have no objection, and let le Gouvemement Parlementaire 
et Constitutionnel go to sleep for a while. 

I suspect that the great Continental powers will see a military 
Gk)vemment at Paris with pleasure ; they go rather far in their 
hatred of everything Parliamentary. The President takes a 
little of Napoleon already. I understand that he expressed 
himself displeased, as if I had too much supported the 
Orleans Family. I render perfect justice to the President, 
that hitherto he has not plagued us ; but we have also 
Ekbstained from all interference. I think that H61ene has 
been imprudent ; besides, it is difi&cult for the poor Family 
to avoid to speak on these subjects or to express themselves 
with mildness. 

If something like an Empire establishes itself, perhaps we 
shall for a time have much to suffer, as the gloire francaiae in- 
variably looks to the old frontiers. My hope is that they will 
oeoessarily have much to do at home, for a time, as parties will 
mix high. . . . Your devoted Uncle, Leopold R. 

Qtteen Victoria to Lord John Russdl. 

OSBORNE, 6th December 1851. 

The Queen has to acknowledge Lord John Russell's letter of 
yesterday. She is glad to hear that the Cabinet occupy them- 
selves assiduously with the Reform Question, but hopes that 
ihey will not come to a final decision without having first 
aaoertained how the proposed plan will operate when practically 
applied to the present state of the Franchise and Suffirage. The 
Queen is very anxious to arrive at a definite opinion on this 
subject herself. 

The Queen sees from the Manchester Speeches that the BaUot 
is to be made the stalking-horse of the Radicals. 


The Marchioness of Normariby to Colonel Phipps, 

Pabis, 7th December 1851. 

My dear Charles, — ^I have an opportunity of writing to you 
not through the Foreign Office, which I shall take advantage of, 
as at present the Post is not to be trusted, and I am afraid I do 
not think the Office is either. 

Palmerston has taken lately to writing in the most ex- 
traordinary manner to Normanby.^ I think he wants to fix 
a quajrel with him, which you may be sure Normanby will 
avoid at present, as it would have the worst possible effect; 
but I do not understand it at all, and I wish you could in any 
way explain what it means. Palmerston seems very angry 
because Normanby does not unqualifyingly approve of this 
step here, and the results ; the whole thing is so completely 
a coup d'etat, and all the proceedings are so contrajry to and 
devoid of law and justice and security, that even the most 
violent Tory would be staggered by them. (For instance, 
to-day all the English papers, even Normanby' s, are stopped 
and prohibited ; they will of course allow Nommnby's to come, 
but it is to be under an envelope), and yet Palmerston, who 
quarrels with all Europe about a political adventurer Uke 
Kossuth, because he was defending the liberties and constitu- 
tion of his country, now tries to quarrel with Normanby, and 
really writes in the most impertinent manner, because Nor- 
manby's despatches are not sufficiently in praise of Louis 
Napoleon and his coup d'etat. There must be some dessous 
des cartes that we are not aware of. Normanby has always 
said, having been undertaken, the only thing now is to hope 
and pray it may be successful ; but that is another thing to 
approving the way it was begun, or the way it has been carried 
out. The bloodshed has been dreadful and indiscriminate, no 
quarter was shown, and when an insurgent took refuge in a 
house, the soldiers killed every one in the house, whether en- 
gaged in the emeute or not. ... It is very doubtful whether 
Normanby will be able to go on with [Palmerston] if this sort 
of thing continues, for he talks of " I hear this " and " I €un 
told that," with reference to Normanby 's conduct here, which 
no man in his position can stand, as, if Palmerston takes the 
on-dits of others, and not Normanby's own accounts, there is 
an end of confidence ; but I must say his last letter appears 
to me a sort of exuberance of anger, which spends itself on 

1 On the 6th, Lord Palmerston wrote to Lord Normanby the strange letter printed bj 
Mr Evelyn Ashley in the Life, censuring Lord Normanby's supposed hostility to the Frraim 
President ; Lord Normanby in reply defended his attitude, and asked for an explidt 
statement as to the Foreign Secreta^s approval or otherwise of the conduct and poUcj 
of the President. 


many subjects rather than the one which first caused it, and 
therefore I suspect he has received some rap on the knuckles 
at home, which he resents here, or on the first person who is 
not of the same opinion as himself ; but it is a curious anomaly 
that he should quairel with Normanby in support of arbitrary 
and absolute Government. All is quiet here now, and will, I 
hope, continue so till the Elections, when I suppose we may 
have some more emeutes. . . - 

They have been told at the Clubs that they may meet, but 
they are not to talk poUtics. In short, I do not suppose that 
despotism ever reached such a pitch. . . . You may suppose 
what the French feel ; it serves them all quite right, but that 
does not prevent one's feeling indignant at it. And this is 
what Palmerston is now supporting without restriction. We 
are entirely without euiy other news from England from any 
one. Would you not send me or Normanby a letter through 
Rothschild ? I am rather anxious to know whether this is a 
general feeling in England ; it could not be, if they know all 
that had happened here. Mind, I can quite understand the 
policy of keeping well with Louis Napoleon, and Normanby is 
so, and has never expressed to any one a hostile opinion except 
in his despatches and private letters to Palmerston. ... I 
shall send this by a private hand, not to run the risk of its 
being read. Ever yours affectionately, M. Normanby. 

Qtieen Victoria to the King of the Belgians. 

OSBORNE, 9th December 1851. 

Dearest Uncle, — ^Your kind letter of the 5th reached me on 
Sunday morning. Much blood has been shed since you wrote. . . . 

What you say about arbitrary and military Government in 
Frfiuice is very true, and I daresay will do for a time ; but I do 
not know how Louis Napoleon is to proceed, or how he will get 
over the anger and enmity of those he imprisoned. Still, I see 
that the Legitimists have all given in their adhesion. Every 
one in France and elsewhere miLst wish order, and many there- 
fore rally round the President. 

A most extraordinary report was mentioned to me yester- 
day, which, however, I never could beUeve, and which is 
besides physically impossible, from the illness, of the one and 
the absence of the other, viz. that Joinville and Aumale had 
gone or were going to Lille to put themselves at the head of the 
troops,^ which would be a terrible and a very unwise thing. 
It would be very awkward for you too. 

1 Mr Borthwick, of the Morning Post^ had so stated to Lord Palmerston on the authority 
of General de Rumigny ; seyen years later FalmeiBton wrote the Memorandam on the 
subject printed in his Life. 


I must now conclude, hoping soon to hear from you. You 
should urge the poor Orleans family to be very prudent in what 
they say about passing events, as I believe Louis Napoleon is 
very sore on the subject, and matters might get stUl worse. 
Ever your devoted Niece, Viotobia R. 

The Marchioness of Normanby to Colonel Phipps.^ 

Paris, 9th December 185L 

My deabest Chables, — ^I had written a long letter to the 
Queen, cmd upon second thoughts I have burnt it, because 
events have now become so serious between Normanby and 
Palmerston that I do not think that I should be the person to in- 
form Her Majesty of it, in case anything was to be said upon the 
subject in Parliament. And yet as the affront has been given 
in Palmerston's private letters, I feel sure she does not know it 
You have all probably seen Normanby's public despatches, 
in which, though as an Englishman he deprecates and 
deplores the means employed and the pledges broken — in 
short, the unconstitutional illegality of the whole coup d'etat^ 
yet he always says, seeing now no other refuge from Rouge 
ascendency, he hopes it may succeed. One would have sup- 
posed, from the whole tenor of his policy, from his Radical 
tendencies, and all that he has been doing lately, that Palme> 
ston would have been the last person to approve of this coup 
d'etat. Not a bit ! He turns upon Normanby in the most 
flippant manner ; almost accuses him of a concealed know- 
ledge of an Orleanist plot — ^never whispered here, nor I be- 
lieve, even imagined by the Government of Pcais, who would 
have been too glad to seize upon it as an excuse ; says he com- 
promises the relations of the country by his evident disapproval 
of Louis Napoleon — ^in short, it is a letter that Momy might 
have written, and that it is quite impossible for Normanby to 
bear. The curious thing is that it is a letter or rather letters 
that would completely ruin Palmerston with hds Party. He 
treats all the acts of the wholesale cruelties of the troops as a 
joke — in short, it is the letter of a man half mad, I think, for to 
quarrel with Normanby on this subject is cutting his own 
throat. . . . He has written also to Lord John. Louis 
Napoleon knows perfectly well that Normanby cannot approve 
the means he has taken ; he talks to him confidentially, and 
treats him as an honest, upright man, and he never showed him 
more attention, or friendship even than last night when we 

1 Submitted to the Qaeen by Colonel Phipps. 


were at the Elys^e, though Normanby said not one word in 
approval. . . . 

There is another question upon which Normanby has a right 
to complcdn, which is, that two days before Palmerston sent 
his instructions here, he expressed to Walewski his complete 
approval of the step taken by Louis Napoleon, which was 
transmitted by Walewski in a despatch to Turgot, and read by 
him to many members of the Corps Diplomatique a day before 
Normanby heard a word from Palmerston. You will perhaps 
think that there is not enough in all this to authorise the grave 
step Normanby has taken, but the whole tone of his letters 
9hows such a want of confidence, is so impertinent — talk of 
" we hear this," and " we axe told that," — ^bringing a sort of 
anonymous gossip against a man of Normanby's character and 
standing, that respect for himself obliges Normanby to take it 
up seriously. ... In the meantime our Press in England is, 
ds usual, too violent against Louis Napoleon. We have no 
Mends or true allies left, thanks to the policy of Lord Palmer- 
ston ; as soon as the peace of the country is restored the Army 
must be employed ; it is the course of a Military Government ; 
as much as an absolute Government is destroyed by the 
people, and the democracy again, when fallen into anarchy, is 
followed by Military Government. Louis Napoleon must 
maintain his position by acts : they will find out that Belgium 
should belong to France, or Alsa;ce, or Antwerp, or something 
or other that England will not be able to allow, and then how 
are we prepared for the consequences ? . . . 

The more I think of Palmerston's letters, the less I can un- 
derstand them ; every sentence is in direct contradiction to 
his acts and words. He ridicules the idea of the Constitution ; 
turns to scorn the idea of anything being due to the Members 
of the Assembly ; laughs and jokes at the Club being fired into, 
though the English people in it were within an a^ce of being 
murdered by the soldiers ; says that Normanby is pathetic over 
a broken,^ forgetting that the same bullet grazed 
the hand of an Englishman, " a Roman citizen I " who was be- 
tween the window and the glass — ^in short, as I said before, he 
\a quite incomprehensible, except, as I cannot help thinking, 

1 Hie tone of Lwd Palmerston's private letters to Lord Normanby at this time is best 
illustrated by the following extract : — 

" Yoor despatches since the event of Taesday have been all hostile to Louis Napoleon, 
with very little information as to events. One of tiiem consisted of a dissertation about 
Kossuth, which would have made a good article in the Timet a fortnight ago ; and another 
dwells chieflv on a looking-glass broken in aClub-house; and you are pathetic about a piece 
of broken pliaster broughtd own from a ceiling by musket-shots during the street fights. 
Now we know that the Diplomatic Agents of Austria and Bussia called on the President 
immediately after his measure on Ttiesday morning, and have been profuse in their 
expressions of approval of his conduct." 


he read the private letter Normanby wrote to the Duke of 
Bedford upon the Kossuth business, wishing to take his advice 
a little upon a grave question, but which did not actually 
interfere with his position here. This would account for hia 
extreme irritation. . . . 

All at present is quiet in Paris. There are Socialist risings 
in many parts of the country, but all these will do the President 
good, and strengthen his hands, for even the people who have 
been treated with indignity will pardon him if their chateaux 
are saved from an infuriated and brutal peasantry. The 
President told Normanby last night that the accounts of the 
cruelties and atta^cks in parts of the country were very seriou% ; 
but he hoped they would soon be put down. . . . 


Queen Victoria to Lord John Rtissell. 

Osborne, IStA December 1851. 

The Queen sends the enclosed despatch from Lord Normanby 
to Lord John Russell, from which it appears that the French 
Government pretend to have received the entire approval of the 
late coup d'etat by the British Government, a.s conveyed by 
Lord Palmerston to Count Walewski. The Queen cannot be- 
lieve in the truth of the assertion, as such an approval given by 
Lord Palmerston would have been in complete contradiction to 
the line of strict neutrality and passiveness which the Queen 
had expressed her desire to see followed with regard to the late 
convulsion at Paris, and which was approved by the Cabinet, 
as stated in Lord John Russell's letter of the 6th inst. Does 
Lord John know anything about the alleged approval, which, 
if true, would again expose the honesty and dignity of the 
Queen's Government in the eyes of the world ? * 

Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians. 

Osborne, IZth December 1851. 

My beloved Uncle, — ^These lines are to express my very 
warmest wishes for many, many happy returns of your dear 

1 Lady Normanby wrote later : — 

" I told you yesterday the President had no faitii in him (Palmerston). The Treafy 
signed with Buenos Ayres, the Greek business, and the reception of Koesuth had long 
d^troyed his confidence in Palmerston, and I believe he hat^ him and sees throo^^ his 
present adulations. . . . ." 

2 On the 15th, Lord Normanby wrote to Lord Palmerston that he must now aaBone 
M. Walewski's report to be correct, and observed that if the Foreign Secretary held <»e 
language in Downing Street and prescribed another course to the British Ambaasador, 
the latter must be awkwardly circumstanced. Lord Palmerston (in a letter not ahown 


birthday, and for every earthly blessing you can desire. Ilowl 
wish you could spend it ^re, or we with you ! I venture to 
send you some trifles which will recall the Exhibition in which 
you took so much interest. The continuation of the work I 
send you, I shall forward as it comes out. 

As I wrote so lately, and shall do so on Tuesday, I will not 
touch on politics — with one exception — that I think it of high 
importance that the Orleans should clear themselves of all 
suspicion of a ploU which some people, I a.m sure, wish to make 
it appear they are involved in ; and that public contradiction 
should be given to the fooUsh report, rmich credited here, that 
Joinville has gone to Lille, or to some part of France, to head 
the Troops. Ever you devoted Niece and Child, 

Victoria R. 

How you will again miss your departed Angel ! 
Lord John Russell to Queen Victoria. 

WOBURN ABBEY, l%th December 1851. 

Lord John Russell presents his humble duty to your Majesty. 
He received from Lord Palmerston yesterday an explanation 
of his declaration of opinion to Mr Walewski, which Lord John 
Russell regrets to state was quite unsatisfactory. 

He thought himself compelled to write to Lord Palmerston : 
in the most decisive terms. i 

Lord Palmerston requested that his letter might be returned 
to be copied. 

The whole correspondence shall be submitted to your Majesty. 

Yo\xr Majesty will find in the box a despatch of Lord Nor- 
manby of the 15th, and an answer of Lord Palmerston of the 
16th,* which has been sent without your Majesty's sanction, 
or the knowledge of Lord John Russell. 

The King of the Belgians to Qtceen Victoria. 

Laeken, 19th December 1851. 

My dearest Victoria, — Receive my warmest and best 
thanks for your truly kind and grs/cious recollection of my old 
birthday, and your amiable presents. 

Our angelic Louise had quite un cvlte for that day, and two 

to the Qaeen or the Cabinet) replied that he had said nothing ino(»sistent with his instrac- 
tions to Lwd Normanby. that the President's action was for the French nation to judge 
of, bat tiiat in his riew that action made for the maintenance of social order in France. 

1 The letters are given in full in Ashley's Life of Lord Ptdmerston^ vol. i. chs^. vli., 
where Lord Falmerston's explanation of the 16th, in answer to the Premier's letter of the 
Utb, will also be found. 


have already passed since the best and noblest of hearts beats 
no longer amongst us. When one sees the haste and ardour 
of earthly pursuits, and how all this is often disposed of, and 
when one sees that even the greatest success always ends with 
the grave, one is tempted to wonder that the human race should 
follow so restlessly bubbles often disappearing just when 
reached, and always being a source of never-ending anxiety. 
France gives, these sixty years, the proof of the truth of what 
I say, always believing itself at the highest point of perfection 
and changing it a few weeks afterwards. 

A miUtary Government in France, if it really gets estab- 
lished, must become dangerous for Europe. I hope that at 
least at its beginning it will have enough to do in France, and 
that we may get time to prepare. England will do well not 
to fall asleep, but to keep up its old energy and courage. . . . 
Your truly devoted Uncle, LEOPOiiD R. 

Queen Victoria to Lord John RiLsseU, 

OSBORNE, I9th December 1851. 

The Queen has received several conunimications from Lord 
John Russell, but has not ajiswered them, as she expected daily 
to hear of Lord Palmerston's answer. As Lord John Rusaell 
in his letter of yesterday's date promises to send her his corre- 
spondence with Lord Palmerston, she refrains from expressing 
a decided opinion until she has had an opportunity of per- 
using it ; but Lord John will readily conceive what must be 
her feelings in seeing matters go from bad to worse with respect 
to Lord Palmerston's conduct ! 

Lord John Rttssell to Queen Victoria. 

WOBURN Abbey, 19th Decerriber 1851. 

Lord John Russell presents his humble duty to your Majesty, 
and has the honour to submit to your Majesty a correspondence 
with Viscount Palmerston, which terminates with a letter of 
this day's date. 

Lord John Russell has now to advise your Majesty that 
Lord Palmerston should be informed that your Majesty is ready 
to accept the Seals of Office, and to place them in other hands. 

Lord John Russell has summoned a Cabinet for Monday. 

They may be of opinion that they cannot continue a Govern- 

But that is not Lord John Russell's opinion ; and should 


they agree with him, he will proceed without delay to recom- 
mend a successor to your Majesty. 

The Earl Granville appears to him the person best calcu- 
lated for that post, but the Cabinet may be of opinion that 
more experience is required. 

Qifsen Victoria to Lord John RuaseU. 

WINDSOR Castle, 20th December 1851. 
The Queen found on her arrival here Lord John Russell's 
letter, enclosing his correspondence with Lord Palmerston, 
which ^ she has perused with that care and attention which the 
importance and gravity of the subject of it demanded. The 
Queen has now to expres^to Lord John Russell her readiness 
to follow his advice, and ner acceptance of the resignation of 
Lord Palmerston. She will be prepared to see Lord John after 
the Cabinet on Monday, as he proposes. 

Queen Victoria to Lord John Eussdl. 

Windsor Castle, 20th December 1851. 

With respect to a successor to Lord Palmerston, the Queen 
must state, that after the sad experience which she has just had 
of the difficulties, annoyances, and dangers to which the 
Sovereign may be exposed by the personal character and 
qualities of the Secretary for Foreign Affairs, she must reserve 
to herself the unfettered right to approve or disapprove the 
choice of a Minister for this Office. 

Lord Granville, whom Lord John Russell designates as the 
person best calculated for that post, would meet with her 
entire approval. The possible opinion of the Cabinet that 
more experience was required does not weigh much with the 
Queen. From her knowledge of Lord Granville's chara;Cter, she 
is inclined to see no such disadvantage in the circumstance that 
he has not yet had practice in managing Foreign Affairs, as 
he will be the more ready to lean upon the advice and judg- 
ment of the Prime Minister where he may have diffidence in 
his own, and thereby will add strength to the Cabinet by 
maintaining unity in thought and action. The Queen hopes 
Lord John Russell will not omit to let her have copies of his 
correspondence with Lord Palmerston, as he has promised 

1 On the same day the Prince wrote to the Premier that the Qaeen was mach relieved. 
She had contemplated dismissing Lord Palmerston herself, but naturally shrank from 
using the power of the Crown, as her action would have been criticised without the possi- 
bility of making a public defence ; in his view the Cabinet was ratiier strengthened than 
otherwise by Palmerston's departure, and public empathy would not be with him. The 
rest of the letter is published in The Life of the Prince Consort. 


Queen Victoria to Lord John RtisseU, 

WINDSOR Castle, 21st December 1851. 

The Queen nas received Lord John Russell's letter of to-day. 
She is not the least afraid of Lord Granville's not possessing 
sufficient public confidence for him to undertake the Foreign 
Affairs. He is very popular with the House of Lords, with 
the Free Traders, and the Peace party, and all that the Con- 
tinent knows of him is in his favour ; he had great success at 
Paris last summer, and his never having had an opportunity 
of damaging his character by having been mixed up in diplo- 
matic intrigues is an immense advantage to him in obtaining 
the confidence of those with whom he is to negotiate. 

Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians. 

WINDSOR CASTLE, 2Srd December 1851. 

My deabest Uncle, — ^I have the greatest pleasure in an- 
nouncing to you a piece of news which I know will give you as 
. much satisfaction and relief as it does to us, and will do to the 
wfu)le of the world. Lord Palmerston is no longer Foreign 
Secretary — and Lord Granville is already named his successor ! ! 
He had become of late really quite reckless, and in spite of the 
serious admonition and caution he received only on the 29th 
of November, and again at the beginning of December, he tells 
Walewski that he entirely approves Louis Napoleon's cou/p 
d^etat, when he had written to Lord Normanby by my €uid the 
Cabinet's desire that he (Lord Normanby) was to continue his 
diplomatic intercourse with the French Government, but to 
remain perfectly passive and give no opinion. Walewski 
wrote Palmerston' s opinion (entirely contrary to what the 
Grovernment had ordered) to M. Turgot, and when Normanby 
came with his instructions, Turgot told him what Palmerston 
had said. Upon this Lord John asked Palmerston to give an 
explanation — which, after the delay of a week, he answered 
in such an unsatisfactory way that Lord John wrote to him 
that he could no longer remain Foreign Secretary, for that 
perpetual misimderstanding and breaches of decorum were 
taking place which endangered the country. Lord Palmerston 
answered instantly that he would give up the Seals the moment 
his successor was neunied ! Certain as we all felt that he could 
not have continued long in his place, we were quite taken by 
surprise when we leamt of the dSnouement. . . . Lord Gran- 
ville will, I think, do extremely well, and his extreme honesty 


and trustworthiness mil make him invaluable to us, and to the 
Government and to Europe. 

I send some prints, etc., for the children for Christmas. 
Ever your devoted Niece, Victoria R. 

Memorandum by the Prmce Albert. 

Windsor Castle, 28rd December 1861. 

Lord John Russell arrived here at six o'clock yesterday 
evening immediately from the Cabinet, and reported that the 
Cabinet had, without a dissenting voice, condemned Lord 
Palmerston's conduct, and approved of the steps taken by 
Lord John Russell, which was a great relief to him. Lord 
Lcuisdowne, to whom he had first written on the subject, had 
frightened him by answering that it was not possible to avoid 
the rupture with Lord Palmerston, but that he thought the 
Government would after this not be able to go on. When, 
however, this question was discussed in Cabinet, €uid Lord John 
had stated that he thought the Office could be well filled, they 
all agreed in the propriety of going on. The Members of the 
Cabinet were so unable to understand Lord Falmerston's 
motives for his conduct during these last months, that Mr. 
Fox Maule stctrted an idea which once occurred to Lord John 
himaelf (as he said), viz. that he must have had the design 
to bring on a rupture ! Lord Minto, who was absent from the 
Cabinet^ expressed himself in a letter to Lord John very strongly 
about Lord Palmerston's reckless conduct, which would yet 
undo the country. 

Lord John, after having received the concurrence of the 
Cabinet cm the question of Lord Palmerston's dismissal, stated 
that Lord Granville was the person whom he would like best 
to see fill his office, and he knew this to be the feeling of the 
Queen also. The Cabinet quite agreed in Lord Granville's 
fitness, but Sir George Grey stated it as his opinion that it 
ought first to be offered to Lord Clarendon, who has always 
been pointed out by the public as the proper person to succeed 
Lord Palmerston, and that, if he were passed over, the whole 
znartter would have the appearance of a Cabinet intrigue in 
favour of one colleague against another. The whole of the 
Cabinet sided with this opinion, and Lord John Russell now 
proposed to the Queen that an offer should in the first instance 
be soade to Lord Clarendon. j 

The Queen protested against the Cabinet's taking upon it-/ 
self the appointment of its own Members, which rested entirely 
with the Prime Minister and the Sovereign, under who^ 

346 LORD CLARENDON [chap, xx 

approval the former constructed his Government. . . . Lord 
John replied that he thought Lord Clarendon would not jwcept 
the offer, and therefore there would be little danger in satisfying 
the desires of the Cabinet. He had written to Lord Clarendon 
a cautioning letter from Wobum, apprising him of some serious 
crisis, of which ho would soon hear, and speaking of his former 
wish to exchfiuige the Lord-Lieutenancy for some other Office. 
Lord Clarendon at once perceived the drift of the hint, and 
wrote to the Duke of Bedford what he said he did not wish to 
write to his brother John, that, if it was that PaJmerston was 
going, and he were thought of a£ a successor, nothing would be 
so disagreeable to him, as the whole change would be put down 
as an intrigue of his, whom Lord PaJmerston had always 
accused of wishing to supplant him ; that if, however, the 
service of the country required it, he had the courage to face all 
personal obloquy. . . . 

Lord John owned that Sir Greorge Grey's chief desire was to 
see Lord Clarendon removed from Ireland, having been there 
so long ; the Cabinet would wish to see the Duke of Newcastle 
join the Government as Lord-Lieutenant, which he might be 
induced to do. The Queen having mentioned Lord Clarendon 
as most fit to succeed Lord Lansdowne one day as President 
of the Council and leader in the House of Lords, Lord John 
said that Lord Clarendon had particularly begged not to have 
the position offered him, for which he did not feel fit. Lord 
John would like him as Ambassador at Pans, and thought Lord 
Clarendon would like this himself ; but it was difficult to know 
what to do with Lord Normanby. 

In the course of the conversation. Lord John congratulated 
the Queen upon the change having been accomplished without 
her personal intervention, which might have exposed her to the 
animosity of Lord Palmerston's admirers, whilst she would 
have been precluded from making any public defence. I 
reminded Lord John that, as such was the disadvantage of the 
regal position, it behoved the Queen doubly to watch, lest she 
be put into the scunae dilemma with a new Minister, whose 
conduct she could not approve of. Lord Clarendon's appoint- 
ment would be doubly galling to Lord Palmerston, whom 
Lord John might not wish to irritate further, a consideration 
which Lord John s€dd he had also pressed upon the Cabinet. 
Upon a remark from Lord John as to Lord Granville's 
youth, the Queen replied : " Lord Canning, whom Lord 
Stanley had intended to make his Foreign Secretary, was not 
older." . . . 

The conference ended by Lord John's promise to vnrite to 
Lord Clarendon as the Queen had desired . . . but that he did 


not wish to make the offer to Lord Granville till he had Lord 
Clarendon's answer. Lord Granville had been told not to 
attend the last Cabinet ; Lord Falmerston had naturally 
stayed away. 

I went up to Town at half -past seven to the Westminster 
Play, and took Lord John in my train to Richmond. We had 
some further conversation in the carriage, in which I asked 
Lord John whether it was true that Lord Palmerston had got 
us likewise into a quarrel with America by our ships firing at 
Panama upon an Ainerican merchantman ; he said neither he 
nor Sir Francis Baring had received any news, but Sir Francis 
had been quite relieved by Lord Palmerston's quitting, as he 
c6uld not be sure a moment that his Fleets were not brought 
into some scrape ! 

On my expressing my conviction that Lord Palmerston 
could not be very formidable to the Government, Lord John 
said : "I hope it will not come true what Lord Derby (then 
Lord Stanley) said after the last Ministerial crisis, when Lord 
John quizzed him at not having been able to get a Foreign 
Secretary — * Next time I shall have Lord Palmerston ' ! " 


Lord John Russell to Queen Victoria. 

DOWNINQ Street, 23rd December 1851. 

Lord John Russell presents his humble duty to your 
Majesty. He has just seen Count Walewski ; he told him 
that he had an important piece of intelligence to give him ; 
that your Majesty had been pleased to make a change in 
ihe Foreign Office, and to direct Lord Palmerston to give 
up the Seals. 

He wished to give this intelligence that he might accompany 
it with an intimation that the policy towards France would 
continue to be of the most friendly character, and that there 
was nothing the Government more desired than to see a stable 
and settled Government in France ; that they had every wish 
for the stability of the present French Government. Coimt 
Walewski said he had received various assurances of opinion 
from Lord Palmerston, which he supposed were adopted by 
Lord John Russell, and subsisted in force. 

Lord John Russell said : " Not exactly ; it is a principle 
of the English Government not to interfere in any way with 
the internal affairs of other countries ; whether France chooses 
to be a Republic or a Monarchy, provided it be not a Social 
Republic, we wish to express no opinion ; we are what we call 
in England a sheet of white paper in this respect ; all we desire 


b the happiness and weKare of France." Count Walewski 
said it was of importance to the stability of the President that 
he should have a large majority ; he would then give a Con- 

Lord John Russell said each nation must suit itself in this 
respect ; we have perhaps been in error in thinking our Con- 
stitution could be generally adopted ; some nations it may suit, 
others may find it unfitted for them. 

Queen Victoria to Lord John EtcsseU. 

WINDSOR Castle, 2Zrd December ISSL 

The Queen has just received Lord John Russell's letters, and 
is much rejoiced that this important affair has been finally so 
satisfactorily settled. 

The Queen returns Lord Clarendon's letter, which she thinks 
a very good one.^ The Queen hopes Count Walewski will have 
been satisfied, which she thinks he ought to be. The Queen 
will receive Lord Palmerston to deliver up the Seals, and 
Lord Granville to receive them, on Friday at half-past two. 

Lord John Russell to Queen Victoria, 

DOWNINQ Street, 24th December 1861. 

Lord John Russell submits a private note of Lord Pahner- 
ston,2 which only shows how unconscious he was of all that 
the rest of the world perceived. 

Queen Victoria to Lord John BusseU. 

Windsor Castle, 26th December 185L 

The Queen has received Lord John Russell's letters, and she 
returns the enclosures. 

The articles in the Times are very good ; the other papecs 
seem quite puzzled, and unable to comprehend what has 
caused Lord Palmerston' s removal from office. Lord Pabner- 
ston's letter is very characteristic ; he certainly has the beet 
of the argument, and great care ought to be taken in bestowing 

1 Lord Olarendon, in answer to Lord John Kussell, expressed great reluctance to nnd** 
take the diarge of the Foreign Office, on the ground that Pahxueraton, always raqpicioas 
of him, would insist that he had deliberately undermined his position ; while Lord Qnif 
ville would be popular with the Court and country. 

2 In this letter. Lord Palmerston denied the *' charge of violations of prad«nce ud 
decorum," adding, " I haye to observe that that charge is refuted by the oflor which yoa 
made of the Lord-Lieutenancy of Ireland, because I apprehend that to be an oflBce for 
the due performance of the duties of which prudence and decorum cannot well be diq>eoBed 


any praise on hini, as he always takes advantage of it to turn 
against those who meant it merely to soothe him. The Queen 
thought that there must be a Council for the swearing in of the 
new Secretary of State. 

Memorandum by the Prince Albert. 

WINDSOR CASTLE, 27th December 1851. 

Yesterday the Council was held, at which the change of 
Seals was to take place. We waited for one hour eaad a half, 
but Lord Palmerston did not appear ; his Seals had been sent 
from the Foreign Office to Lord John Russ^ ! 

Lord John told us he had written to Lord Palmerston, 
announcing him the appointment of Lord Granville, and added 
that in his long political life he had not passed a week which 
had been so painful to him. Lord Palmerston' s answer wa>s 
covofaed in these terms : "Of course you will believe that I 
feel that just indignation at the whole proceeding which it must 

Lord Lansdowne seemed anxious particularly on accoiuit 
of the clear symptoms appearing from the papers that 
both Radicals and Protectionists are bidding for Lord 

Lord Granville was very much overcome when he had his 
audience to thank for his appointment, but seemed full of 
courage and good-will. He said it would be as easy to him 
to avoid Lord Palmerston' s faults as difficult to imitate his 
good qualities, promised to endeavour to establish a more 
decent usage between the Governments in their mutual com- 
munications, by setting the good example himself, and insisting 
upon the same on the part of the others ; promised not to have 
anything to do with the newspapers ; to give evening parties, 
just as Lord Palmerston had done, to which a good deal of his 
influence was to be attributed. He said a Member of Parlia- 
meoit just returned from the Continent had told him that an 
TSngUshman could hardly show himself without becoming 
aware of the hatred they were held in ; the only chance one 
had to avoid being insiilted was to say Civia Romambs mm 

Lord Granville h€ui been Under-Secretary for Foreign 
Affairs under Lord Palmerston for three years from 1837-40, 
but, as he e^)ressed himself, rather the sandwich between hie 
principal and the clerks. Lord Palmerston had in these three 
yeare hardly once spoken to him upon any of the subjects he 
had to treat. Albert. 


QiLeen Victoria to Lord John Bitssdl. 

Windsor Oastle, 27th Deeember 1851. 

The Queen forgot to remind Lord John Russell yesterday 
of his correspondence with Lord Palmerston, which he promised 
to let her have. 

The Queen concludes from what Lord John sfidd yesterday 
that he intended sounding the Duke of Newcastle relative to 
the Lord-Lieutenancy of Lreland. 

Has Lord John ascertained the cause of Lord Pahnerston's 
absence yesterday ? If it was not a^ccidental, she must say she 
thinks it most disrespectful conduct towards his Sovereign. 

Lord John RitsseU to Queen Victoria, 

Pembroke Lodge, 27/A I>eeena>er 1861. 

Lord John Russell presents his humble duty to your Majesty, 
and submits a letter of Lord Palmerston, which explains his 
not going to Windsor. It appears to have arisen from a 
mistake in the message sent through Lord Stanley, and not 
from any want of respect to your Majesty. 

Viscount Palmeraton to Lord John RusaeU. 

Garlion Gardens, 27th Deeember 186L 

My DEAR John Russell, — ^I am distressed beyond measure 
by the note from you which I have this moment received on 
my arrival here from Hampshire. I understood from Stanley 
that you had desired him to tell me that if it was inconvenient 
for me to come up yesterday, I might send the Seals to you 
at Windsor, and that my presence would be dispensed with.^ 
Thereupon I sent the Seals up by an early train yesterday 
morning to Stanley, that he might send them down to you as 
suggested by you, and I desired that they might be taken by a 
messenger by the special train. 

I shall be very much obliged to you if you will have the 
goodness to explain this matter to the Queen, and I beg you 
to assure Her Majesty how deeply grieved I am that what 
appears to have been a mistake on my part should have led me 

1 There is a fuller aocoont given of Lord Falmerston's version d the whole affair in t 
letter to his brother, printed in Ashley's Life of Lord PaimersUm, voL i. p. 315. 


to be apparently wanting in due respect to Her Majesty, than 
which nothing could possibly be further from my intention or 
thoughts. Yours sincerely, Palmerston. 

Queen Victoria to Lord John Russell. 

WINDSOR CASTLE, 28<A December 1861. 

The Queen thinks the moment of the change in the person of 
Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs to afford a fit opportunity 
to have the principles upon which our Foreign Affairs have been 
conducted since the beginning of 1848 reconsidered by Lord 
John Russell ajid his Cabinet. 

The Queen was fully aware that the storm raging at the 
time on the Continent rendered it impossible for any statesman 
to foresee with clearness and precision what development ajid 
direction its elements would take, and she consequently quite 
agreed that the line of policy to be followed, as the most con- 
ducive to the interests of England, could then only be generally 
conceived and vaguely expressed. 

But although the Queen is still convinced that the general 
principles laid down by Lord John at that time for the conduct 
of our Foreign Policy were in themselves right, she has in the 
progress of the last three years become painfully convinced that 
the manner in which they have been practically applied has 
worked out very different results from those which the correct- 
ness of the principles themselves had led her to expect. For 
when the revolutionary movements on the Continent had laid 
prostrate almost all its Governments, and England alone dis- 
played that order, vigour, and prosperity which it owes to a 
stable, free, and good Government, the Queen, instead of 
earning the natural good results of such a glorious position, 
viz. consideration, goodwill, confidence, and influence abroad, 
obtained the very reverse, and had the grief to see her Govern- 
ment and herself treated on many occasions with neglect, 
aversion, distrust, and even contumely. 

Frequently, when our Foreign Policy was called in question, 
it has been said by Lord John and his colleagues that the 
principles on which it was conducted were the right ones, and 
having been approved of by them, received their support, and 
that it was only the personal manner of Lord Palmerston in con- 
ducting the affairs which could be blamed in tracing the causes 
which led to the disastrous results the Queen complains of. 

The Queen is certainly not disposed to defend the personal 
manner in which Lord Palmerston has conducted Foreign 
Affairs, but she cannot admit that the errors he committed were 


m^ely fatiUa in form and method, that they were no more than 
acts of " inoonsideration, indiscretion, or bad taste." The 
Queen considers that she has also to complain of what appeared 
to her deviations from the principles laid down by the Cigkbinet 
for his conduct, nay, she sees distinctly in their practiced appli- 
cation a personal and arbitrary perversion of the very nature and 
essence of those principles. She has only to refer here to Italy, 
Spain, Greece, Holstein, France, etc., etc., which afford ample 
illustrations of this charge. 

It was one thing for Lord Palmerston to have attempted 
such substantial deviations ; it will be another for the Calknet 
bo consider whether they had not the power to check him in 
these attempts. 

The Queen, however, considering times to have now changed, 
thinks that there is no reason why we should any longer confine 
ourselves to the mere assertion of abstract principles, such as 
" non-intervention in the internal affairs of other countries," 
" moral support to liberal institutions," " protection to British 
subjects," etc., etc. The moving powers which were put in 
operation by the French Revolution of 1848, and the events 
consequent on it, are no longer so obscure ; they have assumed 
distinct and tangible forms in almost all the countries affected 
by them (in France, in Italy, Grermany, etc.), and upon the 
state of things now existing, and the experience gained, the 
Queen would hope that our Foreign Policy may be more sped- 
ficaUy defined, and that it may be considered how the general 
principles are to be practically adapted to our pecuhar relations 
with each Continental State. 

The Queen wishes therefore that a regular programme 
embracing these different relations should be submitted 
to her, and would suggest whether it would not be the 
best mode if Lord John were to ask Lord Granville to 
prepare such a paper and to lay it before her after having 
revised it. 

This would then serve as a safe guide for Lord Granville, 
and enable the Queen as well as the Cabinet to see that the 
Policy, as in future to be conducted, will be in conformity with 
the principles laid down and approved. 

Lord John Russell to Queen Victoria. 

PEMBROKE LODGE, 29(A Deoemier 1851. 

Lord John Russell presents his humble duty to your Majesty ; 
he has received your Majesty's communication of yesterday, 
and will transmit it to Lord Granville. 


It is to be observed, however, that the traditionary policy of 
this country is not to bind the Crown and country by engage- 
ments, unless upon special cause shown, arising out of the 
circumstances of the day. 

For instance, the Treaty of Quculruple Alliance between 
England, France, Spain, and Portugal was contrary to the 
general principle of non-intervention ; so was the interference 
in Portugal in 1847, but were both justified by circumstances. 

Thus it is very difficult to lay down any principles from 
which deviations may not frequently be meule. 

The grand rule of doing to others as we wish that they should 
do unto us is more applicable than any system of poUtical 
science. The honoinr of England does not consist in defending 
every English officer or English subject, right or wrong, but in 
taking care that she does not infringe the rules of justice, and 
that they are not infringed against her.^ 

Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians. 

Windsor Castle, ZOth December 1851. 

My dearest Uncle, — ^Most warmly do I thank you for your 
kind and affectionate and interesting letter of the 26th, which 
I received on Sunday. All that you say about Lord Palmerston 
is but too true. . . . He brouiUed us and the country with every 
one ; and his very first act precipitated the unfortunate Spanish 
marriages which was le commencement de la fin. It is too griev- 
ous to think how much misery and mischief might have been 
avoided. However, now he has done with the Foreign Office 
for ever, sjid " the veteran statesman," as the newspapers, to 
our great amusement and I am sure to hda infinite annoyance, 
call him, must rest upon his laurels. ... I fear much lest they 
should be imprudent at Claremont ; the poor Queen hinted to 
Mamma that she hoped you would not become a friend to the 
President ; no doubt you can have no sympathies for him, but 
just because you are related to the poor Orleanses, you feel that 
you must be doubly cautious to do nothing which could provoke 
the enmity of Louis Napoleon. I fear that poor Joinville had 
some mad idea of going to France, which, fortunately, his illness 
prevented. It would have been the height of foUy. Their 
only safe policy is to remcdn entirely passive etdese faire oublier, 
which was Nemoinrs' expression to me two years ago ; nothing 
oould be wiser or more prudent than he was then — but I don't 

1 A gmnmary of Lord Granville's Memorandmn in reply (which was coached in very, 
general terms) will be found in Lord Fitzmaurice's Life of Earl Granville, vol. 1 p. 49. 

VOL. n 12 

364 THE DUKE OF NEWCASTLE [chap, xx 

think they were wise since. La Candidature of JoinviUe was in 
every way unwise, and led Louis Napoleon to take so desperate 
a course. Nemours told me also laist year that they were not 
at all against a fttaion, but that they could not disposer de la 
France, unless called upon to do so by the nation. I wish you 
would caution them to be very circumspect and silent — ^for all 
the mistakes made by others is in their favour ; in fact, no good 
for them could come till Paris is old enough to be his own 
master — ^unless indeed they all returned under Henri V., but a 
Regency for Paris would be an impossibility. . . . 

We spent a very happy Christmas, and now wish you a very 
happy New Year — for many succeeding years. Also to the 
children, who I hope wore pleased with the prints, etc. 

We have got yoimg Prince Nicholas of Nassau here, a pretty, 
clever boy of nineteen, with a good deal of knowledge, and a 
great wish to learn and heeur, which is a rare thing for the young 
Princes, of our day in particular. I must stop now, as I fear 
I have already let my pen run on for too long, and must beg 
to be excused for this volimiinous letter. 

With Albert's love ever your devoted Niece, 

Victoria R. 

Queen Victoria to Lord John RusseU. 

Windsor Castle, dOth December 1851. 

The Queen has received Lord John Kussell's letters of 
yesterday. She quite agrees with him and his colleagues in 
thinking it of importance to strengthen the Government, and 
she is pleased with his proposal to communicate with the Duke 
of Newcastle as to what assistemce he and his friends can give 
to the Government. 

The Queen expects better results from such a negotiation, 
with an ostensible head of a Party, than from attempts to 
detach single individuals from it, which from a sense of honour 
they always felt scruples in agreeing to. 

Queen Victoria to Lord John Russell. 

Windsor Castle, 31*/ December 1851. 

The Queen sees in the papers that there is to be a Te Deum 
at Paris on the 2nd for the success of the coup d'etat, and that 
the Corps Diplomatique is to be present. She hopes that Lord 
Normanby will be told not to attend. Besides the impropriety 


of his takmg part in such a ceremony, his doing so would en- 
tirely destroy the position of Lord John Russell opposite Lord 
Pabnerston, who might with justice say that he merely ex- 
pressed his personal approval of the coup d'itctt before, but since, 
the Queen's Ambassador had been ordered publicly to thank 
God for its success. 


Early in 1852, the Whig Government, impaired in public credit 
by the removal of Lord Pahnerston, attempted once more a coalition 
with the Peelites, office being offered to Sir James Graham ; the 
overtures failed, and soon after the meeting of Parliament, the ex- 
Foreign Secretary, whose version of the cause of his dismissal failed 
to satisfy the House of Commons, succeeded in defeating the Govern- 
ment on their Militia Bill, affairs in Freuice having caused anxiety as 
to the national defences. The Government Bill was for the creation 
of a local Militia, Lord Palmerston preferring the consolidation of the 
regular Militia. A Ministry was formed by Lord Derby (formerly 
Lord Stcmley) from the Protectionist Party, but no definite statement 
could be elicited as to their intention, or the reverse, to re-impose a 
duty on foreign com. Mr Disraeli, who became Chancellor of the 
Exchequer, and was the mcunspring of the Government policy, 
showed great dexterity in his management of the House of Commons 
without a majority, and carried a Militia Bill in the teeth of Lord 
John Russell ; but a plan of partial redistribution failed. The 
elections held in the summer did not materially improve the Ministerial 
position, and, on the meeting of Parliament in the autunm, the 
Fiscal Question had to be squarely faced. After much wrangling, 
Protection was finally abandoned, and the Government sav^ for 
the moment, but on their House-tax proposals they were defeated, 
after an impassioned debate, by a coahtion of Whigs, Peelites, and 
Radicals, from whom Lord Lansdowne and Lord Aberdeen (and 
finally the latter alone) were called upon to construct a strong repre- 
sentative Government. The Duke of Wellington hcwi died in 
September, and his funeral was the signal for £ui outburst of national 
feeling. During the year the Houses of Parliament designed by Sir 
Charles Barry, though not absolutely completed, were formally 
opened by the Queen ; the new House of Lords had already been 
in use. 

In France, the first result of the coup d'etat was Louis Bonaparte's 
election as President for ten years by an immense majority ; late in 
the year he assumed the Imperial title as Napoleon III., and the 
Empire was formally recognised by the majority of the Powers; 
the Emperor designed to ckdd to his prestige by contracting a matri- 
monial alliance with Princess Adelaide of Hohenlohe. In the East 
of Europe a dispute had commenced between France fiuid Russia 



about the Holy Places in Palestine. Simultaneously with the death 
of the Duke of Wellington, the era of Europeeui peace was destined 
to come to an end, and Nicholas, encouraged by the advent to power 
of Aberdeen (whom he had met in 1844, and with whom he had 
frankly discussed European politics), was hoping for the consumma- 
tion of his scheme for the partition of Turkey. 

To Great Britain the year was a memorable one, in consequence of 
the granting of a Constitution to New Zealand. 



Queen Victoria to the King of Denmark. 

WINDSOR Casxlb, 4/A January 1853. 

Snt, MY Brother, — ^I received the letter which your Majesty 
addressed to me on the 24th of August last, and in which, after 
referring to the necessity for establishing some definite eurrange- 
ment with regard to the eventueJ succession to the Crown of 
Denmark, your Majesty is plecised to acquaint me that, in your 
opinion, such an arrangement might advan^tageously be made 
in favour of your Majesty's cousin. His Highness the Prince 
Christian of Gliicksburg,* and the issue of his marriage with the 
Princess Louisa of Hesse, in favour of whom the nearer claim- 
ants have renounced their rights and titles. 

I trust I need not assure your Majesty of the sincere friend- 
ship which I entertain for you, an^d of the deep interest which 
I feel in the welfare of the Danish Monarchy. It was in accord- 
ance with those sentiments that I accepted the office of mediator 
between your Majesty and the States of the German Confedera- 
tion, and it afforded me the sincerest pleasure to have been thus 
instrumental in re-establishing the relations of peace between 
your Majesty and those States. 

With regard to the question of the eventual succession to 
both the Danish and Ducal Crowns, I have to state to your 
Majesty that although I declined to take any part in the settle- 
ment of that combination, it will be a source of great satisfac- 
tion to me to learn that an arrangement has been definitely 
determined upon equally satisfactory to your Majesty and to 
the Germanic Confederation ; and whenever it shcdl have been 

1 Prince Ohristian of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-GllickBburg was named soooesBor 
to Frederick VII., King of Denmark, by a Treaty signed in London on the 8th of May 
1852 ; and by the Danish law of succession (of the 31st of Jaly 1853), he ascended tlM 
throne under the style of Christian IX., on the 15th of November, 1863. He was the 
father of His Majesty, Frederick VUL, the present King of Denmark, and of Her Majes^ 
Queen Alexandra of England ; King Christian died in 1906, Qoeen Looise having p»' 
deceased him in 1898. 



notified to me that such an arrangement has been arrived at» 
I shall then be ready, in accordance with what was stated in the 
Protocol of the 2nd of August 1850, to consider, in concert with 
my Allies, the expediency of giving the sanction of an European 
acknowledgment to the arrangement which may thus have been 

I avail myself with great plecisure of this opportunity to 
renew to your Majesty the expression of the invariable attfiwjh- 
ment and high esteem with which I am. Sir, my Brother, your 
Majesty's good Sister, Victokia R. 

Qtieen Victoria to Lord John, RusseU. 

WINDSOR CASTLE, 15th January 1852. 

The Queen has received Lord John Russell's letter last night, 
and wishes now shortly to repeat what she desired through the 
Prince, Sir Charles Wood to explain to Lord John.* 

The Queen hopes that the Cabinet will fully consider what 
their object is before the proposed negotiation with Sir James 
Graham be opened. 

Is it to strengthen their case in Parliament by proving that 
no means have been left untried to strengthen the Govern- 
ment ? or really to effect a junction with the Peelites ? 

If the first is aimed at, the Cabinet will hardly reap ajiy of the 
desired advantages from the negotiation, for, shrewd as Sir 
James Graham is, he will immediately see that the negotiation 
has been begun without a desire that it should succeed, and 
this will soon become generally known. 

If the latter, the Queen must observe that there are two 
kinds of junctions— one, a fusion of Parties ; the other, the 
absorption, of one Party by the other. For a fusion, the Queen 
thinks the Peelites to be quite ready ; 'hen, however, they 
must be treated as a politiccd Party, and no exduaion should be 
pronounced against particular members of it, nor should it be 
insisted upon that the new Grovemment and Party is still 
emphatically the Whig party. 

An absorption of the most liberal talents amongst the Peelites 
into the Whig Government, the Queen considers unlikely to 
succeed, and she can fully understand that reasons of honour 
and public and private engagement must make it difficult to 
members of a political Party to go over to another in order to 
receive office. 

1 Lord Jdm Russell having yainlj attempted to secure the co-operation of the Duke of 
Newcastle, announced the wish of the Oabinet to make overtures to Sir J. Graham. 

360 LOUIS NAPOLEON [chap. X33 

Having stated thus much, the Queen gives Lord John fuD 
permission to negotiate with Sir James Graham. 

Qtteen Victoria to the King of the Belgians. 

Windsor Castle, 20th January 185S. 

My dearest Uncle, — ^Your kind letter of the 16th I received 
on the 17th, with the newspaper, for which I return my best 
thanks. The papers which Stockmar communicated to us are 
most interesting, and do the writer the greatest credit. Watch- 
ful we certfidnly shall and must be. We shall try and keep on 
the best of terms with the President, who is extremely sensitive 
and susceptible, but for whom, I must say, I have never had 
any personal hostility ; on the contraiy, I thought that during 
1 849 and 1850 we owed him all a good deal, as he certainly raised 
the French Government de la boue. But I grieve over the 
tyranny and oppression practised since the cotip d^itcU, and it 
makes everything very uncertain* for though I believe it in 
every way his wish and his policy not to go to war, still, U peut 
y itre entra%n4. 

Your position is a peculiarly delicate one, but still, as I again 
repeat, I think there is no reason to be alarmed ; pcorticularly, 
I would never show it. 

The poor Nemours were here from Saturday till yesterday 
evening with their dear nice boys, and I think it always does 
them good. They feel again as if they were in their own 
position, and they are diverted from the melancholy reality 
and the great sameness of their existence at Claremont. I 
found him very quiet and really not bitter, and disposed to be 
very prudent, — ^but seriously alarmed at the possibility of 
losing their property, which would be too dreadful and mon- 
strous. I fear that the candidature and poor H61ene's im- 
prudence in talking are the cause of this cruel persecution. 
The poor Orleans have really (and you should write them 
that) no truer and more faithdtul friends than we are — and it 
is for this reason that I urge and entreat them to be entirely 
passive ; for their day will come, I feel convinced ! 

Now good-bye, my dearest, kindest Uncle. Ever your 
truly devoted Niece, Victoria R. 

Qtieen Victoria to Lord John BusseU. 

Windsor Castle, 27th January 1852. 

The Queen has received Lord John Russell's letter of 
yesterday with the draft of Bills, and likewise that of to-day 


enclosing a Memorandum on the probable efiPects of the pro- 
posed Measure.^ She has perused these papers with great 
attention, but feels that any opinion upon the future results 
of the Mecisure must rest on surmises ; she has that confidence, 
however, in Lord John's experience and judgment in these 
matters, and so strong a conviction that he will have spared 
no pains in forming as correct an opinion as may be formed 
tm so problematical a matter, thpt she is prepared to come to 
the decision of approving the Measure on the strength of 
Lord John's opinion. She only hopes that the future may 
bear it out, and that the character of the House of Commons 
may not be impaired. Should this prove the case, the ex- 
tension of the privilege of voting for Members will strengthen 
our Listitutions. The Queen is glad that the clause abolishing 
the necessity for every Member of the Government to vacate 
his seat upon his appointment ^ should have been maintained. 
She hopes that the schedules showing which towns are to be 
added to existing boroughs will be drawn up with the greatest 
care and impartiality, and will soon be submitted to her. 
The Queen would be glad if the plan once proposed of giving 
to the Queen's University in Lreland the vacant seat for 
Sudbury were still carried out, as she feels sure that not only 
would it be a great thing for the University and the Colleges, 
but a most useful and influential Irish Member would be 
gained for the House. 

The Queen ta,kes it for granted that the Bill as approved 
by her will be stood by in Parliament, and that Lord John will 
not allow himself to be drawn on to further concessions to 
Democracy in the course of the debate, and that the intro- 
duction of the ballot will be vigorously opposed by the 

Queen Victoria to Lord John Russell, 

WINDSOR OASTLE, \st February 1852. 

The Queen has received the draft of the Speech. The 
passage referring to the proposed Reform Mecwure varies so 
materially from the one which was first submitted to her that 
she feels that she ought not to sanction it without having 
received some explanation of the grounds which have led the 
Cabinet to recommend it in its altered shape. The Queen 

1 The Ministerial Beform Bill. 

2 The Act of Settlement excluded (as from the acceaeion of the House of Hanover) the 
Ministers of State txcxa. the House of Ck>mmon8 ; bat the 6 Anne, c 7, modified this, and 
made them re-eligible on appointment. 

VOL. n 12* 

362 WOMEN AND POLITICS [chap, xxi 

will not object to the mode of filling the Offices still vacant 
which Lord John Russell proposes. 

Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians. 

BUGKINOHAM PALAGB, Zrd February 1852. 

My deabest Uncle, — ^My warmest thanks for your kind 
little letter of the 30th. Matters ar^ very critical and all Van 
de Weyer has told us n^ est pas rassurant. With such an extra- 
ordinaiy man as Louis Napoleon, one can never be for one 
instant safe. It makes me very melancholy ; I love peace 
and quiet — ^in fact, I hate politics and turmoil, and I grieve to 
think that a spark may plunge us into the midst of war. Still 
I think th>at may be avoided. Any attempt on Belgium would 
be casus beUi for its ; that you may rely upon. Invasion I am 
not afraid of, but the spirit of the people here is very great — 
they are full of defendOng themselves — and the spirit of the 
olden times is in no way quenched. 

In two hours' time Parliament will be opened, and to-night 
the explanations between Lord John and Lord Paknerston 
will take place. I am very curious how they will go off. The 
curiosity and anxiety to hear it ia very great. 

I never saw Stockmar better, or more active and more 
sagacious, or more kind. To me he is recJly like a father- 
only too partial, I always think. 

Albert grows daily fonder and fonder of politics and business, 
and is so wonderfully fit for both — such perspicacity and such 
courage — and I grow daily to dislike them both more and more. 
We women are not made iot governing — and if we are good 
women, we must dislike these masculine occupations ; but 
there are times which force one to t€ike interest in them mal gre 
bon gre, and / do, of course, intensely, 

1 must now conclude, to dress for the opening of Parliament. 
- • . Ever your devoted Niece, Victoria R. 

Lord John Russell to Queen Victoria. 

CHESHAM Place, ith FOmiory 1852. 

Lord John Russell presents his humble duty to your Majesty, 
and has the honour to report that the Address was agreed to 
last night without a division. 

The explanations between Lord Palmerston and himself 
were made. Lord Palmerston made no case, and was not 
supported by any considerable party in the House. His 


approbation of the President's conduct seemed to confound 
the Liberal Party, and he did not attempt to excuse his delay 
in answering Lord John Russell's letter of the 14th.^ 

The rest of the debate was desultory and heavy. Mr 
Disraeli made a long speech for the sake of making a speech. 
Mr Roebuck was bitter without much effect. 

Generally specddng, the appearance of the House was favour- 
able. Sir James Graham says the next fortnight will cleeur 
up matters very much. 

The tone of the House was decidedly pacific. 

Queen Victoria to Lord John RussdL 

WINDSOR Castle, 4th February 1852. 

We have learned with much satisfaction that everything went 
off so well in the House of Commons last night. Lord John 
Russell's speech is a most useful one, and he has given a most 
lucid definition of the constitutional position of the Prime 
Minister and Foreign Secretary opposite to the Crown. Lord 
Palmerston's speech is a very weak one, and he in no way 
makes out a case for himself. This seems to [be] the general 

The Houses of Lords and Commons being now almost com- 
pleted, €uid the Queen having entered the House of Lords by 
the Grjuid Entrance (which is magnificent), the Queen thinks 
this will be the right moment for bestowing on Mr Barry the 
knighthood, as a mark of the Queen's approbation of his great 

The Marquis of Nonnanby to Colonel Phippa.^ 

St George's Hotel, 6th February 1852. 

My deab Chables, — Yesterday morning I got a note from 
John Russell, saying that all had gone off so well the night 
before, and Palmerston had been so flat that he thought it 
better I should not revive the subject in the other House, as 
he had said nothing about me which in the least required that 
I should do so. I yielded, of course, to such an appeal, though 
there are several points in his speech on which I could have 
exposed ineu^curacies. The fact is, John has never shown any 
consideration for me in the whole of these affairs ; but I do 
not mean in any way to complain, and am very grateful to 

1 See ante, p. 341. 

3 Submitted to the Queen by Oolonel Phipps. 


him for the very successful way in which he executed his task 
on Tuesday. Nothing can be more universal than the feeling 
of the utter discomfiture of Pahnerston.^ I am convinced 
that what floored him at starting was that letter of the 
Queen's,* because every one felt that such a letter would never 
have been written unless every point in it could have been 
proved like a bill of indictment ; and then came the question, 
how could any man, even feeling he deserved it^ go on under 
such a marked want of confidence ? ' . . . 

Aberdeen, whom I saw at Granville's last night, told me 
that Cardwell had said to him, that often as he had felt in- 
dignant at the arrogance of " that man," he really pitied him, so 
complete was his overthrow. Disraeli said that he had watched 
him during Johnny's speech, and doubted whether the hanging 
of the head, etc., was merely cutting ; but before he had 
spoken two sentences he saw he was a beaten fox. Many said 
that the extreme flippancy and insolence of his manner was 
more remarkable than ever, from their being evidently as- 
sumed with difficulty. I have always thought Pahnerston 
very much overrated as a speaker ; his great power arose 
from his not only knowing his subject better than any one 
else, but being the only man who knew anything about it, 
and using that exclusive knowledge unscrupulously for the 
purposes of misrepresentation. 

lliiers was at Lady Granville's last night, and was enchanted 
with the spectacle of the Opening. He said that he had been 
endeavouring for thirty years to support the cause of Con- 
stitutional Monarchy, as the best Government in the world, 
and there he saw it in perfection, not only in its intrinsic 
attributes, but in the universal respect and adhesion with 
which it was received. He said, though he did not under- 
stcmd a word of English, he could have cried at the Queen's 
voice in reading the Speech. He is very " impressionable," 
and I am convinced at the time he was quite sincere in his 

I am vexed at not having been able to say anything publicly 
about all this, as I believe I could have dispelled many nus- 

1 It appears from a Memorandam made aboat ibis time by Prince Albert that when 
Lord Falmerston's retirement became known, the Radical constitnenc^ oi Maijldrane 
wished to present him with an Addr^^ss of sympathy, and to invite him to stand at the 
next Election, promising him to brint^ him in. Sir Benjamin Hall (one of the MeodMn) 
told them that they had better wait till the explanation in Parliament had taken place, 
for at present they knew nothing about the merits of the case. This the Oommittee which 
had been organised consented to do. After the Debate of the Atti of February, Sir 
Benjamin called upon the Chairman of the Oommittee to ask him whether they vraald 
still carry oat their intention. " No," said the Ohairman ; " we have considered the 
matter : a man who does not answer the Queen's letters can receive no Address from os." 

2 See ante^ p. 264. 

3 Cf. Greville's account in his Joomal, 6tti Fehroaxy 1862. See also p. 368. 


representations ; bat it cannot be helped. I have endeavoured 
throughout not to be selfish, and I may as well keep up that 
feeling to the last. Ever, etc. Nobmanby. 

I told John RusseU last night I regretted that he had 
vouched for the intentions of Louis Napoleon. He said he 
had not done that, but owned that he hail said more than he 
ought. '' The fact is, I did not know what to say next. I 
stopped as one sometimes does, so I said that ; I had better 
have said something else ! " Candid and characteristic ! 

Queen Victoria to Earl OranviUe, 

WINDSOR Casile, lOth Fdfruarv 1852. 

The Queen returns the enclosed papers. She will not 
object to the proposed step ^ should Lord Granville and Lord 
John Russell have reason to expect that the Pope will receive 
Sir H. Bulwer ; should he refuse, it will be doubly awkward. 
The Queen finds it difficult to give a decided opinion on the 
subject, as, first, she does not know how far the reception of 
Sir Henry at Rome will overcome the objections raised to his 
reception as Resident at Florence. Secondly, as she has never 
been able to understand what is to be obtained by a mission 
to Rome, a step liable to much misrepresentation here. . . . 

Lord John Russell to the Prince Albert, 

Chbsham Plage, 16<A Ftbruary 1852. 

Sib, — ^I have seen the Duke of Wellington this morning, 
and have given him the Depot plan. 

It may be useful if your Royal Highness will see him from 
time to time in relation to the Army. On the one hand, your 
Royal Highness's authority may overcome the indisposition 
to change which he naturally entertains ; and on the other, 
his vast experience may be of great use to your Royal High- 
ness in regard to the future. I have the honour to be. Sir, your 
Royal Highness's most dutiful Servant, John Russell. 

/ Sir Francis Baring to Queen Victoria, 

AOMiRAl/nr, lUh Fdmuary 1852. 

Sir Francis Baring presents his humble duty to your Majesty, 
and begs to state to your Majesty that despatches have this 

1 The ToacanGoyenmient declined to reoelTe Sir H. Bulwer, and it was tl^ 
to send him to Borne instead. 

366 THE SLAVE TRADE [chap, xxi 

evening arrived from Commander Bruce in command of the 
African Squadron. Commander Bruce gives an account of 
an attack on Lagos ^ which was completely successful. The 
town of Lagos was captured and in great part burnt. The 
resistance appears to have been obstinate and directed with 
much skill. Your Majesty's naval Service behaved with their 
acciistomed gallantry and coolness, but the loss amounted to 
fourteen killed and sixty-four wounded. Sir Francis Baring 
will forward to your Majesty copies of the despatches to* 
morrow, with his humble duty. F. Babing. 

Queen Victoria to Sir Francis Baring. 

Buckingham palace, leth February 1853. 

The Queen has received both Sir Francis Baring's letters 
of the 16th. The news of the captiu*e and destruction of the 
town of Lagos has given us the greatest satisfaction, as it will 
give a most serious blow to the iniquitous tra^c in slaves. 
The Rev. Mr Crowther, whom the Queen saw about two months 
ago (and whom she believes Sir Francis Baring has also seen), 
told us that the slave trade on that part of the African coast 
would be at an end if Lagos, the stronghold of its greatest 
supporters, was destroyed. The Queen must express to Sir 
Francis Baring her sense of the services rendered by Conuno- 
dore Bruce and the Ofl&cers under him. 

Qiieen Victoria to the King of the Belgians. 

Buckingham Palace, 17th F^brx 

My deabest Uncle, — ^Your dear letter of the 13th reached 
me on Saturday here, where we are since Friday afternoon. 
I am glad that you are satisfied with Lord Granville's answer. 
The question shall certainly be borne in mind, and you may 
rely on our doing whatever can be effected to bring about 
the desired end. I think Louis Napoleon wiU find his decrees 
very difficult to carry out. I am very glad to hear that you 
quietly are preparing to strengthen yourself against the possi- 
bility of any attack from France. This will, I tlunk, put 
Louis Napoleon on his good behaviour. ... ^ 

The extension of the Suffrage * was almost unavoidable, 
and it was better to do it quietly, and not to wwt till there 
was a cry for it — to which one would have to yield. The deal 

1 Notorious as a centre of the Slaye Trade. The natiye king was deposed. 

2 See ante, pp. 294, 324. 


there is to do, and the importance of everything going on at 
home and abroad, is unexampled in my recollection and very 
trying ; Albert becomes really a terrible man of business ; I 
tlunk it takes a little off from the gentleness of his character, 
and mrkes him so preoccupied. I grieve over all this, as I 
eannot enjoy these things, miLch as I interest myself in general 
Europecm politics ; but I cun every day more convinced that 
we womeUf if we are to be good women, feminine and amiable 
and domestic^ are not fitted to reign ; at least it is centre gri 
that they drive themselves to the work which it entails. 

However, this ceuinot now be helped, and it is the duty of 
every one to fulfil aJl that they are called upon to do, in what* 
ever situation they may be ! 

Mme. van de Weyer thinks your children so grown and 
improved, and Charlotte as lovely as ever. With Albert's 
love, ever your devoted Niece, Victoria R; 

Lord John Russell to Queen Victoria, 

Ohesham Place, 20cA February 1852. 
(9.16 P.M.) 

Lord John Bussell presents his humble duty to your Majesty, 
and has the honour to report that Lord Palmerston has just 
carried his Motion for leaving out the word " Local " in the 
title of the Bill for the MiUtia.^ 

Lord John BusseU then declared that he could no longer 
take charge of the Bill. Lord Palmerston said he was aston- 
ished at the Grovemment for giving up the Bill for so slight 
a cause. 

Lord John Riissell then said that he considered the vote 
as tantamount to a resolution of want of confidence, which 
remark was loudly cheered on the other side. 

Sir Benjamin HaU said he wondered the Grovemment did 
not resign, on which Lord John agcun explained that when 
<x>iifidence was withdrawn, the consequence was obvioiis. 

Menwrandum by the Prince Albert. 

Buckingham Palace, 21«< February 1852. 

Lord John Kussell came this morning at twelve o'clock to 
explain that after the vote of yesterday ' it was impossible for 

1 EyentB in France had reviyed anziely as to the national defences, and the Goyemment 
tarodght in a Bill for raisiDg a local Militia. To this scheme the Doke of Wellington had 
been nnfavoorable, and Lord Palmerston, by a majority of eleven, carried an Amendment 
in favoor of re-organising the " regular " instead of raiang a " local " Militia. 

2 On the Militia Bill. 


him to go on any longer with the Government. He considered 
it a vote of censure, euid an entirely miprecedented case not to 
allow a Minister of the Grown even to lay his measure on the 
Table of the Hoiise ; that he had expected to the last that the 
respectable part of the House woi^d see all this, but there 
seemed to have been a pre-arranged determination between 
Lord Palmerston and the Protectionists to defeat the Grovem- 
ment ; that the PeeHtes also had agreed to vote against them. 
Sir Jeunes Graham and Mr GardweU had stayed away, but Mr 
Gladstone and Mr S. Herbert had voted against them, the latter 
even misrepresenting what Lord John had said. No Govern- 
ment could stcmd against incessant motions of censure upon 
every imaginable department of the Executive Government. 
The Prime Minister would either have to take the management 
of eJl the departments into his own hands, and to be prepared to 
defend every item, for which he (Lord John) did not feel the 
moral and physical power, or he must succumb on those dif- 
ferent points which the Opposition with divided laboxur could 
single out. Lord Palmerston's conduct was the more repre- 
hensible as he had asked him the day before about his objections 
to the Bill, and had (he thought) satisfied him that the four 
points upon which he had insisted were provided for in the 

He thought he could not (in answer to the Queen's enquiry) 
dissolve Parhament, and that Lord Palmerston had. no Party. 
But he supposed Lord Derby was prepared to form a Protection 
Government. This Government would pass the estimates and 
the Mutiny Bill, and would then have to proceed to a Dissolu- 
tion. Lord John had merely seen Lord Lansdowne, who had 
approved of the course he meant to pm^ue, though afraid of 
the imputation that the Government had run away from the 
Caffre debate. He had sinnmoned the Cabinet, and would 
report their resolution. Speaking of Lord Palmerston, Lord 
John said he had heard that Lord Palmerston had said that 
there was one thing between them which he could not forgive, 
and that was his reading the Queen's Minute to the House of 

At a quarter past four Lord John came back from the Cabinet, 
and formally tendered the resignations of himself and 
colleagues. The Cabinet had been unanimous that there was 
no other course to pursue, and that it would not be advisable 
to make use of the Queen's permission to advise a Dissolution. 
Lord Granville had ascertained through Dr Quin from Lord 
Lyndhurst that Lord Derby was prepared with an Administra- 
tion, having obtained Mr Thomas Baring's consent to act as 
Leader of the House of Commons. 


Sir Stratford Canning at Constantinople was supposed to be 
intended for the Foreign Office. Lord Lyndhin'st said, though 
the materials were there, they were very bad ones, and it was 
a question whether they would stand long. He himself would 
keep out of place. 

We advised Lord John to keep his Party well under discipline 
in Opposition, so that whilst there it did not conmiit errors 
which woulfl become new difficulties for the future Govern- 
ment. He seemed disinclined for great exertions after the 
fatigues he had undergone these last years. He said he 
thought he would not go on with the Reform Bill out of office, 
as that was a measure which ought to be carried by a Govern- 
ment. If he had agcun to propose it, he would very likely alter 
it a little, reverting to his original plan of taking away one 
Member of the two returned by small boroughs, and giving 
their seats to some large towns, counties, and corporations like 
the Universities, etc. 

Lord John defers taking his formal leave till a new Adminis- 
tration is formed. Albert. 

Queen Victoria to the Earl of Derby. 

Buckingham palace, 21«< February 1852. 

The Queen would wish to see Lord Derby at half -past two 
to-morrow should he be in Town ; if not, on Monday at twelve 

Memorandum by the Prince Albert, 

BUCEINGHAH PALACE, 22nd Fdfruory 1852. 

. . . Lord Derby said that he could not command a majority 
in the House of Lords, that he was in a decided minority in the 
House of Commons, and thought that in the critical circum- 
stances in which the country was pla<^ both at home and 
abroad, he ought not to ask for a Dissolution. He must then 
try to strengthen himself particularly in the Hoiise of Commons 
by any means he could. There was one person whom he could 
not venture to propose for the Foreign Office on account of 
what had lately passed, and what he might be allowed to call 
the " well-known personal feelings of the Queen " ; but Lord 
Palmerston was one of the ablest debaters, and might well be 
offered the post of Chancellor of the Exchequer. 

The Queen . . . would not, by refusing her consent, throw 
additional difficulties in Lord Derby's way ; she warned him, 
however, of the dangerous qualities of [Lord Palmerston]. 

370 LORD DERBY SUMMONED [cjhap. xxi 

Lord Derby rejoined that he knew them, etnd thought them 
pernicious for the conduct of the Foreign Affairs, but at the 
Exchequer they would have less play ; he himself would under- 
take to control him. His greatest indiscretion — ^that in the 
Kossuth affair — ^m\ist have been with a view to form a Party ; 
that if left excluded from office, he would become more danger- 
ous, and might in fact force himself back at the head of a Party 
with a claim to the Foreign Office, whilst if he had e^er accepted 
another Office, his pretensions might be considered as waived ; 
he (Lord Derby) did not know in the least whether Lord Pal- 
merston would accept, but in case he did not, the offer would 
propitiate him, and render the Government in the House of 
Commons more possible, as it would have anyhow all the 
talent of the late Government, Peelites and Radicals^ to 

To my question whether Lord Derby fancied he would 
remain Prime Minister any length of time, when once Lord 
Palmerston had got the lead of the House of Commons, he 
replied he was not afraid of him ; he felt sure he could control 
him, although he would not have been able to admit him to the 
Foreign Office on account of the very strong strictin*es he had 
passed upon his Foreign Policy at different times — even if the 
Queen had allowed it. 

The Earl of Derby to Qvsen Victoria. 

St James's Square, 22nd February 1852. 
(Half-past eight.) 

Lord Derby, with his humble duty, deems it incumbent upon 
him to submit to your Majesty without delay that having had 
aja interview this evening with Lord Palmerston, the latter has, 
although in the most friendly terms, dechned accepting the 
Office, upon the ground of cUfference of opinion, not on the 
principle, but on the expediency of the imposition of cmy duty, 
under ajay circumstances, upon foreign com. This was a point 
which Lord Derby was wiUing to have left undecided until the 
result of a General Election should be known. 

Although this refiisal may add materially to Lord Derby's 
difficulties, he cajinot regret that the offer has been made, as 
the proposal m\ist have tended to diminish any feelings of 
hostiUty which might have been productive of future em- 
barrassment to yoiur Majesty's service, to whatever hands it 
may be entrusted. . . . 

The above is humbly submitted by your Majesty's most 
dutiful Servant and Subject, Dbsby. 


Memorandwm hy the Prince Albert. 

BUCEINOHAM PALACE, 2Zrd February 1852. 

Lord Derby reported progress at half-past two, and sub- 
mitted a list of the principed Officers of the Government which 
follows, and which the Queen approved. 

The Queen allowed Lord Lyndhurst (who has declined office 
— ^has been Lord Chancellor three times, and now entered upon 
his eightieth year) to be offered an Earldom — ^which he very 
much desired for the position of his daughters, having no son. 

After he had kissed hands upon his entering upon his office. 
Lord Derby had a further conversation with me on Household 
appointments. I told him he m\ist now, as Prime Minister, 
consider himself to a certain degree in the position of the Con- 
fessor ; that formerly the Lord Chancellor was Keeper of the 
King's Conscience, the office might be considered to have 
descended on the Prime Minister. The Queen m\ist then be 
able to confer with him on personal matters, or I, on her behalf, 
with the most entire confidence, and that she must be sure that 
nothing was divulged which peissed between them on these 
matters, and he might repose the same confidence in us. As 
to the formation of the Hoiisehold, the Queen made two con- 
ditions, viz. that the persons to compose her Court should not 
be on the verge of bankruptcy, and that their moral character 
should bear investigation. On the Queen's accession Lord 
Melbourne had been very careless in his appointments, and 
great harm had resulted to the Court therefrom. Since her 
marriage I had insisted upon a closer line being drawn, and 
though Lord Melbourne had declared " that that damned 
morality would undo us all," we had found great advantage in 
it and were determined to adhere to it. . . . Albebt. 

Queen Victoria to the Ihichesa of Sutherland. 

Buckingham Palace, 2Zrd F^wary 1852. 

My deabest Duchess, — I cannot say hma deeply grieved I 
am to think that the event which has just occurred, and which 
Lord Derby's acceptance of office has to-day confirmed, will 
entail yoin* leaving, for a time, my service. It has been ever 
a real plea.sure to me to have you with me ; my affection and 
esteem for you, my dearest Duchess, are great, and we both 
know what a kind and true friend we have in you. 
. I think that I may rely on your returning to me on a future 
occasion whenever that may be, and that I shall frequently 

372 LORD MALMESBURY [chap, xxi 

have the pleasure of seeing you, even when you are no longer 
attached to my person. 

I shall hope to see you soon. The Lev6e remains fixed for 
Thursday, aiid the transfer of the Officers of the new Govern- 
ment does not take place till Friday. 

With the Prince's kindest remembrance, and ours to the Duke 
and Constance. BeUeve me always, yours affectionately, 


Queen Victoria to the King of the BeLgiana. 

BUCEINGHIM Faiacb, 24th Ftbruory 1852. 

Deabest Uncle, — Great and not very pleasant events have 
happened since I wrote last to you. I know that Van de Weyer 
has informed you of ever3rthing, of the really (till the last day) 
unexpected defeat, ajid of Lord Derby's assumption of office, 
with a very sorry Cabinet. I believe, however, that it is quite 
necessary they should have a trial, and then have done with it. 
Provided the country remains quiet, and they are prudent in 
their Foreign Policy, I shall take the trial as patiently as I 
can. . . . 

Alas ! your confidence in our excellent Lord Granville is no 
longer of any avail, though I hope ere long he will be at the 
Foreign Office again,^ and I cannot say that his successor,' 
who has never been in office (as indeed is the case with 
almost all the new Ministers), inspires me with confidence. 
I see that Louis Napoleon has again seized one of the 
adherents, or rathermore one of the men of business, of the 
poor Orleans. . . . 

There are some terrible stories from Madrid of people having 
told the poor Queen that the King had arranged this attack on 
her person, and that she was anxious to abdicate.^ If you 
should hear anything of this kind, be kind enough to tell 
me of it. With Albert's love (he is well fagged with business), 
ever your devoted Niece, Victoria R. 

Queen Victoria to the Earl of Derby, 

Buckingham palace, 24<A Febniary 1868. 

The Queen thinks that it would be of the highest importance 
that not only Lord Malmesbury (as is always usual) should 

1 Lord Granville held the Foreign Secretaryship in 1870-1874, and again in 1880488& 

3 JjQicA Malmeebory. 

3 The Queen was stabbed by a priest when retoming from church. 


Teceive the necessary information from Lord Granville, but that 
Lord Derby should see hinx and hear from him the state of all 
the criticfid questions now pending on Foreign Affairs. Lord 
Granville has made himself ma.ster in a very short time of all 
the very intricate subjects with which his Ofl&ce has to deal, 
and she must here bear testimony to the extreme discretion, 
good sense, and calmness with which he has conducted the very 
responsible and difficult post of Foreign Secretary. 

The Earl of Derby to the Prince Albert. 

St James's Square, 2&th February 1852. 

(5 P.M.) 

Sib, — ^I have delayed longer than I could have wished ac- 
knowledging the letter which I had the honour to receive from 
your Royal Highness last night, in hopes that by this time I 
should have been enabled to solve the difficulties connected 
with the Household Appointments ; but I regret to say they 
are rather increased than otherwise. I will not trouble yoin* 
Royal Highness now with ajiy details ; but if I might be 
honoured with an audience at ajay hour after the Lev6e to- 
morrow, I shall perhaps be able to make a more satisfactory 
report, and at all events to expleun the state of affairs more 

In the meantime, it may save Her Majesty some trouble if 
I request that your Royal Highness will have the goodness 
to lay before Her Majesty the enclosed list of Appointments 
which, subject to Her Majesty's approval, I have arranged in 
the course of this day. The Adnuralty List found its way 
most improperly into some of the morning papers before 
I was even aware that the Duke of Northumberland had 
finally obtained the assent of the Officers whom he had 

As it is possible that the Queen may not be acquainted 
with the name of Colonel Dunne, I have the honoiur of enclosing 
a letter respecting him which I have received from Lord Fitzroy 
Somerset, since I had intimated to him my intention of sub- 
mitting his name to Her Majesty, and which is highly satis- 

I must beg your Royal Highness to offer to the Queen my 
most humble and grateful acknowledgment of the kindness 
•which Her Majesty has evinced in endeavouring to facilitate 
the progress of the Household arrangements. 

I have the honoxur to be. Sir, Your Royal Highness's most 
obedient Servant, Debby. 

374 LOXnS NAPOLEON [chap, xxi 

Memorandum by Queen Victoria,^ 

THUBSDAT, ieih Febnwy 1858. 

Lord Derby came to Albert at half -past three, and Albert 
called me in at a little after four. . . . 

Lord Derby told us he meant to proceed as speedily as pos- 
sible with the defences of the country, and that his pleui for the 
Militia entirely coincided with Albert's plan (viz. he (Albert) 
wrote on the subject to the Duke of Wellington, who did not 
like it),2 and meant to try and avoid all the objections. On his 
observing that no one had entirely understood the Grovemment 
Bill, I said that the Government had not even been allowed 
to bring it in, which was a most unfair proceeding ; upon which 
Lord Derby reiterated his professions of this being no precon- 
certed plan of his Party's, but that it was *' symptomatic " ; 
he, however, was obliged to own that it was rather hard and 
not quite fair on the late Government. 

I then expledned to him the arrangement respecting the 
drafts from the Foreign Office going first to him before they 
came to me, and wished this should be continued, which he 
promised should be done, as well as that all important Colonial 
despatches should be sent to me. Touched upon the various 
critical questions on the Continent. . . . Lord Derby said that aU 
Louis Napoleon's views were contained in his book Idies 
NtppoUoniennes written in '39, for that he was more a m€ui of 
" Idiea fixes " than any one ; and in this book he spoke of 
gaining territory by diplomacy and not by war. Lord Derby 
gave us a note from Louis Napoleon to Lord Malmesbury, 
congratulating him on his appointment, professing the most 
friendly and pacific intentions, and hoping the Cowleys would 
(as they do) remain at Paris. Victoria B. 

Mem>orandum by the Prince Albert. 

Buckingham Palace, 27th February 1852. 

To-day the formal change of GrOvemment took place. The 
old Ministers who had Seals to give up assembled at half-past 
eleven, and had their Audiences in the following order : 

Sir George Orey was very much overcome ; promised at our 
request to do what he coiild to keep his friends moderate and 
united. Spoke well of his successor, Mr Walpole, and assured 
the Queen that he left the country in a most quiet cuid con- 
tented state. 

1 Extract from Her Majesty's Journal. 

3 This Memorandum is given in chap. zIt. of the Life of the Prince CcntorL 


Lord Orey was sorry that the resignation had taken place 
before the Ca£Ere Debate, in which he had hoped to make a 
triumphant defence ; he was sure it must have come to this 
from the way in which Lord John had managed matters. He 
had never had his measures thoroughly considered when he 
brought them forward. He (Lord Grey) had had to remon- 
strate very strongly about this Militia Bill, which had not even 
been laid, printed, before the Cabinet, and had not been dis- 
cussed at all ; he himself had objected to the greater part of it, 
and had always expected to have an opportunity of making 
his opinion heard ; instead of spending Christmas at Wobum 
he ought to have digested his measures ; this was not fair to 
his colleagues, and he could never have the same confidence in 
Lord John as before. We urged him to forget what had 
passed and to do the best for the future ; that it was important 
the Party should be kept together and should unite if possible 
with the Peelites, so that the Queen might hope to get a strong 
Government. Lord Grey thought there was little chance of 
this. The next Government could never be as moderate 
again as this had been ; this he had always dreaded, and was 
the reason why he lamented that Lord John had failed in his 
negotiation with the Peelites this winter, upon Lord Palmer- 
ston's dismissal ; but the fact was Lord John had never wished 
it to succeed, and it had been unfair that he had not stated to 
them (the Peelites) that all his colleagues were ready to give 
up their places. 

Lord OranviUe had seen Lord Malmesbury several times, 
who appeared to him to take pains about informing himself 
on the state of Foreign Affairs, but seemed inclined to 
be ambitious of acquiring the merit of being exclusively 
English in his pob'cy ; this was quite right, but might be 
carried too far ; however. Lord Malmesbury was cautious and 

The Chancellor of the Exchequer {Sir Charles Wood) was not 
surprised at the fate of the Government, although tney had not 
expected to be defeated on the Mib'tia Bill ; in fact, a division 
had hardly been looked for, as Lord John had talked the day 
before with Lord Palmerston, and satisfied him that all his 
objections should be provided against in the Bill. He thought 
it was better, however, that the CaflEre Debate had not been 
waited for, which must have been a personal and very acri- 
monious one. He thought Lord Grey had not been very dis- 
creet in his language to the Queen on Lord John. Sir J. 
Graham had been in a difficulty with his own Party, and there- 
fore had not wished to encourage Lord John's negotiation with 
the Peelites. He promised that, for his part, he would do all he 

376 LORD DERBY'S PROGRAMME [chap, xsi 

could to keep his Party from doing anything violent, but that 
he was afreud many others would be so, and that he and 
Lord Grey had in vain tried to persuade Mr Cobden to remain 

Lord Derby had then an Audience to expledn what should be 
done at the Council. He regretted the Duchess of Northumber- 
land's declining to be Mistress of the Robes, on account of ill- 
health, which had been communicated to the Queen by her 
father. Lord Westminster. He proposed the Duchess of 
Argyll, whom the Queen eJlowed to be sounded (though feeling 
certain, that, considering the Liberal views of her husband, she 
will not accept it), and sanctioned his sounding also the 
Duchess of Athole, whom the Queen wished to make the offer 
to, in case the Duchess of Argyll declined. Lord Derby 
stated the difficulty he was in with Sir A. B., whose wife 
had never been received at Court or in society, although 
she had run away with him when he was still at school, 
and was nearly seventy years old. The Queen said it would 
not do to receive her now at Court, although society might 
do in that respect what it pleased ; it was a principle 
at Court not to receive ladies whose characters are under a 

We now proceeded to the Council, which was attended only 
by three Councillors, the other seventeen having all had to be 
sworn in as Privy Councillors fibrst.* 

After the Council Lord Hardinge was called to the Queen, 
and explained that he accepted the Ordnance only on the con- 
dition that he was not to be expected to give a vote which 
would reverse the policy of Sir R. Peel, to which he had hither- 
to adhered. He had thought it his duty, however, not to 
refuse his services to the Crown after the many marks of 
favour he had received from the Queen. 

Lord Derby then had an Audience to explain what he in- 
tended to state in Parliament this evening as the programme 
of his Ministerial Policy. It was very fluent cind very able, 
but so completely the same as the Speech which he has since 
delivered, that I must refer to its accoimt in the reports. 
When he came to the passage regarding the Church, the Queen 
expressed to him her sense of the importance not to have 
Puaeyiies or Romanisera recommended for appointments in the 
Church as bishops or clergymen. Lord Derby declared him- 
self as decidedly hostile to the Pusejdte tendency, and ready to 
watch over the Protestant character of the Church, He said he 
did not pretend to give a decided opinion on so difficult and 

1 See Disiaeli's Endymion (chap, c) far a graphic description of this zemarkable 


delicate a point, but it had struck him that although nobody 
could think in earnest of reviving the old Convocation, yet the 
disputes in the Church perhaps could be moat readily settled by 
some Assembly representing the laity as well as the clergy. I 
expressed it as my opinion that some such plan would succeed, 
provided, the Church Constitution was built up from the 
bottom, giving the Vestries a legislative character in the 
parishes leading up to Diocesan Assemblies, and finally to a 
general one. 

On Education he spoke very liberally, but seemed inclined 
to support the views of the bishops against the so-called 
" management clauses " of the Privy Council, viz. not to allow 
grants to schools even if the parish should prefer the bishops' 
inspection to the Privy Council inspection. Albeet. 

The Earl of Derby to Queen Victoria, 

St JAMES'S Square, ilth February 1852. 
(HcUf-past seven P.M.) 

Lord Derby, with his humble duty, hastens to acquaint your 
Majesty, having j\ist returned from the House of Lords, that 
his statement, going over the topics the substance of which he 
had the honour of submitting to your Majesty was, as far as he 
could judge, favoiu'ably received. Earl Grey attempted to 
provoke a Com Law discussion, but the feeling of the House 
was against the premature introduction of so complicated and 
exciting a topic. Lord Aberdeen, dissenting from any altera- 
tion of commercial policy, entirely concurred in Lord Derby's 
views of Foreign Affairs, and of the course to be adopted in 
dealing with Foreign Nations. Lord Derby did not omit to 
lay stress upon " the strict adherence, in letter and in spirit. 
to the obligations of Treaties," which was well received. 

The King of the Belgians to Queen Victoria. 

Laeken, 6th March 1852. 

My deabest Victoria, — ^I have to offer my affectionate 
thanks for a most gracious and long letter of the 2nd. 

Within these daj^ we have not had anything very important, 
but, generally speaking, there has been, at least in appearance, 
a quieter disposition in the ruling power at Paris. We are 
here in the awkward position of persons in hot climates, who 
find themselves in company, for instance in their beds, with a 

878 FOREIGN AFFAIRS [chap, xxi 

snake ; they muBt not move, because that irrUatea the creature, 
but they can hardly remain as they are, without a fair chance 
of being bitten. .. . . Your devoted Uncle, Leopold R. 

Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians, 

OSBORNB, 9<A Mofch 1852. 

My deabest Uncle, — ^Your dear letter of the 6th reached me 
j\ist after we arrived here, at our sweet, peaceful little abode. 

It seems that Louis Napoleon's mind is chiefly engrossed 
with measures for the interior of Frajice, emd that the serious 
question of Switzerland is becoming less menacing. On the 
other hand, Austria behaves with a hostility, and I must say 
folly, which prevents all attempts at reconciliation. All the 
admirers of Austria consider Prince Schwartzenberg * a mad- 
man, and the Emperor Nicholas said that he was '* Lord 
Palmerston in a white imiform.*' What a calcunity this is at 
the present moment ! 

We have a most talented, capable, and courageous Prime 
Minister, but all his people have no experience — ^have never 
been in any sort of office before ! 

On Friday the House of Commons meets again, and I doubt 
not great violence will be displayed. 

With every kind love to my dear Coiisins, ever your very 
devoted Niece, Victoria R. 

Colonel Phipps to Queen Victoria. 

Buckingham Falacb, lOth liareh 1853. 

Colonel Phipps' humble duty to your Majesty. 

He has this day visited the Marionette Theatre, and feels 
quite certain not only that it would not be a suitable theatze 
for your Majesty to visit, but that your Majesty would derive 
no amusement from it. 

The mechanism of the puppets is only passable, and the 
matter of the entertainment stupid and tiresome, consisting 
in a great part of worn-out old English songs, such as " The 
death of Nelson " ! Colonel Phipps considers " Punch " a 
much more amusing performance. Lady Mount Edgecumbe^ 
who was in a box there, would probably give yoiur Majesty an 
account of it. . . . 

The report in London is, that Lord John Russell is to recom- 
mend moderation at the meeting at his house to-morrow. He 

1 Prime Minister of Austria. He died in the April following. 

1862] DEMOCRACY 379 

has, very foolishly, suhjected himself to another rebuff from 
Lord Palmerston by inviting him to attend that meeting, 
which Lord PfiJmerston has peremptorily refused. Since that, 
however, Lady PfiJmerston has called upon Lady John with 
a view to a personal — ^not political — ^reconciliation. Lady 
Palmerston, as Colonel Phipps heeurs, still persists in the un- 
founded acciisation against Lord John of having quoted your 
Majesty's Minute in the House of Commons without giving 
Lord Palmerston notice of his intention.^ 

The King of the Belgians to Queen Victoria. 

LASKBN, 12^ March 1852. 

My deabest Victobia, — ^I have to thank you for a most 
kind letter from peaceful Osborne, which must doubly appear 
so to you now, after eJl the troubles of the recent Ministerial 
arremgements. I am glad that you are struck with the good 
qualities of your new Premier. I cun sure his great wish will 
be to make the best possible Minister of the Crown. His 
task will be very difficult. " Bread, cheap bread," " the poor 
oppressed by the aristocratie,'^ etc. — ^a whole vocabulary o? 
exciting words of that kind will be put forward to inflame the 
popular mind ; and of aU the Sovereigns, the Sovereign 
" People " is certainly one of the most fanciful and fickle. Our 
neighbour in France shows this more than any other on the 
whole globe ; the Nation there is stiU the Sovereign, and this 
renders the President absolute, because he is the representa- 
tive of the supreme will of the sv/preme Nation, sending us con- 
stantly some new exiles here, which is very unpleasant. We 
are going on very gently, merely putting those means of defence 
a little in order, which ought by rights always to be so, if it was 
not for the ultra-unwise economy of Parliaments and Chambers. 
Without, at least, comparative security by means of well- 
regulated measures of defence, no country, be it great or small, 
can be considered as possessing National Independence. I 
must say that in Austria, at least Schwartzenberg, they are 
very much intoxicated. I hope they will grow sober again 
soon. It was very kind of you to have visited the poor Orleans 
Family. Rarely one has seen a family so struck in their 
affections, fortunes, happiness ; and it is a sad case. Those 
unfortunate Spanish marriages have much contributed to it ; 
even angeHc Louise had been caught by Vhonneur de la maison 
de Bourbon. . . . Your devoted Uncle, Leopold R. 

1 Palmerston, however, admitted the contrary {Life of the Prince Consort, toL il. chap. 

380 THE NEW MTLTTIA BILL [chap, xxi 

Queen Victoria to the Earl of Derby. 

OSBORNE, Uth March 1852. 

The Queen must now answer Lord Derby on the questions 
which form the subjects of his three last communications. 

With regard to the Militia Bill, she must admit that her 
suggestions are liable to the objections pointed out by Lord 
Derby, although they would offer advant€tges in other respecte. 
The Queen will therefore sanction the measure as proposed, 
and now further explained by Lord Derby. 

The despatches transmitted from the Foreign Office referring 
to the Swiss question ^ could not f cdl to give the Queen as much 
satisfaction as they did to Lord Derby, as they show indica- 
tions of a more conciliatory intention, for the present at least 
As Switzerland has yielded, France and Austria ought to be 
satisfied, and the Queen only hopes we may not see them 
pushing their demsuids further after a short intervcJ ! 
* The probability of a war with the Burmese is a sad prospect. 
The Queen thinks, however, that the view taken by Lord 
Dalhousie of the proceedings at Bangoon, £uid of the steps now 
to be taken to preserve peace, is very judicious, and fully eon- 
curs with the letter sent out by the Secret Committee. She 
now returns it, together with the despatch. 

The despatches from Prince Schwartzenberg to Ck)unt Buol 
are satisfactory in one sense, as showing a readiness to return 
to the English Alliance, but unfortunately only under the 
supposition that we would make war upon liberty together; 
they exhibit a profound ignorance of this country .^ The 
Queen is quite sure that Lord Derby will know how to accept 
all that is favourable in the Austrian overtures without letting 
it be supposed that we could for a moment think of joining in 
the policy pursued at this moment by the great Continental 
Powers. As Lord Derby's speech has been referred to by 
Prince Schwartzenberg, it would furnish the best text for the 
answer. The President seems really to have been seriously ilL 

Queen Victoria to the Earl of Derby, 

OSBORifn!, lUh March 1851 
The Queen has received this morning Lord Derby's letter 
respecting the St Albcuis' Disfrajichisement Bill, and is glad to 

1 The French had been pressing the Swiss Gorenmient to e3q)el r^ogees, and Anstria 
SQppcxted the French President. 

2 Lord Derby had urged that a more conciliatory message should aocampanr Lord 
Granville's last despatch, which, because of its unfriendly tone, Count Buol hadddayed 
sending on to Vienna. The precise language (he said) must depend (m what infannation 
Oount Buol could supply. 

1852] MR DISRAELI 381 

hear that Lord Derby means to take up this Bill as dropped 
by the late Government. Whether the mode of transferring 
these seats proposed by Lord Derby will meet with as little 
opposition in Parliament as he anticipates, the Queen is not 
able to form a correct judgment of. It may be liable to the 
imputation of being intended to add to the power of the landed 
interest. This might not be at all objectionable in itself, but 
it may be doubtfi^ how far the House of Commons may be 
disposed to concur in it at the present moment. This will be 
for Lord Derby to consider, but the Queen will not withhold 
her sanction from the measure. 

She knows that Lord John Russell meant to give the vacant 
seats to Birkenhead. Are not there two seats still vacajit from 
the Disfranchisement of Sudbury ? and would it not be better 
(if so) to dispose of all four at the same time ? There is an im- 
pression also gaining ground that, with a view to prevent the 
Franchise being given exclusively to Numbers, to the detri- 
ment of Interests, it might be desirable to give new seats to 
certain corporate bodies, such as the Scotch Universities, the 
Temple and Lincoln's Inn, the East India Company, etc., etc.^ 

Mr Disraeli to Qiteen Victoria, 

House 07 Oommons, 15^ March 1852. 
(Monday night.) 

The Chancellor of the Exchequer, with his humble duty to 
your Majesty, informs your Majesty of what occurred in the 
House of Commons this evening. 

Mr Villiers opened the proceedings, terse and elaborate, but 
not in his happiest style. He called upon the House to con- 
trast the state of the country at the beginning of the year and 
at the present moment. But he could not induce the House 
to believe that '* all now was distrust ajid alarm.'* 

The Chancellor of the Exchequer, in reply, declined to bring 
forward in the present Parliament any proposition to change 
our commercial system, and would not pledge himself to pro- 
pose in a future Parliament any duty on com. He said a duty 
on com was a measure, not a principle, and that if preferable 
meaisures for the redress of agrici:dtural grievances than a 
five-shilling duty on com (mentioned by Mr Villiers) could be 
devised, he should adopt them — ^a declaration received with 
universal favour on the Government side. 

1 The Government erentoally proposed that the four seats taken from St Albans and 
fiadbnry should be assigned to South Lancashire and the West Biding ; bat, on the 
groond that a Mnistry on sufferance should confine itself to necessary legislation, Mr 
Gladstone induced the House by a great majcmty to shelve the ptoposaL 

832 THE OPPOSITION [chap, xxi 

Lord John Russell replied to the Chancellor of the Ex- 
chequer in consequence of some notice by the former of the 
strange construction of a new Opposition to force a Dissolution 
of Parliament by a Minister who, three weeks i^go, had de- 
clared such Dissolution inexpedient. It was not a successful 

The great speech on the Opposition side was that of Sir 
James Graham : elaborate, malignant, mischievous. His 
position was this : that Lord Derby, as a man of honour, was 
bound to propose taxes on food, and that if he did so, revolu- 
tion was inevitable. 

Mr Gladstone and Lord Palmerston both spoke in the same 
vein, the necessity of immediate Dissolution after the passing 
of the " necessary " measures ; but the question soon arose, 
What is " necessary " ? 

Lord Palmerston thought the Militia Bill "necessary," 
upon which the League^ immediately rose and denied that 

There seemed in the House a great reluctance to avoid a 
violent course, but a very general wish, on the Opposition side, 
for as speedy a Dissolution as public necessity would permit. 

The evening, however, was not disadvantageous to the 
Government. All which is most humbly submitted to your 
Majesty, by your Majesty's most dutiful Subject and Servant, 


Queen Victoria to the King of the Bdgians, 

OSBORNE, nth March 1852. 

My dearest Uncle, — ^I delayed writing till to-day as I 
wished to see the papers first, and be able to give you an 
account of the first Debate in the two Houses. They are not 
satisfactory, because both Lord Derby and Mr Disrcieli refuse 
to give a straightforward answer as to their policy, the un- 
certainty as to which will do serious harm.^ The Opposition 
are very determined, and with right, to insist on this being 
given, and on as early a Dissolution as possible. The Govern- 
ment will be forced to do this, but it is very unwise, after all 
this agitation for the last five years and a half, m>t [to] come 
forward manfvilly and to state what they intend to do. We 
tried to impress Lord Derby with the necessity of this course, 
and I hoped we had succeeded, but his speech has not been 
what it ought to have been in this respect. 

1 The members belonging to the Manchester School of Politics. 

2 This ancertaiatj led to the Anti-Com-Law League, which had been dissolved la 1846, 
being revived. 


The President seems more occupied at home than abroad, 
which I trost he may remain. 

Stockmar is well. . • • One thing is pretty certain — ^that 
out of the present state of confusion and discordance, a sound 
state of Parties will be obtained, and ttvo Parties, as of old, will 
again exist, without which it is impossible to have a strong 
Government. How these Parties will be formed it is im- 
possible to say at present. Now, with Albert's love, ever your 
devoted Niece, Victoria R. 

Mr Disraeli to Queen Victoria. 

House 07 Oommons, 19th March 1852. 
(Friday nighty ttedve o'clock,) 

The Chancellor of the Exchequer, with his humble duty to 
your Majesty, lays before your Majesty what has taken place 
in the House of Commons to-night. 

At the commencement of public business. Lord John 
Russell, in a very full House, after some hostile comments, 
enquired of Her Majesty's Ministers whether they were prepared 
to declare that Her Majesty will be advised to dissolve the 
present Parliament, ajid call a new one, with the least possible 
delay consistent with a due regard to the public interest, in 
reference to measures of urgent and irmnediate necessity. 

The question was recommended by Lord John Russell as 
one similar to that put to him in 1841 by Sir Robert Peel. 

The Chancellor of the Exchequer in reply observed that 
there was a distinction between the position of the present 
Ministry and that of Lord John Russell in 1841, as in that and 
in the other precedents quoted in 1841 by Sir Robert Peel, the 
Ministry had been condemned by a vote of the House of 

He said it was not constitutional and most impolitic for any 
Ministers to pledge themselves to recommend their Sovereign 
^ to dissolve Parhament at any stated and specific time, as 
circumstances might occur which would render the fulfilment 
of the pledge injmious or impracticable ; that it was the 
intention of the Ministers to recommend your Majesty to 
dissolve the present Parliament the moment that such measures 
were carried which were necessary for your Majesty's service, 
and for the security and good government of your Majesty's 
realm ; and that it was their wish and intention that the new 
Parhament should meet to decide upon the question of con- 
fidence in the Administration, and on the measures, which they 
could then bring forward in the course of the present year. 

This announcement was very favourably received. 


The discomfiture of the Opposition is complete, and no 
further mention of stopping or limiting supplies -will be 
heard of. 

All which is most humbly submitted to your Majesty by 
your Majesty's most dutiful Subject and Serv£«it, 


Memorandum by the Prince Albert. 

BUOKINGHAM PALAOE, 22nd March 1852. 

We came to Town from Osborne the day before yesterday, 
and saw Lord Derby yesterday afternoon, who is in very good 
spirits about the prospect of affairs. He told the Queen that 
he thought he might state that the Government had gained a 
good deal of ground during the last week, and that there was 
now a general disposition to let the necessary measures pass 
Parliament, and to have the dissolution the end of June or 
beginning of July. He hoped the Queen did not think he had 
gone too far in pledging the Crown to a Dissolution about that 
time ; but it was impossible to avoid saying as much as that 
a new ParUament would meet in the autumn again, and have 
settled the commercial poUcy before Christmas. 

To the Queen's questions, whether there would not be great 
excitement in the country produced by the General Election, 
and whether Parliament ought not to meet immediately after 
it, he replied that he was not the least afraid of much excite- 
ment, and that there was great advantage in not meeting 
Parhament immediately again, as the Government would 
require a few months to prepare its measures, and to take a 
sound view of the new position of affairs. He anticipated that 
there would be returned a large proportion of Conservatives, 
some Free Traders, some Protectionists ; but not a majority 
for the re-imposition of a duty on com, certairdy not a majority 
large enough to justify him in proposing such a Measure. 
Now he was sure he covild not with honour or credit abandon 
that Measure unless the country had given its decision agairst 
it ; but then he would have most carefully to consider how 
to revise the general state of taxation, so as to give that relief 
tc the agricultural interest which it had a right to demand. 

He had received the most encouraging and flattering letters 
from the agricvilturists of different parts of the country, all 
reposing the most explicit confidence in him, emd cisking him 
not to sacrifice the Government for the sake of an immediate 
return to Protection. They felt what Lord Derby must say 
he felt himself, that, after the fall of this Government, there 

1862] PROTECTION 385 

would necessarily come one of a more democratic tendency than 
any the country had yet had to submit to. He thought most 
pc^tiatans saw this, and wovild rally round a Conservative stan- 
dard ; he knew that even many of the leading Whigs were very 
much dissatisfied with the company they find themselves 
thrown into and alarmed at the progress of Democracy. 


Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians. 

BuOElNaELiSf Paiaoe, 23rd March 1852. 

. . . Here matters have improved rather for the Govern- 
ment, and it seems now that they will be able to get through 
the Session, to dissolve ParUament at the end of June or be- 
ginning of July, and to meet again in Novemb^. And then 
Protec^on will be done away with. K only they had not done 
so much harm, and played with it for six long years ! What 
you say of the advantage of having had Governments from 
all parties we have often felt and do feel ; it renders changes 
Bduch less disagreeable. In the present case our acquaintance 
is confined almost entirely to Lord Derby, but then he is the 
Govemm^it. They do nothing without him. He has all the 
Departments to look after, €«id on being asked by somebody 
if h© was not much tired, he said : " I am quite well with my 
babiefr I " . . . Victobia R. 

Mr Disraeli to Qtieen Victoria. 

H6U8B OF COMMONS, 29(h March 1852. 
(Monday night.) 

The Chancellor of the Exchequer, with his humble duty to 
your Majesty, informs your Majesty of what has occurred in 
the House of Commons to-night. 

Mr Secretary Walpole introduced the Militia Bill in a state- 
zttent equally perspicuous and persuasive. 

Opposed by Mr Hume and Mr Gibson, the Government 
]tfea8ure was cordially supported by Lord Palmerston. 

Lord John Russell, while he expressed an opinion favourable 
to increased defence, intimated a preference for regular troops. 

Mr Cobden made one of his cleverest speeches, of the cos- 
mopolitsan school, and was supported with vigour by Mr Bright. 
A division is threatened by the ultra-Movement party, but the 
Chancellor of the Exchequer hopes to ward it off, and is some- 
what sanguine of ultimate success in carrying the Measure. 

Voil u 13 

386 ENGLAND AND ITALY [chap, xxi 

Queen Victoria to the King of ihe Belgians. 

Buckingham Palace, iOth March 1852. 

My deabest Uncle, — ^Many thanks for your dear letter of 
the 26th, which I received on Saturday. Here we shall have 
some trouble with our Militia BiU, which all of a sudden seems 
to have caused dissatisfaction and cdarm. Lord Derby is 
quite prepared to drop Protection, as he knows that the Elec- 
tions will bring a Free Trade, though a Conservative majority. 
Mr Disraeli (alias Dizzy) writes very curious reports to me of 
the House of Conunons proceedings — much in the style of his 
books. . . . 

Queen Victoria to the Earl of Derby. 

WINDSOR GASTLB, lOtA April 1852. 

The Queen hopes that both Lord Derby and Lord MeJmes- 
bury will give their earnest attention to the chemge in the 
politics of Italy, which is evidently on the point of taking place, 
according to the enclosed despatch from Mr Hudson.^ Whet 
Count Azeglio^ says in his Memorandum with respect to 
Austria is perfectly just. But France, as the champion of 
Italian liberty and independence, would become most for- 
midable to the rest of Europe, and Louis Napoleon, in assum- 
ing for her this position, would be only following the example 
of his uncle, which we know to be his constant aim.^ 

Queen Victoria to the Earl of Derby. 

Windsor Castle, \Zth April 1852. 

The Queen has received Lord Derby's letter of the 1 1th inst., 
in which he states very clearly the difficulties which stand in 
the way of an active interference of this country in the affairs 
of Italy. The Queen did not mean to recommend in her letter 
of the 10th on this subject any active interference, as she is of 
opinion that our present want of due influence in Italy is chiefly 
owing to our former ill-judged over-activity. 'The Queen 
agrees therefore entirely with Lord Derby in thuiking that " all 
that can be done now is carefully to watch the proceedings of 
France* and Austria in this matter, so as to profit by every 

1 British Envoy at Turin. 

2 Premier of Sardinia. 

3 Lord Derby in reply, after reviewing the whole matter, coonselled non-interferenoe, 
the keeping of a vigilant watch on French and Austrian actions, encouragement of Sar- 
dioia in her constitutional action, and the making use of any opportunity to secoze botb 
the independence of Piedmont and titie reform of the Papal Administration. 


good opportunity to protect the independence of Piedmont, 
and, if possible, produce some improvement in the internal 
Government of Rome," and she would accordingly like to 
see her respective Foreign Ministers instructed in this sense. 

The Queen continues, however, to look with apprehension 
to the possible turn which the affairs of Italy may take, pro- 
ceeding from the political views of the President. It is not 
improbable that he may act now that he is omnipotent upon 
the views contained in his celebrated letter to Edgar Ney in. 
1849, which were at the time disapproved by the Assembly .^ 
He will feel the necessity of doing something to compensate the 
French for what they have lost by him at home, to turn their 
attention from home affairs to those abroad, and to the 
acquisition of power and influence in Europe ; and certainly, 
were he to head Italian liberty and independence, his power of 
doing mischief would be immense. After all, such an attempt 
would not be more inconsistent for him them it was for General 
Cavaignac, as President of the Republique DimocratiquCy to get 
rid of the Roman Republic, and to reinstate the Pope by force 
of arms. 

The Queen wishes Lord Derby to communicate this letter 
to Lord Malmesbury, from whom she hsA also just heard upon, 
this subject. 

Mr Disraeli to Queen Victoria. 

House op Commons, 19th April 1852. 
(Monday nighty haif-past twelve.) 

The Chancellor of the Exchequer, with his humble duty to* 
your Majesty, reports to your Majesty that, after a dull debate, 
significant only by two of the subordinate Members of the late^ 
Administration declaring their hostility to the Militia Bill, 
Lord John Russell rose at eleven o'clock and announced his. 
determination to oppose the second reading of it.' His speech 
was one of his ablest — statesmanlike, argumentative, terse, 
and playful ; and the effect he produced was considerable. 

Your Majesty's Government, about to attempt to reply to it, 
gave way to Lord Palmerston, who changed the feeling of the- 
House, and indeed entirely carried it away in a speech of 
extraordinary vigour and high-spirited tone. 

The Ministers were willing to have taken the division on his 
Lordship sitting down, but as the late Government wished to 

1 In this letter the President of the Bepablic had expressed his admiration at the con- 
duct of the French troops in the Homan expedition under General Oudinot, and his warm 
approval of the policy that led to the campaign. 

2 This tactical blunder, much condemned at the time, estranged many of the Whigs, 
from Lord John. 

388 THE BUDGET [chap, xxi 

reply, the Chancellor of the Exchequer would not oppose the 
adjournment of the debate. 

The elements of calculation as to the division are very com- 
plicated, but the Chancellor of the Exchequer is still inclined 
to believe that the second reading of the Bill will be carried. 

Queen Victoria to the Earl of Derby. 

BUGKINGHAlf PALACE, 25rA April 1852. 

The Queen wishes to remind Lord Derby that the time for 
the presentation of the Budget to the House of Commons being 
very close at hand, none of the Measures referring to the 
finemces of the country which the Government may have ta 
propose have as yet been laid before her. 

Queen Victoria to the Earl of Derby. 

BUOKINOHAM PALACB, 26ifl. April 1852. 

The Queen haa received Lord Derby's explanation of his 
views with regard to the Budget,^ and will be glad to see him on 
Wednesday at three o'clock. She had been alarmed by vague 
rumours that it wcw the intention of the Government to propose 
great changes in the present financial system, which, with an 
adverse majority in the House of Commons and at the eve of 
a Dissolution, must have led to much confusion. She thinks 
the course suggested by Lord Derby to consider the Budget 
merely as a provisional one for the current year, by far the 
wisest, the more so as it will leave us a surplus of £2,000,000, 
which is of the utmost importance in case of unforeseen 
difficulties with Foreign Powers.^ 

Mr Disraeli to Queen Victoria, 

House of OoiofONS, 26rA April. 
(Monday night, twelve o'dock.) 

The Chancellor of the Excehquer, with his humble duty to 
your Majesty, reports to your Majesty that the Militia Bill has 
been carried (second rea<(Mng) by an immense majority. 

For 315 

Against 165 

The concluding portion of the debate was distinguished by 
the speeches of Mr Sidney Herbert and Mr Walpole, who made 

1 Its chief feature was a renewal of the expiriog Income Tax. 
3 Accordingly, no financial changes were proposed until after the General Election. 
See post. p. 40G. 


their greatest efforts.; the first singularly happy in his treat- 
ment of a subject o£ which he was master, and the last 
addreesiEig the House with a spirit unusual with him. 

Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians. 


My deabest Uncle, — ^I thcmk you much for your kind and 
aff dctionate letter of the 23rd. I have somehow or other con- 
trived to lose my day, for which reason I can only write a ^ery 
Bhort letter. It seems to be generally believed that Louis 
Napoleon's assumption of the title of Emperor is very near at 
hand, but they still think war is not likely, as it would be such 
bad policy. 

What you. say about the ill-fated Spanish marriages, and 
the result of the poor King's wishing to have no one but a 
Bouxibon as Queen Isabel's husband being that the French 
wonH have any Bourbon, is indeed strange. It is a melancholy 

I shall certainly try and read Thiers' RivolvJtiony ConstUat, et 
Empire^ but I can hardly read any books, my whole lecture 
ahnost being taken up by the immense quantity of despatches 
we have to read, and then I have a good deal to write, and 
imiBt then have a little leisure time to rest, and de me dHaaser 
and to get out. It is a great deprivation, as I delight in 
reading. Still, I will not forget your recommendation. 

I am sorry to say nothing is definitely settled about our dear 
Crystal Palace. With Albert's love, ever you truly devoted 
Niece, Victoria R. 

Queen Victoria to Mr Disraeli, 

BUGdNQHAM PALACE, 1st May 1852. 

The Queen has read with great interest the clear and able 
financial atatement which the Chancellor of the Exchequer 
made in the House of Commons last night, and was glad to 
hear from him that it was well received. 

Qiteen Victoria to the Eari of Malmesbury. 


With respect to this despatch from Lord Howden,* the 
Queen wishes to observe that hitherto we have on all similar 

1 British Minister «t Madrid. 

390 AFFAIRS IN FRANCE [chap, xn 

occasions declined accepting any Foreign Order for the Prince 
of Wales, on account of his being too young and not even 
having any of the English Orders. Might this not therefore 
be communicated to Lord Howden ? 

Queen Victoria to the Earl of Derby. 

OSBOBNE, 27th May 1852. 

The Queen returns the enclosed most interesting letters. 
It is evident that the President is meeting with the first 
sjnnptoms of a reviving public feeling in France ; whether 
this will drive him to hurry on the Empire remains to be seen. 
All the Foreign Powers have to be careful about is to receive 
an assurance that the Empire does m>t mean a return to the 
policy of ihe Empire^ but that the existing Treaties wiU be 
acknowledged and adhered to. 

The session seems to advance very rapidly. The Queen 
hails Lord Derby's declaration of his conviction that a majority 
for a duty on corn will not be returned to the new Parliament, 
as the first step towards the abandonment of hostility to 
the Free Trade on which our commercial policy is now estab- 
lished, and which has produced so flourishing a condition of 
the finances of the country. 

Mr Disraeli's speech abo>it Spain was very good, though he 
had certainly better not have alluded to Portugal. 

We return to Town to-morrow. 

Mr Disraeli to Qtieen Victoria. 

House of CX)mmons, 21«< June 1852. 
(yine o'clock.) 

The Chancellor of the Exchequer, with his humble duty to 
your Majesty, reports to your Majesty that Lord John Russell 
introduced to the notice of the House of Commons to-night the 
recent Minute of the Committee of Council on Education. 

Lord John Russell made a languid statement to a rather 
full House. His speech was not very effective as it proceeded, 
and there was silence when he sat down. 

Then Mr Walpole rose and vindicated the Minute. He 
spoke with animation, and was cheered when he concluded. 

Sir Harry Verney followed, and the House very much dis- 
persed ; indeed the discussion would probably have terminated 
when Sir Harry finished, had not Mr Gladstone then risea 
Mr Gladstone gave only a very guarded approval to the 
Minute, which he treated as insignificant. 


It was not a happy effort, and the debate, for a while 
revived by his interposition, continued to languish until this 
hour (nine o'clock), with successive relays of mediocrity, until 
it yielded its last gasp in the arms of Mr Slaney. 

The feeling of the House of Commons, probably in this 
representing faithfully that of the country, is against both the 
violent parties in the Church, and in favour of a firm, though 
temperate, course on the part of the Crown, which may con- 
ciliate a vast majority, and tend to terminate dissension. 

Queen Victoria to Mr Walpole, 

Buckingham Palace, 1st July 1852. 

The Queen is much distressed at the account she has read 
in the papers of the dreadful riot at Stockport,* alas ! caused 
by that most baneful of all I^arty feelings, rdigious hatred,^ 
and she is very anxious to know what Mr Walpole has heard. 

The King of the Belgians to Qiieen Victoria. 

LAEEEN, 2Zrd Jfdy 1852. 

My dearest Victoria, — . . . We are very much plagued 
by our Treaty with France. Victor Hugo has written a book 
against Loms Napoleon, which will exasperate him much, ajid 
which he publishes here ; ^we can hardly keep Victor Hugo 
here after that.* The great plague of all these affairs is their 
constant return without the least advantage to any one ^rom 
the difficulties they created. . . . Your devoted Uncle, 

Leopold R. 

Queen Victoria to the Earl of Derby. 

OSBORNE, 2%th August 1852. 

The Queen has been considering the subject of the vacant 
Garter, and the names which L6rd Derby proposed to her. 
She is of opinion that it would not be advisable on the whole 
to give the Garter to Lord Londonderry ; that the Duke of 

1 The Chorch question was bronght into the political arena in the General Election, 
which was now in progress ; much yiolence was manifested during the contest. 

2 ** It is additional proof, if more were wanting," wrote Mr Walpole in reply, ** that all 
parties should forbear as much as possible from the ostentatious parade of anything that 
can provoke either the one or the other." 

3 Victor Hugo (1802-1885) had founded the journal, L'EvSnemerU^ in 1848 : he was 
exiled in 1851, and published NapoUon le Petit in Belgium. After the fall of the Empire 
he returned to France, and in 1877 published his Histoire (Fun Crime. 


Northumberland has by far the strongest claim to this dis- 
tinction. At the same time, the Queen would have no objec- 
tion to bestow it on Lord Lonsdale, if this is desirable, in order 
to facilitate any Ministerial arrangements which Lcnrd Derby 
may have in contemplation. 

The King of the Belgians to Qiteen Victoria. 

Laeeen, lOth September 1852. 

My dearest Victoria, — . . . That Mr Neild ^ should have 
left that great fortune to you delighted me ; it gives the 
possibility of forming a private fortune for the Royal Family, 
the necessity of which nobody can deny. Such things only 
still happen in England, where there exists loyalty and strong 
affection for Royalty, a feeling unfortunately madh dimin- 
ished on the Continent of Europe, though it did ejdab there 
also. . . . 

Memorandum by the Prince Albert. 

BALMORAL, 17th SeptmbtT Utt. 

The death of the Duke of Wellingtoxx > has ^pffivnad 4ibB 
Country of her greatest man, the Crown of its most vrimblft 
servant and adviser, the Army of its main stcengtib sod itnp- 
port. We received the sad news on an expeditioix Sraaa 
Allt-na-Giuthasach to the Dhu Loch (one of the wildest and 
loneliest spots of the Highlands) at four o'clock yesteeday 
afternoon. We hurried home to Allt-na-Giuthasach, and to- 
day here, where it became important to settle with Lord Derby 
the mode of providing for the command of the Army, and the 
filling up of the many posts and places which the Duke had 

I had privately prepared a list of the mode in which this 
should be done, and discussed it with Victoria, and found, to 
both Lord Derby's and our astonishment, that it tallied in 
every point with the recommendations which he had thought 
of making. 

I explained to Lord Derby the grounds upon which I thought 

1 John Oamden Neild, an eccentric and miserly bachelor, nominally a barrister, died on 
the SOth of August, bequeathing substantially the whole of his fortune (amoiinting to half 
a million) to \he Queen. As there were no known relatives, the Queen fdt able to acca>t 
this legacy ; but she first increased the legacies to the executors from £100 to £1000 eadi, 
made provision for Mr Neild's servants and others who had claims on him, restoired liie 
chancel of North Marston Church, Bucks, where he was buried, and inserted a window 
there to his memory. 

2 The Duke passed away at Walsier on the 14th of September, in his eighty-fonrtii year. 

From a miniaturo at Apsley Ilouae 

To fact p. 302, Vol. //, 



it better not to assume the Command myself, and told him of 
the old Duke's proposal, two years ago, to prepare the way to 
raiy etf»uming the Command by the appointment of a Chief of 
the 8tafiP, on Sir Willoughby Gordon's death, and the reasons 
Oft which I then declined the offer. Lord Derby entirely 
concurred in my views, and seemed relieved by my explana- 
tion ; we then agreed that for the loss of avthority which we 
hsrd lost with the Duke, we could only make up by increase in 
efficiency in the appointments to the different oflfices. That 
Lord Hardinge was the only man fit to command the Army. 

He should then receive the Command-in-Chief. The 
Ordnance which he would vacate should be given to Lord 
Fitzroy Somerset, hitherto Military Secretary (with the offer 
of a peerage )> The Constableship of the Tower to Lord 
Combermere ; the Garter to Lord Londonderry ; the Grenadier 
Guards and the Rifle Brigade to me ; the Fusiliers vacated 
by me to the Duke of Cambridge (or the Coldstream, Lord 
Stre^ord exchanging to the Fusiliers) ; the 60th Rifles vacated 
by me to Lord Beresf ord ; the Rangership of the Parks in 
London to George (Duke of Cambridge) ; the Wardenship of 
the Qnque Ports to Lord Dalhousie ; the Lieutenancy of 
Hampshke to Lord Winchester. I reserved to me the right of 
considering whether I should not assume the command of 
the Brigade of Guards which the Duke of York held in George 
rV.'s time, to which William IV. appointed himself, and which 
has been vacant ever since Victoria's cbccession, although 
inherent to the Constitution of the Guards. 

Lord Derby had thought of Greorge for the Command-in- 
Chief, as an alternative for Lord Hardinge, but perceived that 
his rank as a Major-General and youth would hardly entitle 
him to such an advancement. He would have carried no 
weight with the public, and we must not conceal from ourselves 
that many atta^^ks on the Army which have been sleeping on 
account of the Duke will now be forthcoming. 

Victoria wishes the Army to mourn for the Duke as long as 
for a member of the Royal Family. 

Lord Derby proposes a public funeral, which cannot take 
place, however, before the meeting of Parliament in November. 
He is to find out how this is to be accomplished on account of 
the long interval. 

The correspondence here following^ shows what doubts 
exist 83 to the person in whom the Conmiand of the Army is 

1 He became Lord Raglan. 

s TtMBit letters, vrXAtix are of no special importance, contained a statement from Lord 
Palmerston to the effect that the appointment to the Oommandership-in-Ghief was vested 
in the Storelair at War. 

voii. n 13* 


vested in case of a vacancy. I consider Lord Palmerston's 
letter as a mere attempt to arrogate supreme power for his 
Office,^ which rests on no foundation. The Secretary at War 
has no authority whatever except over money, whilst the 
Commander-in-Chief has no authority to spend a penny 
without the Secret€ury at War. Ai«bebt. 

Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians. 

BALMORAL, nth September 1852. 

My deabest Uncle, — ^I am sure you will mourn tvi^ us 
over the loss we and this whole nation have experienced in 
the death of the dear and great old Duke of Wellington. The 
sad news will have reaciied you, I doubt not, on Wednesday 
or yesterday. We had gone on Wednesday, as I had men- 
tioned, to our little Shiel of Allt-na-Giuthasach to spend two 
days there, and were enjoying ourselves very much on a beau- 
tiful expedition yesterday, and were sitting by the side of the 
Dhu Loch, one of the severest, wildest spots imaginable, when 
one of our Highlanders arrived bringing a letter from Lord 
Derby (who is here), confirming the report which we had 
already heard of — ^but entirely disbelieved — and sending me a 
letter from Lord Charles Wellesley, saying that his dear father 
had only been ill a few hours, and had hardly suffered at all. 
It was a stroke, which was succeeded rapidly by others, and 
ceuried him off without any return of consciousness. For him 
it is a blessing that he should have been taken away in the 
possession of his great and powerful mind and without a lin- 
gering illness. But for this country, and for us, his loss— 
though it could not have been long delayed — ^is irreparable! 
He was the pride and the bon gSnie, as it were, of this country ! 
He was the greatest man this country ever produced, and 
the most devoted and loyal subject, and the staunchest sup- 
porter the Crown ever had. He was to us a true, kind friend 
and most valuable adviser. To think that all this is gone; 
that this great and immorted man belongs now to History and 
no longer to the present, is a truth which we cannot recJise. 
We shall soon stand sadly alone ; Aberdeen is almost the only 
personal friend of that kind we have left. Melbourne, Peel, 
Liverpool — and now the Duke — all gone ! 

You will kindly feel for and with us, dearest Uncle. 

Lord Hardinge is to be Commander-in-Chief, and he is 
quite the only man fit for it. 

Albert is much grieved. The dear Duke showed him great 

1 Lord Palmerston had held the office of Secretary at War from 1809 to 1828. 


confidence and kindness. He was so fond of his little godson 
Arthur — ^who will now be a remaining link of the dear old 
Duke's, and a pleasant recollection of him. Ever your 
devoted Niece, Victoria R. 

The King of the Belgians to Queen Victoria, 

LAEKEN, nth September 1852. 

My deabest Victoria, — You will be much grieved at the 
loss of the Duke. It must give you satisfaction to think that 
you were always kind to him, and that he was very sincerely 
devoted to you and appreciated Albert. Since 1814 I had 
known much of the Duke ; his kindness to me had been very 
marked, and I early discovered that he was very favourable 
to my marriage with Charlotte, then alreculy in agitation. 
Since, he was alvxiys kind and confidential, even in those days 
of persecution against me, the result of the jealousy of George 
rV. ; he never was influenced by it, or h€id the meanness of 
many who, in the days of misfortune, quickly leave one. The 
only case in which we were at variance was about the boun- 
daries of Greece. He heud some of the old absolute notions, 
which in that case were not in conformity with the real interests 
of England and of Europe. Even last year he spoke so very 
kindly to me on the subject of our Continental affairs. Rarely 
fickle Fortune permits a poor mortal to reach the conclusion 
of a long career, however glorious, with such complete success, 
so undisturbed by physical or moral causes. The Duke is the 
noblest example of what an Englishman may be, and to what 
greatness he may rise in following that honourable and straight 

When one looks at the Manchester school, compared to the 
greatness to which men like the Duke raised their country, 
one cannot help to be alarmed for the future. You are en- 
joying the Highlands, but the weather seems also not very 
favourable ; here it is uncertcdn, and at times very cold. . . . 
Your truly devoted Uncle, Leopold R. 

The Prince Albert to the Earl of Derby. 

BALMORAL, 22nd September 1852. 

My deab Lobd Derby, — ^The Queen wishes me to answer 
your kind letter of yesterday. 

Her letter to you and to Mr Walpole of this morning will 
have apprised you that she sanctions the Guard of Honour 


having been placed at Walmer, and the Duke's body having 
been taken possession of formally on the part of the Crown. 

It would be a great pity if Lord Fitzroy were to be obliged 
to decline the Peerage on account of poverty ; at the same 
time it may be difficult to relieve him from the payment of 
fees by a public grant. Under these circumstances, rather 
than leave Lord Fitzroy unrewarded, and a chance of his 
feeling mortified at a moment when his cheerful co-operation 
with Lord Hardinge is so important to the public service — the 
Queen would heradf bear the expense of the fees. If this were 
to hurt Lord Fitzroy's feelings, you could easily manage it so 
that he need never know from what source the £500 came. 
The Queen leaves this matter in your hands. Ever yours 
truly, AiiBEBT. 

Qtieen Victoria to Mr Walpole, 

Balmoral Castle, 22nd September 1852. 

The Queen has just received Mr Walpole's letter of the 20th, 
informing her of the difficulty of having the Funeral Service, 
according to the Liturgy , performed tvnce ; she trusts, however, 
that means may be found to enable the Queen's intentions to 
be carried out, as commimicated to Mr Walpole in Lord Derby's 
official letter. Whether this is to be done by leaving the body 
for two months without the Funeral Service being reeul over 
it, or by reading the Funeral Service now in the presence of 
the fanuly, and treating the Public Funeral more as a transla- 
tion of the remains to their final place of rest, the Queen must 
leave to be decided by those who have the means of personally 
sounding the feelings of the Duke's family, the dignitaries of 
the Church, and the public generally. 

An impressive religious ceremony might certainly be made 
of it at St. Paul's, even if the actual Funeral Service should 
not be read on the occasion. . • • 

Queen Victoria to the Earl of Derby. 

Windsor Castle, 2Zrd Oetdber 1853. 

Shortly after the formation of Lord Derby's Government, 
the Queen communicated to him a Memorandum respecting 
the necessity of attending to our national defences on a sys- 
tematic plan. The Queen would now wish to hear how far 
we have advanced in this important object since that time. 
Lord Derby would perhaps call on the General Commanding- 
in-Chief, the Master-General of the Ordnance, and the Firifc 


Lord of the Admiralty, as well as the Home Secretary, to make 
a report oipon tibiis. It will soon be necessary to consider what 
will have to be done for the future to complete the various plans. 
The Queen is no alarmist, but thinks that the necessity of our 
attending to our defences once having been proved and ad- 
mitted by Parliament and two successive Governments, we 
should not re^ax. in our efforts until the plans then devised are 
thoroughly carried out. 

Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians. 

WINDSOB OASTLE, 26th October 1862. 

My dearest Uncle, — ... I must tell you an anecdote re- 
lating to Louis Napoleon's entry into Paris, which Lord Cowley 
wrote over, as going the round of Paris. It is : that under one 
of the Trixunphal Arches a Crown was suspended to a string 
(which is very often the case) over which was written, " II Va 
bien miriteJ*'* Something damaged this crown, and they re- 
moved it — leaving^ however, the rope and superscription, the 
effect of which must have been somewhat edifying ! 

It is not at all true that foreign Officers are not to attend at 
the funeral of the dear old Duke ; on the contrary, we expect 
them from Prussia, Austria, and Russia, and the Duke of 
Terceira (whom we shall see to-night) is already come from 
Portugal to attend the ceremony. 

I nmst now conclude. With Albert's love, ever your de- 
voted Niece, Victobia R. 

Queen Victoria to ike Earl of Malmesbury. 

WIMDBOB CASTLE, Sth November 1862. 

As we seem to be so near the declaration of the Empire in 
France, and as so many opinions are expressed on the subject 
of the title to be assumed by Louis Napoleon, the Queen is 
anxious to impress Lord Malmesbury with the importance of 
our not committing ourselves on this point, and not giving our 
allies to understand that we shall join them in not acknowledg- 
ing Napoleon III.^ Objectionable as this appellation no doubt 
is, it may hardly be worth offending France and her Ruler by 
refusing to recognise it, when it is of sitch importance to prevent 
their considering themselves the aggrieved party ; any attempt 

1 Louis Napoleon himself claimed no hereditary right to the Imperial dignity, bat 
only that conferred by election : he acknowledged as national all tine acts whidi had 
token place since 1815, sach as the reigns of the later Bourbons and of Louis Philippe. 
(See Memoirs of an ex-Minister.) 

398 NATIONAL DEFENCES [chap, xxi 

to dictate to France the style of her Ruler would strengthen 
Louis Napoleon's position ; our object should be to leave 
France alone, as long as she is not aggressive. 
All of this should be well weighed. 

The Prince Albert to Viscount Hardinge, 

Windsor Gasile, Sth Nonembet 1852. 

My deab Lobd Habdinge, — ^In reference to our conversation 
of yesterday, and the Queen's request to Lord Derby that he 
should call upon the different departments of the Admiralty, 
Army, Ordnance, and Home Office to furnish a report as to 
how far the meeisures begun last spring to put our defences in a 
state of efficiency have been carried out, and what remains to 
be done in that direction — ^I beg now to address you in writing. 
The object the Queen wishes to obtain is, to receive an account 
which will show what means we have reaUy at our disposal for 
purposes of defence, ready for action at the shortest possible 
notice, and what remains to be done to put us into a state of 
security, what the supply of the wants may cost (approximately), 
and what time it would require. 

As it will be not only convenient but necesscury that the 
Horse Guards and Ordnance should consult together and com- 
bine their deUberations, I beg this letter to be understood to 
apply as weU to Lord Raglan as to yourself, and that you would 
meet and give the answer to the Queen's questions conjointly. 

(A detaUed list follows,) 

These questions would all present themselves at the moment 
when we received the intelligence of a threatened coup de main 
on the part of Louis Napoleon, when it would be too late to 
remedy any deficiency. The pubhc would be quite ready to 
give the necessary money for our armament, but they feel with 
justice that it is unfair to ask them for large smns and then 
always to hear, We are quite un/prepared. They don't under- 
stand and cannot understand details, but it is upon matters of 
detail that our security will have to depend, and we cannot be 
sure of efficiency unless a comprehensive statement be made 
showing the whole. 

I beg this to be as short as possible, and if possible in a 
tabular shape. Ever yours truly, Axbekt. 

Queen Victoria to the Earl of Derby. 

Windsor Castle, IZth November 1852. 
The Queen was very sorry to heaj from Lord Derby and 


Mr Disraeli that Mr Villiers' Motion ^ will create Parliamentary 

With respect to the financial statement, she must most 
strongly impress Lord Derby with the necessity of referring to 
our defenceless state, and the necessity of a large outlay, to 
protect us from foreign attack, which would almost ensure us 
against wax. The country is fully alive to its danger, and 
Parliament Yiss perhaps never been in a more likely state to 
grant what is necessary, provided a comprehensive and efficient 
plan is laid before it. Such a plan ought, in the Queen's 
opinion, to be distinctly promised by the Government, although 
it may be laid before Parliament at a later period. 

Mr Disraeli to Queen Victoria, 

London, lith November 1862. 

The Chancellor of the Exchequer, with his humble duty to 
your Majesty, begs permission to enclose an answer to the 
Address for your Majesty's approbation, and which should be 
delivered, if your Majesty pleases, to the House of Commons 

Referring to a letter from your Majesty, shown to him yester- 
day by Lord Derby, the ChanceUor of the Exchequer also begs 
permission to state that, in making the financial arrange- 
ments, he has left a very large margin for the impending 
year (April 1853-4), which will permit the fulfilment of all 
your Majesty's wishes with respect to the increased defence 
of the country, as he gathered them from your Majesty's 
gracious expressions, and also from the suggestion which after- 
wards, in greater detail. His Royal Highness the Prince 
deigned to make to him. 

The Chancellor of the Exchequer will deeply consider the 
intimation graciously made in your Majesty's letter to Lord 
Derby &a to the tone on this subject to be adopted in the House 
of Commons, and he will endeavour in this, and in all respects, 
to fulfil your Majesty's pleasure. 

The COiancellor of the Exchequer fears that he sent to your 
Majesty a somewhat crude note from the House of Commons 
on Thursday night, but he humbly begs your Majesty will deign 
to remember that these bulletins are often written in tumult, 
and sometimes in perplexity ; and that he is under the impres- 

1 This Motion, intended to extort a declaration from the House in favour of Free Trade, 
and describing the Com Law Repeal as " a just, wise, and beneficial measure," was natu- 
rally distasteful to the Ministers. Their amotur-prapre was saved by Lord Palmerston's 
Amendment omitting the " odious epithets " and affirming the principle of unrestricted 

400 LORD DALHOUSIE [chap, 

sion that your Majesty would prefer a genuine report of the 
feeling of the moment, however miniature, to a more artificial 
and prepared statement. 

Queen Victoria to Mr DisradL 

Windsor Castle, lUh NovenAer 1852. 

The Queen has received with much satisfaction Mr Disraeli's 
letter of this day's date, in which he informs her of his readiness 
to provide efficiently for the defence of the country, the call 
for which is very urgent. Lord Malmesbury, with whom the 
Prince has talked very fully over this subject, will communi- 
cate further with Mr Disraeli and Lord Derby on his return to 
Town to-morrow. 

The Marquis of Ddlhouaie to Queen Victoria. 

OOYERNMBKT HOUSE, 2lrd tfoffember 1862. 

The Governor-General still retains some hope of seeing 
general peace restored in India before he quits it finally, as 
your Majesty's Ministers and the Court of Directors have some 
time since requested him not to retire from its administration 
in January next, as he had intended to do. 

Many private considerations combined to draw him home- 
wards, even though the honour and the advantages of retaining 
this Office were willingly recognised. But the gracious appro- 
bation with which his services here have been viewed was a 
sufficient motive for continuing them for some time longer, if 
they were thought profitable to the State. 

Your Majesty has very recently been pleased to bestow upon 
him a still further distinction, which calls not merely for the 
expression of his deep and hiunble gratitude to your Majesty, 
but for a further devotion to your Majesty's service of whatever 
power he may possess for promoting its interests. 

That your Majesty shoiild prefer him at all to an Office of 
such traditional distinction as the Wardenship was an honour 
to which the Governor-General would never at any time have 
dreamt of aspiring. But by conferring it upon him thus — 
during his absence — and above all, by conferring it upon him 
in immediate succession to one whom he must all his life regard 
with reverence, affection, and gratitude — ^your Majesty has 
STirrounded this honour with so much of honourable circum- 
stance that the Governor-General is whoUy unable to give full 
expression to the feelings with which he has received your 
Majesty's goodness. 


Hie Crovemor-Oenaral is very sensible that in him, as Lord 
Warden, your Majesty will have but a sorry successor to the 
Duke of Wellington in every respect, save one. But in that 
one respect — ^namely in deep devotion to your Majesty's Crown, 
€uid to the true interests of your Empire — ^the Governor-General 
does not yield even to the Master he was long so proud to 

In every part of India the highest honours have been paid 
to the memory of the Duke of Wellington, which your Majesty's 
Empire in the East and its armies could bestow. 

Even the Native Powers have joined in the homage to his 
fame. In the mountains of Nepaul the same sad tribute was 
rendered by the Maharajah as by ourselves, while in Mysore 
the Rajah not only fired minute guns in his honour, but even 
caused the Dusserah, the great Hindoo festival, to be stopped 
throughout the city, in token of his grief. 

Excepting the usual disturbance from time to time among 
the still untamed mountain tribes upon our north-western 
border, there is entire tranquillity in India. The season has 
been good, and the revenue is improving. 

Respectfully acknowledging the letter which he had lately 
the honour of receiving from your Majesty, and the gracious 
message it contained to Lady Dalhousie, who, though much 
improved in health, will be compelled to return to England in 
January, the Governor-General has the honour to subscribe 
himself with the utmost respect and gratitude, your Majesty's 
most obedient, most humble, and devoted Subject and Servant, 


Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians, 

Windsor Castle, 23r<f Novetnber 1852. 
My deabest Uncle, — ^What you say about Joinville has 
interested us very much, and we have confidentially commimi- 
cated it to Lord Derby, who is never alarmed enough. There 
is, however, a belief that the Orleans family have been very 
imprudent, and that Louis Napoleon has heard things and 
expressions used which did a great deal of harm, and Lord 
Derby begged me to warn them very strongly and earnestly 
on tins point ; / cannot do much, but I think you might, for 
in fact they might unintentionally compromise us seriouly. The 
Government are rather shaky ; Disraeli has been imprudent 
€Uid blundering, and has done himself harm by a Speech he 
made about the Duke of Wellington, which was borrowed itam 
an eloge by Thiers on a French Marshal ! ! ! ^ 

1 Marshal Gouyion de St Oyr. 

402 THE FUNERAL [C5HAP. xxi 

You will have heard from your children and from Charles 
how very touching the ceremony both in sjid out of doors was 
on the 18th. The behaviour of the millions assembled has been 
the topic of general admiration, and the foreigners have all 
assured me that they never could have believed such a number 
of people could have shown such feeling, such respect, for not 
a sound was heard ! I caimot say what a deep and wehnUHhige 
impression it made on me ! It was a beautiful sight. In the 
Cathedral i^ was much more touching stUl ! The dear old 
Duke ! he is an irreparable loss ! 

We had a great dinner yesterday to aM the Officers. There 
is but one feeling of indignation and surprise at the conduct of 
Austria ^ in taking this opportunity to slight England in return 
for what happened to Haynau * for his own character. Ernest 
Hohenlohe w€is extremely anxious you should know the reason 
why he may possibly appear one evening at the Elys6e (they 
are gone for three or four days to Paris). 

Louis Napoleon being excessively susceptible, and believing 
us to be inimical towards him, we and the Government thought 
it would not be wise or prudent for my brother-in-law, just 
coming from here, pmrposely to avoid ham and go out of his 
way, which Louis Napoleon would immediately say was my 
doing ; and unnecessary offence we do not wish to give ; the 
more so as Stockmar was presented to him at Strasburg, and 
received the Legion d^honneur, I promised to explain this to 
you, as Ernest was distressed lest he should appear to be HrM- 
serving J and I said I was sure you would understand it. 

I must end in a hurry, hoping to write again on Thursday 
or Friday. Dear Stockmar is very well and most kind. He is 
much pleased at your children spending some time with him 
every day. Ever your devoted Niece, Victobia R. 

The Earl of Derby to Queen Victoria. 

DOWNINQ Street, 2Uh November 1853. 
(Thursday, four P.M.) 

Lord Derby, with his humble duty, in obedience to your 
Majesty's gra>cious commands of this morning, proceeds to 
report to your Majesty what he finds to have taken place and 
to be in contemplation ; but the accounts of the latter are 
so conflicting and contradictory, that his report must be as 
unsatisfactory to your Majesty as the state of the case is 
imintelligible to himself. 

1 In sending no representative to the funeral of the Duke of Wellington, 
a See ante, p. 267. 


On arriving in London, Lord Derby called on Mr Disraeli, 
and found that late last night he had had, by his own desire, 
a private interview with Lord Palmerston, who had come to his 
house with that object ; that Lord Palmerston's language was 
perfectly friendly towards the Government ; that he €bssured 
Mr Disraeli that his only object in offering his Amendment was 
to defeat Mr Villiers ; that if that could be done, it was a matter 
of indifference to him which Amendment was adopted ; and 
he concluded by declaring that though he sat by Mr Sidney 
Herbert in the House of Commons, and was an old personal 
friend, he did not act in concert with him or with Mr Glad- 
stone ; and that he did not see, on their part, any disposition 
to approach the Government ! After this declaration Mr 
Disraeli felt that it would be useless and unwise to sound him 
f €u^her as to his own ulterior views, and the conversation led to 

As Lord Derby was walking home, he was overtaken by Lord 
Jocelyn, who stated, in direct opposition to what had been said 
by Lord Palmerston, that he, and the other two gentlemen 
named, were consulted upon, and had concocted the proposed 
Amendment ; and that they were decidedy acting together. 
He was present at a dinner of the Peelite Party yesterday at 
Mr Wortley's, when Speeches were made, and language held 
about the reunion of the Conservative Party, resulting, how- 
ever, in a declaration that if your Majesty's servants did not 
accept Lord Palmerston's Amendment, they, as a body, would 
vote in favour of Mr Villiers. Lord Derby has been farther 
informed that they are willing to join the Government, but 
that one of their conditions would be that Lord Palmerston 
should lead the House of Commons, Mr Gladstone refusing to 
serve xmder Mr Disraeli. This, if true, does not look like an 
absence of all concert. 

To complete the general confusion of Parties, the Duke of 
Bedford, who called on Lady Derby this morning, assures her 
that Lord John Russell does not desire the fall of your Majesty's 
present Government, and that in no C€ise will he enter into any 
combination with the Radical Party, a declaration quite at 
variance with the course he has pursued since Parliament met. 

Of course Lord Derby, in these circumstances, has not taken 
any step whatever towards exercising the discretion with 
which your Majesty was graciously pleased to entrust him this 
moming.i He much regrets having to send your Majesty so 
unsatisfactory a statement, and has desired to have the latest 

1 The Queen had allowed him to enter into negotiations with the Peelites and Lord 
Palmerston on the distinct understanding that the latter could not receive the lead of the 
House of Commons. 

404 LORD PALMERSTON [chap, xn 

intelligence sent up to him of what may pass in the House of 
Commons, and he will endeavour to keep your Majesty informed 
of any new occurrence which any hour may produce. 

EcUf'pcut ux. 

Lord Derby has just heard from the House of Commoiis 
that Sir James Graham has given the history of the framing of 
the Amendment, and has expressed his intention, if Lord 
Palmerston's Amendment be Srccepted, to advise Mr Villiers 
to withdraw. Mr Gladstone has held the same language; 
there appears to be much difference of opinion^ but Lord 
Derby would think that the probable result will be the adoption 
of Lord Palmerston's proposition. He fears this will lead 
to a good deal of discontent among the supporters of the 
Government ; but a di£ferent course would run imminent risk 
of defeat. 

Mr Disraeli to Queen Victoria. 

HOUSB OF GOHMONS, 26/A NwenHber 1852. 
(Half-past one o*dock ajl) 

The Chancellor of the Exchequer, with his humble duty to 
your Majesty, reports to your Majesty that the House of 
Commons has this moment divided on Mr Villiers' resolution, 
and in a House of nearly 600 members they have been rejected 
by a majority of 80.^ 

The debate was very animated and wnusing, from the rival 
narratives of the principal projectors of the dembonstration, 
who, having quarrelled ajuong themselves, entered into secret 
and — ^in a Party sense — somewhat scandalous revelations, to 
the diversion and sometimes €istonishment of the House. 

The Chancellor of the Exchequer deeply regrets that, having 
been obliged to quit the House early yesterday, he was unabto 
to forward a bulletin to your Majesty. 

He has fixed next Priday for the Budget. 

Memorandum by the Prince Albert. 

Windsor Oastle, 28<ft NtnerOter 1852. 

Before the Council held yesterday we saw Lord Derby, who 
seemed much pleased with the result of the Division, though 
a good deal galled by the tone of the Debate. 

Lord Derby had heard it said that Mr Sidney Herbert, 

1 Lord FahnraBton's Axnandment (see €006, p. 899) was carried Instead, and ProtectioQ 
was tbencef orward abandoned by Mr Disraeli and his foliowen. 


although very bitter in his language, had not meant to be 
hostile to the Government, but felt that he owed the duty to 
speak out to the memory of Sir Robert Peel ; that he was glad 
to have thrown the load off his mind. Lord Derby then read 
us a letter from Lord Claud Hamilton, who had seen Mr Corry 
(one of the Peelites), who had given him to understand that 
they would not serve under the leadership of Mr Disraeli ; that 
they wwe ready, on the other hand, to serve under Lord 
PaJznerston. This put all further negotiation out of the 
question, for, independently of the Queen objecting to such 
an arrangement, he himself could not admit of it. On my 
question why Mr Gladstone could not lead, he replied that 
Mr Gladstone was, in his opinion, quite unfit for it ; he had 
none of that decision, boldness, readiness, and clearness which 
was necessary to Tead a Party, to inspire it with confidence, 
and, still [more], to take at times a decision on the spur of the 
moment, which a leader had often to do. Then he said that 
he could not in honour sacrifice Mr Disraeh, who had acted 
very straightforwardly to him as long as they had had anything 
to do with each other, and who possessed the confidence of his 
followers. Mr Disra.eli had no idea of giving up the lead. 

We could quite vmderstand, on the other hand, that the 
colleagues of Sir Robert Peel could not feel inclined to serve 
under Mr D]sra.eli. 

Under these circumstances we agreed that nothing should be 
done at present, and that it must be left to time to operate 
changes, that much must depend upon the success which Mr 
Disraeli may have with his Budget, cmd that the knowledge 
that Lord Palmerston could not obtain the lead would oblige 
those who wished to join to think of a different combination. 

Lord Derby owned (upon my blunt question) that he did not 
think Mr Disraeli heud ever heui a strong feeling, one way or 
the other, about Protection or Free Trade, and that he would 
make a very good Free Trade Minister. 

The Queen was a«nxious to know what Lord Derby thought 
Lord Creorge Bentinck (if now alive) would do in this con- 
junction. Lord Derby's ex{M:ession was *'* he would have made 
confusion worse confoimded " from his excessive violence. 


Queen Victoria to ffie Earl of Malmesbury. 

OSBOBNB, 2nd December 1852. 

The Queen has received Lord Malmesbury's letter, and re- 
turns the enclosure from Lord Cowley. Under these circum- 


stances the course recommended to be pursued by Lord 
Malmesbury^ appears also to the Queen as the best. It is 
evident that we have no means of making Louis Napoleon say 
what he will not, nor would any diplomatic form of obtaining 
an assurance from him give us any guarantee of his not doing 
after all exactly what he pleases. Our honour appears there- 
fore to be best in our own keeping. Whatever he may say, 
it is in our note of recognition that we must state what we recog- 
nise ajid what we do not recognise. 

The Earl of Derby to Qtieen Victoria. 

St Jabies's Square, Zrd December 1852. 
(Friday nighty twdve o'doek P.lf.) 

Lord Derby, with his humble duty, ventures to hope that 
your Majesty may feel some interest in hearing, so far as he 
is able to give it, his impression of the effect of Mr Disra.eli's 
announcement of the Budget 2 this evening. Lord Derby was 
not able to hear quite the commencement of the Speech, having 
been obliged to attend the House of Lords, which, however, 
was up at a quarter past five, Mr Disra.eli having then been 
speaking about half an hour. From that time till ten, when 
he sat down. Lord Derby was in the House of Ck)inmons, and 
anxiously watching the effect produced, which he ventures to 
assure your Majesty was most favourable, according to his 
own judgment after some considerable experience in Parlia- 
ment, and also from what he heard from others. Mr Disraeli 
spoke for about five hours, with no apparent effort, with 
perfect self-possession, and with hardly an exception to the 
fixed attention with which the House listened to the exposition 
of the views of your Majesty's servants. It was altogether a 
most masterly performance, and he kept alive the attention of 
the House with the greatest abihty, introducing the most 
important statements, and the bro€idest principles of legisla- 
ture, just at the moments when he had excited the greatest 
anxiety to learn the precise measures which the Government 
intended to introduce. The Irish part of the question was 
dealt with with remarkable dexterity, though probably a great 
part of the point will be lost in the newspaper reports. It is 
difficult to foresee the ultimate result, but Lord Derby has no 

1 Lord Malmesbory advised that a formal repetition of the interpretation and aasoranoes 
as to the use of the numeral " in " in the Imperial title, already verbally made b^ the 
President and the French Ambassador, should be demanded. This was duly (Stained 
On the 2nd of December, the anniversary of the coup c^Stat, the Imperial title was assumed ; 
on the 4th, the Empire was officially recognised. 

2 Increase of the House Tax, reduction of the Malt and Tea duties, and relaxation of 
Income Tax in the case of farmers, were the salient features of the Budget. 


hesitation in saying that the general first impression was very 
favourable, and that, as a whole, the Budget seemed to meet 
with the approval of the House. 

Queen Victoria to the Emperor of the French. 

OSBORNE House, 4th December 1852. 

Snt, MY Brother, — ^Being desirous to maintain uninter- 
rupted the union and good understanding which happily 
subsist between Great Britain and France, I have mcule choice 
of Lord Cowley, a peer of my United Kingdom, a member of 
my Privy Council, and Elnight Commander of the Most Honour- 
able Order of the Bath, to reside at your Imperial Majesty's 
Court in the character of my Ambassador Extraordinary and 
Plenipotentiary. The long experience which I have had of his 
talents and zeal for my service assures me that the choice 
which I have made of Lord Cowley will be perfectly agreeable 
to your Imperial Majesty, and that he will prove himself worthy 
of this new mark of my confidence. I request that your 
Imperial Majesty will give entire credence to all that Lord 
Cowley shall commimicate to you on my part, more especially 
when he shaU assure your Imperial Majesty of my invariable 
attachment and esteem, and shall express to you those senti- 
ments of sincere friendship and regard with which I am. Sir, 
my Brother, your Imperial Majesty's good Sister, ^~~ 

Victoria R. 

To my good Brother,^ the Emperor of the French. 

Queen Victoria to the Earl of Makneshury, 

OSBORNE, Wi December 1852. 

The Queen has this morning received Lord Malmesbury's 
letter of yesterday, relative to Count Walewski's audience. 
The manner in which Lord Malmesbury proposes this should 
be done the Queen approves, and only wishes Lord Malmes- 
bury to communicate with the proper authorities in order that 
the Fairy may be at Southampton at the right hour, and the 
Frigate, as suggested, in attendance off Osborne or Cowes, 
a<;cording to what the weather may be. The landing at 
Osborne Pier, in wet or stormy weather, is very bad, particu- 
larly for a lady. 

The Queen wishes that the Count and Countess Walewski 

1 The Ozar persisted in addressing him as Hon cher Ami, 

40S A SECRET PROTOCOL [chap, xn 

ahould come down here with Lord Mafanesbtiry on Thunday 
mxt^ and we shotdd receive them at half-past one. We wish 
then that they should aU three dine ofid deep here thai day. 

Queen Victoria to the Earl of Malmesbury. 

OSBOBRS, Sih DteaOter 1852. 

The Queen was very much surprised to receive this moTniog 
in a box from Lord Malmesbury, without any further explana- 
tion, a secret Protocol^ signed by the representatives of the 
four great Powers at the Foreign Office on the 3rd instant. 

A step of such importance should not have been taken without 
even the intention of it having been previously mentioned 
to the Queen, and her leave having been obtained. She must 
therefore ask for an explanation from Lord Malmesbury. 
Though the purport of the Protocol appears to the Queen quite 
right, she ought not to allow the honour of England to be 
pledged by her Minister without her sancticm. 

Tba exact wording of a document of that nature is a matter 
of such serious importance that it requires the greatest 
consideration, and it is a question with the Queen whether 
it be always quite safe to adopt entirely what is proposed 
by Baron Bnumow, who is generally the ridatbeut of such 

The Eari of Malmesbury to Queen Victoria, 

FOREIGN Offigb, 13^ December 1852. 

Lord Malmesbury presents his humble duty to the Queen. 
He thought it advisable to acquaint your Majesty as soon as 
possible with a conversation which Count WsJewski had held 
of his own accord in reference to Her Serene Highness the 
Princess Adelaide of Hohenlohe,* and he requested I^rd Oorfoy 
to repeat it to your Majesty. 

Lord Malmesbury was not mistaken in believing that the 
Count had not alluded idly to the subject, as he this day called 
on Lord Malmesbury, and stated to him tha4) the Emperor of 
the French had not decided to negotiate a marriage with the 
Princess of Wasa ; ^ but, on the contrary, was rather averse to 
such an alUance ; that he was anxious, on the contrary, to 

1 By this Protocol Louis Napoleon was to be recognised as Emperor by Qreat Britain, 
Aostrfo, PtnaBia, and RasBla. 

3 The Queen's niece, daughter of Princess Hohenlohe. 

3 The Princess Caroline ^^haais, daogbter of PKloot OastaToa de Waaa, who was sod 
of the last King of Sweden of the earlier dynasty. 


«iake 'One -which indirectly ** reaserrermt lee liens d^anMi entre 
FjSM^^eterre et ia Frcatet" and that with iiiis view he wished 
Lord Makneshury to ascertain from your Majesty whethw 
any objections would be raised on the part of your Majesty, or of 
the Princess Adelaide's f cunily, to his contracting a marriage 
with Her Serene Highness. Your Majesty may suppose that 
he received this intimation by a simple assurance that he would 
Qubmit the French Emperor's sentiments to your Majesty, 
and hb added that he foresaw a serious difficulty to the 
f>rQ|eot in the fact that the Princess was a Pl^otestaoait. 
Count Walewski was evidently sincere in the earnestness with 
fifhic^ he i^poike of the subject, and the impatience with which 
to pressed Lord Malmesbury to inform your Majesty of his 

Queen Victoria to the Earl of Derby, 

OSBOtuns, lith December 1862. 

The (Queen sends to Lord Derby a conmiunication which 
she has received from Lord Malmesbury. 

The Queen is sorry to have been put in a situation which 
^requires on her part a direct answer, which to have been spared 
would have been in every respect more prudent and safe. As 
it is, however, the Queen is fully aware that the answer she 
is forced to give may really have, or may h^eafter be made 
appear to have, political consequences disadvantageous to our 
political relations with France, and injurious to the Queen's 
personal character. 

The Queen therefore encloses for Lord Derby a draft of the 
answer she intends to give to Lord Malmesbury,* asking that 
LiOrd Derby will not only give these matters his fullest con- 
sideration, but that he will return to the Queen the draft as 
soon as possible, with such of his suggestions or alterations as 
he may think ckivisable to propose to her. 

The Queen must also express her decided wish that Lord 

1 Queen Victoria to the Earl of Malmeehury. 


Osborne, lith December 1852. 

Tbe Queen has received Lord Malmesbory's letter of jeeterdaj, reporting his con- 
^ranatioD with Ooont Walewski, who had asked him to ascertain from the Qaeen " whether 
may objections woald be raised on her part or on that of the Princess Adelaide's familj to 
bis f the Emperor's) contracting a marriage with Her Serene Highness." 

In a question which affects the entire prospects and happiness of a third pason, and that 
person being a near and dear relation of has, the Queen feete herself consoientioasly pre- 
cluded from forming an opinion of her own, and consequently from taking the slightest 
part in it either directly or indirectly. The only prefer persons to refw to for the con- 
•Biderfition of and dtdrion on so eeriom a prc^Kieal are the parents of the Princess and the 
Princess herself . 


Derby will not allow Lord Malmesbury to move a single step 
in this affair without it has been previously concerted with 
Lord Derby.* 

Queen Victoria to the Earl of Derby. 

OSBOBNE, 16th Beeember 1852. 

The Queen has received Lord Derby's letter of the 14th inst. 
She did not intend to complain personally of Lord Mckfanesbury, 
who» the Queen is sure, was most anxious to do the best he 
could under the circumstances ; but she still thinks that a 
question of such importance should not have been brought 
inmiediately before her for her decision ; and although Lord 
Derby states his opinion that Lord Malmesbury had no alter- 
native but to promise to Count Walewski that he would bring 
" t?ie Emperor's sentiments before the Queen,'' the very sug- 
gestion Lord Derby now makes, viz. " that Lord Malmesbury 
should be instructed to treat the proposition as emanating, not 
from the Emperor, but unofficially from Count Walewski, 
and that he should also unofficially dissuade him from pressing 
the matter further " — shows that there was an alternative. 

Lord Derby and Lord Malmesbury alone can know, whether, 
after what may have passed in conversation between Lord Mal- 
mesbury and Count Walewski, this course still remains open. 

There can be no doubt that the best thing would be to 
terminate this affair without the Queen being called upon to 
give any opinion at all. 

Lord Derby seems to treat the matter as of much less im- 
portance than the Queen, but he will admit that, if the edliance 
is sought by the Emperor, " pour resserrer les liens d'amitie 
entre la France et V Angleterre," the refusal of it on the part of 

1 In his replj Lord Derbj obs^-v^d that it did not appear to him that the matter 
was at present in so critical a position. Lord Malmesbury would have little diflScolty in 
showing Count Walewski, without anj interruption of a friendly entente^ that the intended 
overtures were not likely to be favourably received. He suggested that Lord Malmesbtay 
should be instracted to treat the proposition as emanating, not from the Emperor, bat 
unofficially, from Ck>unt Walewski ; and that he should, also unofficially, disBoade him from 
pressing the subject further ; such course could have no injurious effect upon the pditical 
aspect of Europe. Lord Derby could not understand how the affedr, however it x^^ 
turn out, could affect the Queen's " personal character." 

He suggested that the following words should be substituted for tiie last paragraph: 
" And while she fully appreciates the desire expressed by Count Walewski on the iv^ 
of his Government, ' de resserrer Us liens de ramitii entre VAngleterre et la France.,* she feels 
bound to leave the consideration and decision of so serious a proposal to the onbiaflBed 
judgment of the parents of the Princess and the Princess herself, the ondy persons to whom 
such a question can properly be referred. The Queen thinks it right to add that being 
fully persuaded of the strong religious persuasion of the Princess, of the extreme im- 
probability of any change of opinion on her part, and of the evils inseparable from a diffe^ 
ence of opinion on such a subject between the Emperor and his intended OonsOTt, she wishes 
Lord Malmesbury to place this consideration prominently before Count Walewski, before 
he takes any other step in the matter, which he appears to have brought nnoffldally onder 
the consideration of Lord Malmesbury." 


the Queen must also have the opposite effect. The respon- 
sibility of having produced this effect would rest personally with 
the Queen, who might be accused of having brought it about, 
influenced by personal feelings of animosity against the Em- 
peror, or by mistaken friendship for the Orleans family, or mis- 
placed ffittnily pride, etc., etc., etc. The a<;ceptance of the 
proposal, on the other hand, or even the consummation of the 
project without her direct intervention, cannot fail to expose the 
Queen to a share in the just opprobriiun attaching in the eyes 
(rf all right-thinking men to the political SrCts perpetrated in 
France ever since 2nd December 1851. And, while it would 
appear as if her Family did not care for any such considera- 
tions, so long as by an alliance they could secure momentary 
advantages, it would give the other Powers of Europe, whom 
the Emperor seems to be disposed to treat very unceremoniously 
(as shown by Lord Cowley's last reports) the impression that 
England suddenly had separated herself from them, and bound 
herself to France for a family interest pursued by the Queen. 

These are the dangers to " the Queen's personal charac- 
ter," which presented themselves to her mind when she wrote 
her lajst letter, and which Lord Derby says remained unin- 
telligible to him. 

The Queen wishes Lord Derby to show this letter to Lord 
Malmesbury, whom, under the circumstances, she thinks it 
best not to address separately. They will be now both in the 
fullest possession of the Queen's sentiments, and she hopes 
will be able to terminate this matter without the expression 
of an opinion on the part of the Queen becoming necessary. 

The Earl of Derby to Qtieen Victoria. 

&£ JAMES'S Squabe, 17th December 1852. 
(4 A.M.) 

Lord Derby, with his humble duty, regrets to have to submit 
to your Majesty that the House of Commons, from which he 
has this moment returned, has rejected the resolution for the 
increase of the House Tax, by a majority of either nineteen or 
twenty-one.^ This majority is so decisive, especially having 
been taken on a question which was understood to involve the 
fate of the Government, as to leave Lord Derby no alternative 
aa to the course which it will be his duty to pursue ; and 
although, as a matter of form, it is necessary that he should 

1 This memorable debate and its sensational ending, with the notable speeches from 
Disraeli and Gladstone, has been repeatedly described. See, e.g.t Morley's QladsUme 
and McCarthy's History of our oivn Times. The Times leader (quoted by Mr Morley) 
was cat oat and preserved by the Queen. 

412 DEFEAT OF THE MINISTRY [chap, xxr 

consult his 'Oollea^es, for which purpose he has desired that 
a Cabmet should be summoned for twelve o'clock, he oaa 
entertain no doubt but that their opinion will unanixnoualy 
concur with his own ; that he must humbly ask leave to resiga 
into your Majesty's hands the high trust which your Majesty 
has been pleased to repose in him. Lord Derby^ with your 
Majesty's permission, will endeavour to do himself the honoi:^ 
of attending your Majesty's pleasure this evening ; but it is 
possible that he may not be able to find the means of crossing,^ 
xa which case he trusts that your Majesty will honour him 
with an audience to-morrow ( Saturday) morning. liord Derby 
trusts he need not a^ssure your Majesty how deeply "he feels tl^ 
inconvenience and annoyance which this event will occasion 
to your Majesty^ nor how anxious wiU be his desire that your 
Majesty should be enabled with the least possible delay to 
form an Administration possessing more of the public con- 
fidence. He will never cease to retain the deepest and most 
grateful sense of the gracious favour and support which he has 
on all occasions received at your Majesty's hands, emd which 
he deeply regrets that he has been unable to repay by longer 
and more efficient service. 

Memorandum by the Prince Albert. 

Osborne, IStb December 1853. 

Yesterday evening Lord Derby arrived from Town formally 
to tender his resignation. We retired to the Queen's room 
after dinner with him to hear what he had to say on the crisis. 
He complained of the factiousness of the Opposition, which he 
and his Party hoped, however, not to imitate ; was ready to 
support, as far as he could, any Administration which was 
sincerely anxious to check the growth of democracy. He said 
his calculations at the close of the Elections had been found 
almost to a man verified in the late vote : 286 members voting 
with the Government, and these were their regular supporters ; 
the other half of the House was composed of 160 Kctdicals, 50 
of the so-called Irish Brigade, 120 Whigs, and 30 Peelitee. It 
was clear that, if all these conabined, he would be outvoted, 
though none of these Parties alone numbered as much as half 
6f his. However, he had heard lately from good authority 
tiiat the Whigs and Peelites had come to an c^eement, and 
were ready to form an Administration on Conservative prin- 
ciples, to the exclusion of the Radicals, under the lead of 
Lord Aberdeen. Although only 150 strong, they thought, 

1 To Osborne. 


that with all the talent they had at their command, they would 
be able to obtain the confidence of the country, and hold the 
balance between the two extreme Parties in the House. He 
felt that after having failed to obtain the confidence of Parlia- 
ment himself, he could do nothing else than retire at once, 
and he advised the Queen to send for Lord Lansdowne, who 
knew better than anybody the state of Parties, and would give 
the best advice. He did not advise the Queen to send for 
Lord Aberdeen at once, because, if it were reported that he 
hfiki given this advice, many of his Party — ^who had already 
been distressed at his declaration to them that if he was de- 
feated he would withdraw from public life — ^would think it 
necessary to join Lord Aberdeen as their new appointed leader ; 
and then the other half, which felt the deepest indignation 
at the treatment they had received from the Peelites, would 
throw themselves into a reckless alliance with the Radicals^ 
to revenge themselves upon the new Government, so the great 
Conservative Party would be broken up, which it was so 
essential for the coimtry to keep together and moderate. 

I interrupted Lord Derby, saying that, constitutionally 
speaking, it did not rest with him to give advice and become 
responsible for it, and that nobody therefore could properly 
throw the responsibility of the Queen's choice of a new Minister 
upon him ; the Queen had thought of sending for Lord Lans- 
downe and Lord Aberdeen together. This, Lord Derby said, 
would do very well ; he knew that, strictly speaking, the 
Sovereign acted upon her own responsibility, but it was always 
«aid on such occasions, for instance, " Lord John advised the 
Queen to send for Lord Derby," etc., etc. 

He then gave it rather j okingly as his opi nion that he thought 
less than 32 could hardly be the number of the new Cabinet, 
•so many former Ministers would expect to be taken in ; the 
Whigs said 36. Lord John RusseU was designated for the 
J3ome Office, Lord Canning for the Foreign, Mr Gladstone for 
-the Colonial Department, Lord Clanricarde for the Post Office, 
Xord Granville for Ireland. These were the reports. 


Queen Victoria to the Ma/rqma of Lansdowne. 

OSBOBNE, \%th December 1852. 

The Queen has received Lord Lansdowne's letter, from 
■w^hich she was very sorry to learn that he is suffering from 
-the gout. Although the Queen was very anxious to have 
^consulted with him before taking a definite step for the forma- 
tion of a new Government consequent on the resignation of 


Lord Derby, she would have been very unhappy if Lord 
Lansdowne had exposed his health to any risk in order to 
gratify her wishes. Time pressing, she has now sent a tele- 
graphic message to Lord Aberdeen to come down here alone, 
which, from the terms of the Queen's first summons, he had 
thought himself precluded from doing. Should Lord Lans- 
downe not be able to move soon. Lord Aberdeen will confer 
with him by the Queen's desire inmiediately on his return to 

Memorandum by the Prince Albert. 

Osborne, 19tA December 185S. 

Lord Aberdeen arrived here at three o'clock and reported 
that he had seen Lord Lansdowne, and had come to a perfect 
understanding with him ; he hcid cdso consulted with his 
friends, and with Lord John RusselL It would now depend 
upon the decision of the Queen whom she would charge with 
the formation of a Government. The Queen answered that 
she thought Lord Lansdowne was too old and infirm to under- 
take such arduous duties, and that she commissioned Lord 
Aberdeen. He replied he wajs fully aware of his own unworthi- 
ness for the task, and had expressed his disinclination to Lord 
Lansdowne, while Lord Lansdowne, on the other hand, had 
pressed him to take the responsibility himself ; but since the 
Queen had conmiissioned him, he wished to say that it was 
of the greatest importance that only one person should be 
charged with the task and be responsible for it, and